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Nun in cloister, 1930; photograph by Doris Ulmann

A nun is a woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life.[1] She may be an ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. The term "nun" is applicable to Roman Catholics, Eastern Christians, Anglicans, Jains, Lutherans, Buddhists, and Taoist, for example. The male equivalent of a nun is a monk. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Nun may mean: nun, a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave the world and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent; in the Bible, Nun is the name of the father of Joshua, the right-hand man and successor of Moses. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (763x900, 303 KB)TITLE: [Nun in cloister] CALL NUMBER: PH - Ulmann (D.), no. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (763x900, 303 KB)TITLE: [Nun in cloister] CALL NUMBER: PH - Ulmann (D.), no. ... Cloister of Saint Trophimus, in Arles, France A cloister (from latin claustrum) is a part of cathedral, monastic and abbey architecture. ... Doris Ulmann (1884-1934) was an American photographer. ... Diverse women. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Look up mainstream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Monastery of St. ... A Beguine convent in Amsterdam. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Christianity

Eastern Orthodox

In the Eastern Orthodox Church there is no distinction between a monastery for women and a monastery for men. In the Greek language both domiciles are called monasteries and the ascetics who live there are Monastics. In English, however, it is acceptable to use the terms "nun," "convent," and "abbess" simply for clarity and convenience. Orthodox monastics do not have "orders" as in the Roman Catholic Church. Orthodox monks and nuns lead identical spiritual lives.[2] There may be slight differences in the way a monastery functions internally but these are simply differences in style (Gr. Typica) dependent on the Abbess or Abbot. The Abbess is the spiritual leader of the convent and her authority is absolute (no priest, bishop, or even patriarch can override an abbess within the walls of her monastery)[citation needed]. There has always been fair equality between men and women in the Orthodox Church (Galatians 3:28). Abbots and Abbesses rank in authority equal to bishops in many ways and were included in ecumenical councils. Abbesses hear confessions (but do not absolve) and dispense blessings on their charges, though they still require the services of a presbyter (i.e., a priest) to celebrate the Divine Liturgy and perform other priestly functions, such as the absolution of a penitent. St. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church has the belief that all Orthodox regardless of jurisdiction are united in the One, Holy, and Universal Church. ... Abbots coat of arms The word abbot, meaning father, has been used as a Christian clerical title in various, mainly monastic, meanings. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical... This article is about the practice of confession in the Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... Absolution in a liturgical church refers to the pronouncement of Gods forgiveness of sins. ... Look up blessing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, a synonym of episkopos, which has come to mean bishop. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ...


Orthodox monastics, in general have little or no contact with the outside world, especially family. The pious family whose child decides to enter the monastic profession understands that their child will become "dead to the world" and therefore be unavailable for marriage.


There are a number of different levels that the nun passes through in her profession:

Princess Praskovya Yusupova before becoming a nun. Nikolai Nevrev, 1886.
Princess Praskovya Yusupova before becoming a nun. Nikolai Nevrev, 1886.
Novice—When one enters a monastery the first three to five years are spent as a novice. Novices may or may not (depending on the abbess's wishes) dress in the black inner robe (Isorassa); those who do will also usually wear the apostolnik or a black scarf tied over the head (see photo, above). The isorassa is the first part of the monastic "habit" of which there is only one style for Orthodox monastics (this is true in general, there have been a few slight regional variations over the centuries, but the style always seems to precipitate back to a style common in the 3rd or 4th century). If a novice chooses to leave during the novitiate period no penalty is incurred.
Rassaphore—When the abbess deems the novice ready, the novice is asked to join the monastery. If she accepts, she is tonsured in a formal service during which she is given the outer robe (Exorassa) and veil (Epanokamelavkion) to wear, and (because she is now dead to the world) receives a new name. Nuns consider themselves part of a sisterhood; however, tonsured nuns are usually addressed as "Mother" (in some convents, the title of "Mother" is reserved to those who enter into the next level of Stavrophore).
Stavrophore—The next level for monastics takes place some years after the first tonsure when the abbess feels the nun has reached a level of discipline, dedication, and humility. Once again, in a formal service the nun is elevated to the "Little Schema" which is signified by additions to her habit of certain symbolic articles of clothing. In addition, the abbess increases the nun’s prayer rule, she is allowed a stricter personal ascetic practice, and she is given more responsibility.
Great Schema—The final stage, called "Megaloschemos" or "Great Schema" is reached by nuns whose Abbess feels they have reached a high level of excellence. In some monastic traditions the Great Schema is only given to monks and nuns on their death bed, while in others they may be elevated after as little as 25 years of service.

One difference between Roman Catholic and Orthodox nuns is that Orthodox do not have "active" communities with apostolates such as teaching or nursing, so Orthodox nuns do not leave the monastery unless they need to. However, care and concern for the poor, the sick and those in need have always been a charism of the monastic life, so just as Orthodox monasteries have never been "active" in the Roman Catholic sense, neither have they been completely "cloistered" or cut off from society. The Great Schema worn by Orthodox monks and nuns of the highest degree In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the process of becoming a monk or nun is intentionally slow, as the vows taken are considered to entail a life-long commitment to God, and are not to be entered into... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1059 × 906 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1059 × 906 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Princess Praskovya Yusupova before becoming a nun. ... A novitiate (also called a novice) is a member of a religious order who has not yet taken his/her vows. ... Clergy in Cassocks A Roman Catholic priest from Belgian Congo wearing the Roman cassock. ... Eastern Orthodox Nuns. ... St. ... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... Clergy in Cassocks A Roman Catholic priest from Belgian Congo wearing the Roman cassock. ... is a made up word ... Degree of Eastern Orthodox Monasticism The Great Schema worn by Orthodox monks and nuns of the highest degree The process of becoming a monk is intentionally slow, as the vows taken are considered to entail a life-long commitment to God, and are not to be entered into lightly. ... A charism is a power, generally of a spiritual nature, believed to be a freely given gift by the grace of God. ...


Roman Catholic

In Roman Catholicism a nun is an enclosed female monastic, [3]—the male equivalent is "monk". For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ...


In the Roman Catholic tradition, there are a number of different orders of nuns each with its own charism or special character.


In general, when a person enters a convent she first undergoes an initial period of testing the life, known as postulancy, for a period of six months to a year. If she, and the order, determine that she may have a vocation to the life, she receives the habit of the order and undertakes novitiate, a period of living the life of a nun without yet taking vows that lasts one to two years[4]. Upon completion of this period she may take her initial, temporary vows[5]. Temporary vows last one to three years, typically, and will be professed for not less than three years and not more than six years[6]. Finally, she will petition to make her "perpetual profession", taking permanent, lifelong vows[7]. A vocation is an occupation, either professional or voluntary, that is seen to those who carry it out as offering more than simply financial reward. ... St. ... A vow (Lat. ...

Nuns in traditional habit singing Gregorian chant.
Nuns in traditional habit singing Gregorian chant.

In the various branches of the Benedictine tradition (Benedictines, Cistercians, Camaldolese, and Trappists among others) nuns take vows of stability (that is, to remain a member of a single monastic community), obedience (to an abbess or prioress), and "conversion of life" (which includes the ideas of poverty and chastity). The "Poor Clares" (a Franciscan order) and those Dominican nuns who lived a cloistered life take the three-fold vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. Most orders of nuns not listed here follow one of these two patterns, with some orders taking an additional vow related to the specific work or character of their order (e.g., to undertake a certain style of devotion, praying for a specific intention or purpose). Image File history File links Sisters_(Daughters_of_Mary)_Roman_Catholic_Singing. ... Image File history File links Sisters_(Daughters_of_Mary)_Roman_Catholic_Singing. ... St. ... Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... An Abbess (Latin abbatissa, fem. ... A priory is an ecclesistical circonscription run by a prior. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... Look up Obedience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Cloistered nuns observe "papal enclosure" [8]rules and their monasteries typically have walls and grilles separating the nuns from the outside world. The nuns rarely leave (except for medical necessity, or occasionally for purposes related to their contemplative life) though they may have visitors in specially built parlors that allow them to meet with outsiders. They are usually self-sufficient, earning money by selling jams or candies or baked goods by mail order, or by making liturgical items (vestments, candles, bread for Holy Communion). They sometimes undertake contemplative ministries—that is, a monastery of nuns is often associated with prayer for some particular good or supporting the missions of another order by prayer (for instance, the Maryknoll order includes a monastery of cloistered nuns who pray for the work of the missionary priests, brothers and religious sisters; the Sister Disciples of the Divine Master are cloistered nuns who pray in support of the religious sisters of the Daughters of Saint Paul in their media ministry; the Dominican nuns of Corpus Christi Monastery in the Bronx, N.Y., pray in support of the priests of the Archdiocese of New York).


A nun who is elected to head her monastery is termed an abbess if the monastery is an abbey, a prioress if it is a priory, or more generically may be referred to as the Mother Superior and styled "Reverend Mother". The distinction between abbey and priory has to do with the terms used by a particular order or by the level of independence of the monastery. Technically, a convent is any home of a community of sisters—or, indeed, of priests and brothers, though this term is rarely used in the U.S. The term "monastery" is often used by communities within the Benedictine family, and "convent" (when referring to a cloister) is often used of the monasteries of certain other orders. The Mother Superior is the nun in charge of a Christian convent. ... A Beguine convent in Amsterdam. ...


Distinction between nun and religious sister

John Everett Millais, "The Vale of Rest".
John Everett Millais, "The Vale of Rest".

In the Roman Catholic Church, the terms "nun" and "religious sister" have distinct meanings. Women belonging to communities like the Sisters of Charity, or Third Order Franciscans or Dominicans are religious sisters, not nuns. Nuns and sisters are distinguished by the type of vows they take (solemn vow vs. simple vow) and the focus of their good works. The type of vows that are taken are dependent on the Constitutions and/or rule of each community, which are submitted for approval to the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and for Societies of Apostolic Life, a body of the Roman Curia. The religious community of a nun is referred to as a "religious order" while the religious community of a sister is referred to as an "institute" or "congregation". Hence, all nuns are religious sisters, but not all religious sisters are, properly speaking, nuns. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1011, 317 KB) John Everett Millais: The Vale of Rest / Das Tal der Stille / La Vallée de la Paix 1858 Tate Gallery, London File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1011, 317 KB) John Everett Millais: The Vale of Rest / Das Tal der Stille / La Vallée de la Paix 1858 Tate Gallery, London File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Sir John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (June 8, 1829 – August 13, 1896) was a British painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. ... Many religious groups have the term Sisters of Charity as part of their name. ... In canon law of the Roman Catholic Church vows are divided into simple vows and solemn vows. ... The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... A congregation is a religious institute of Roman Catholics in which only simple vows, not solemn vows, are taken. ...


To be a Roman Catholic nun, one must

Broken Vows, 1857 by Philip Hermogenes Calderon (whose own father was a former Catholic priest)
Broken Vows, 1857 by Philip Hermogenes Calderon (whose own father was a former Catholic priest)

Nuns are restricted from leaving the cloister, though some may engage in teaching or other vocational work depending on the strictness of enforcement. Visitors are not allowed into the monastery to freely associate with nuns. In essence, the work of a nun is within the confines of her monastery, while the work of a sister is in the greater world. Both sisters and nuns are addressed as "Sister". A Beguine convent in Amsterdam. ... Cloister of Saint Trophimus, in Arles, France A cloister (from latin claustrum) is a part of cathedral, monastic and abbey architecture. ... Monastery of St. ... In canon law of the Roman Catholic Church vows are divided into simple vows and solemn vows. ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Broken Vows, 1857 Philip Hermogenes Calderon (May 3, 1833 – April 30, 1898) was a British painter of French birth and Spanish ancestry who initially worked in the Pre-Raphaelite style before moving towards historical genre. ... Cloister of Saint Trophimus, in Arles, France A cloister (from latin claustrum) is a part of cathedral, monastic and abbey architecture. ...


There may be both nuns and sisters within a religious order. For instance, the Poor Clares (sometimes known as "Second Order Franciscans") are cloistered nuns following the Franciscan tradition, while the Sisters of St. Francis are among the many groups of "Third Order Franciscan Regulars" who exist to teach, work in hospitals or with the poor or perform other ministries; there are also groups of cloistered Dominican nuns, and groups of Dominican sisters who are dedicated to teaching or working with the sick.


Anglican Communion

Anglican religious orders are organizations of laity and/or clergy in the Anglican Communion who live under a common rule. They are to be distinguished from Holy Orders, the sacrament which bishops, priests, and deacons receive.


The structure and function of religious orders in Anglicanism roughly parallels that which exists in Roman Catholicism. Religious communities are divided into orders proper, in which members take solemn vows and congregations, whose members take simple vows.


Religious communities were dissolved by King Henry VIII when he separated the Church of England from papal primacy. With the rise of the Catholic Revival and the Oxford Movement in Anglicanism in the early 1800s came interest in the revival of "religious life" in England. Between 1841 and 1855, several religious orders for nuns were founded, among them the Community of St. Mary at Wantage and the Community of St. Margaret at East Grinstead.


In the United States and Canada, the founding of Anglican religious orders of nuns began in 1845 with the Sisterhood of the Holy Communion (now defunct) in New York.


In the Episcopal Church in the United States, there are two recognized types of religious communities, called Religious Orders and Christian Communities. The differences are as follows:

A Religious Order of this Church is a society of Christians (in communion with the See of Canterbury) who voluntarily commit themselves for life, or a term of years, to holding their possessions in common or in trust; to a celibate life in community; and obedience to their Rule and Constitution. (Title III, Canon 24, section 1)

A Christian Community of this Church is a society of Christians (in communion with the See of Canterbury) who voluntarily commit themselves for life, or a term of years, in obedience to their Rule and Constitution. (Title III, Canon 24, section 2)

In some Anglican orders, there are Sisters who have been ordained and can celebrate the Eucharist[9].


Other Christian

Some churches that are directly descended from the Reformation, such as Lutherans, and some Calvinists continue to have small monastic communities, though these generally play a much smaller role in religious practice than in Roman Catholic or Orthodox churches. Most Protestant monastic communities are not organized into formal orders. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ...


Buddhism

Main article: Bhikkhuni

People of the Pali canon High-ranking Chinese bhikkunis in an alms round. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ...

Pali English

Community of Buddhist Disciples Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Sravaka (Sanskrit śrāvaka; Tibetan nyan thos; Pali sāvaka) is a hearer, a term applied to the personal disciples of the Buddha, distinguished as mahā-śrāvaka; it is also applied to hearers, or disciples in general; but its general connotation relates it...

Monastic Sangha

BhikkhuBhikkuṇī
Sikkhamānā
SamaṇeraSamaṇerī Monasticism is one of the most fundamental institutions of Buddhism. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... High-ranking Chinese bhikkunis in an alms round. ... In Buddhism, a sikkhamānā is a female novice (Pali: samaneri) training to become a nun (Pali: bhikkhuni). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sangha. ... A samaneri (pali language) is novice nun, who lives according to the ten precepts. ...

MonkNun
Nun trainee
Novice (m., f.) For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... // Main article: Buddhist Novitiate In many Buddhist orders, a man or woman who intends to take ordination must first become a novice, adopting part of the monastic code indicated in the vinaya and studying in preparation for full ordination. ...

Laity

Upāsaka, Upāsikā
Gahattha, Gahapati
Agārika, Agāriya In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Upāsaka (masculine) or Upāsikā (feminine) are from the Sanskrit and Pāli words for attendant.[1] This is the title of followers of Buddhism (Gautama Buddha) who are not monks, nuns or novices in a Buddhist order and who undertake certain vows. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Lay devotee (m., f.)
Householder
Layperson In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Related Religions

Samaṇa
Ājīvaka
Brāhmaṇa
Nigaṇṭha A (Sanskrit) or (Pāli) is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India, including: Jainism Buddhism Ä€jÄ«vika religion (now extinct) Mahavira, the 24th Jina, and Gautama Buddha were leaders of their shramana orders. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Wanderer
Ascetic
Brahmin
Jain ascetic The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...

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All Buddhist traditions have nuns, although their status might be different in the various Buddhist countries. Fully ordained Buddhist nuns (bhikkhunis) have more Patimokkha-rules than the monks (bhikkhus). This is due to a greater need of protection of women in a patriarchal environment[citation needed], in which ordination of women by the Buddha in historical times (500 BC) must be seen as almost revolutionary. The important vows are the same, however. Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... High-ranking Chinese bhikkunis in an alms round. ... In Buddhism, the Patimokkha is the basic Theravada code of monastic discipline, consisting of 227 rules for fully ordained monks (bhikkhus) and 311 for nuns (bhikkhunis). ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ...

Buddhist nuns in Yangon, Myanmar.
Buddhist nuns in Yangon, Myanmar.

There are quite a lot of variation in nuns' dress and social conventions between different Buddhist cultures in Asia. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 754 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1492 × 1187 pixel, file size: 886 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 754 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1492 × 1187 pixel, file size: 886 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Yangnon or Rangoon is the largest city of Myanmar. ...


Both nuns and monks are highly respected in Buddhist countries[citation needed]. Both groups sometimes perform ceremonies or rituals for lay people. Nuns and monks alike can advance spiritually on the path and then become a Buddhist teacher -- e.g. a 'lama'.[citation needed]


Thailand

In Thailand, a country which never had a tradition of fully-ordained nuns (bhikkhuni), there developed a separate order of non-ordained female renunciates called Mae Ji. At the beginning of the 21st century some Buddhist women in Thailand have started to introduce the bhikkhuni sangha in their country as well, even if public acceptance is still lacking[1]. Venerable Dhammananda (Thai: ธัมมนันทา),[2], the former successful academic scholar Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, established a controversial monastery for the training of Buddhist nuns in Thailand.[3] High-ranking Chinese bhikkunis in an alms round. ... Mae Ji (sometimes transliterated Mae Chi) are Buddhist laywomen in Thailand who occupy a position somewhere between that of an ordinary lay follower and an ordained monk. ...


Tibet

The August 2007 International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha, with the support of H. H. XIVth Dalai Lama, is expected to reinstate the Gelongma (skt. Bikshuni, tib. Gelongma) lineage, having been lost, in India and Tibet, for centuries[citation needed]. It is currently only possible for women to take Rabjungma ('entering') and Getshülma ('novice') ordinations in Tibetan tradition. Gelongma ordination requires the presence of ten fully ordained people keeping the exact same vows (men's and women's vows differ slightly). Because 10 Gelongmas are required in order to ordain a new Gelongma[citation needed], the effort to reinstate the Gelongma tradition has taken a long time. The International Congress on Buddhist Womens Role in the Sangha: Bhikshuni Vinaya and Ordination Lineages is an historic event. ... Tenzin Gyatso (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... Gelongma (feminine term) or Gelong (masculine term) is the Tibetan word for a fully ordained monastic observing the entire vinaya. ...


It is permissible for a Tibetan nun to receive Bikshuni ordination from another living tradition, e.g. in Vietnam. Based on this, Western nuns ordained in Tibetan tradition, like Venerable Thubten Chodron, took full ordination in another tradition, in order to revive 'Gelongma' ordination[citation needed]. The same socio-cultural reasons that make it difficult for women to be nuns will still present challenges to the first Tibetan Gelongmas. Venerable Thubten Chodron is an American Tibetan Buddhist nun and a central figure in reinstating the Bhikshuni (tib. ...


The ordination of monks and nuns in Tibetan Buddhism distinguishes three stages (rabjung(ma), getshül(ma), and gelong(ma)). The clothes of the nuns in Tibet are basically the same with those of monks, but there are differences between novice and gelong robes.


Fiction and dramatizations featuring nuns

A Taoist nun.

Nuns play an important role in the public's imagination. The following list, of works with Wikipedia articles where nuns play a major part, ranges from A Time for Miracles which is literally hagiography to realistic accounts by Kathryn Hulme and Monica Baldwin to the blatant nunsploitation of Sacred Flesh. All the works use Catholic nuns save Black Narcissus (Anglicans). All are outsiders' views with the exceptions of Dead Man Walking based on an autobiography by Helen Prejean, Monica Baldwin, and The Nun's Story, based on the book by Kathryn Hulme relating the experiences of lapsed nun Marie-Louise Habets. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... A Time For Miracles is a 1980 made for TV film chronicling the life story of Americas first native born saint, Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... Kathryn Hulme (January 6, 1900 - 1981). ... Monica Baldwin (1896-1975) was a niece of Stanley Baldwin. ... Nunsploitation is a subgenre of exploitation film, which had its peak in Europe in the 1970s. ... Sacred Flesh (UK, 1999) is a contemporary nunsploitation film. ... This page is about the film. ... // Dead Man Walking is a work of non-fiction by Sister Helen Prejean, a Roman Catholic nun and one of the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Medaille. ... Sister Helen Prejean, CSJ (b. ... Monica Baldwin (1896-1975) was a niece of Stanley Baldwin. ... The Nuns Story is a 1959 film which tells the story of a nun whose faith is tested in the jungles of Africa and when ordered not to take sides during World War II. It stars Audrey Hepburn, Peter Finch, Dame Edith Evans, Dame Peggy Ashcroft, Dean Jagger, Mildred...

Agnes of God is a play by John Pielmeier which tells the story of a novice nun who gives birth, insisting that the dead child was the result of a virgin birth. ... The Nuns Story is a 1959 film which tells the story of a nun whose faith is tested in the jungles of Africa and when ordered not to take sides during World War II. It stars Audrey Hepburn, Peter Finch, Dame Edith Evans, Dame Peggy Ashcroft, Dean Jagger, Mildred... The Bells of St. ... This page is about the film. ... Brides of Christ is an Australian television miniseries produced by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation in 1991. ... Change of Habit was a 1969 theatrical film starring Elvis Presley and Mary Tyler Moore. ... Chrno Crusade (クロノクルセイド) is an eight volume manga series authored by the Japanese manga-ka Daisuke Moriyama (森山大輔). It was originally published by Kadokawa Shoten in Monthly Dragon Magazine. ... Come to the Stable is a 1949 film which tells the story of two French nuns who come to a small New England town and involve the townsfolk in helping them to build a childrens hospital. ... Dark Waters (1994), also known as Dead Waters in the American home-video edition, is a horror movie directed by Mariano Baino, who co-wrote it with Andy Bark and also served as the editor. ... Dead Man Walking is a 1995 film based on the book of the same name, which tells the story of Sister Helen Prejean (played by Susan Sarandon), who establishes a special relationship with Matthew Poncelet, a prisoner on death row (played by Sean Penn). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Doubt book cover Doubt: A Parable is a 2004 play by John Patrick Shanley (ISBN 1-55936-276-6) set in a Bronx Catholic school during the fall of 1964. ... Entre tinieblas (Dark Habits) is a black comedy from director Pedro Almodóvar. ... Father Dowling Mysteries (also known as Father Dowling Investigates in the UK) is an American television mystery series that appeared between 30 November 1987 and 2 May 1991 on the ABC network. ... Faustina is a 1995 Polish movie directed by Jerzy Lukaszewicz about Blessed Sister Faustina Kowalska, a saint of the Roman Catholic Church who was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 2000. ... The Flying Nun was a sitcom produced by the ABC from 1967 until 1970. ... Flesh & Blood (1985) is a film directed by Paul Verhoeven. ... Girls Town was a 1959 film produced by MGM, starring Paul Anka and Mel Tormé. A juvenile delinquent is sent to a girls school run by nuns, where she finds herself unable to help her sister. ... This article is about the 1957 film. ... Killer Nun (Suor Omicidi) (1978) is an Italian nunsploitation film directed/co-written by Giulio Berruti and co-written by Alberto Tarallo. ... Lilies of the Field is a 1962 book by William E. Barrett, which was made into a 1963 film. ... For other uses, see Madeleine (disambiguation). ... The Magdalene Sisters is a 2002 film written and directed by Peter Mullan about teenage girls who were sent to Magdalene Asylums, otherwise known as the Magdalen Laundries: homes for women who were labeled as fallen by their families or society (though the film itself questions this). ... Mother Joan of the Angels is the English title for Matka Joanna od aniolów, a film released in 1961, directed by Jerzy Kawalerowicz. ... Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: ) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. ... Nunsense is a musical comedy with a book, music, and lyrics by Dan Goggin. ... Nuns on the Run is a popular British comedy film of 1990, starring Robbie Coltrane and Eric Idle. ... The Nuns Story is a 1959 film which tells the story of a nun whose faith is tested in the jungles of Africa and when ordered not to take sides during World War II. It stars Audrey Hepburn, Peter Finch, Dame Edith Evans, Dame Peggy Ashcroft, Dean Jagger, Mildred... Quiet as a Nun - A Tale of Murder (published 1977) by Antonia Fraser, is a thriller that begins with the death of a nun who apparently starved herself to death in a ruined tower (The Tower of Ivory) adjoining the grounds of the Convent of the Blessed Eleanor, a nunnery... La Religieuse is an 18th century French novel, by Denis Diderot. ... Sacred Flesh (UK, 1999) is a contemporary nunsploitation film. ... Saving Silverman is a 2001 black comedy film, directed by Dennis Dugan. ... Silent Night, Deadly Night is a slasher film that was released in 1984 and starred Robert Brian Wilson, Lilyan Chauvin, Gilmer McCormick, Toni Nero, Britt Leach and Leo Geter. ... Sister Act is a 1992 American comedy film released by Touchstone Pictures. ... Sister Act 2: Back in the Habit is a 1993 movie starring the singer Whoopi Goldberg, and directed by Bill Duke. ... Sister Mary Ignatius Explains It All for You is a play by Christopher Durang first performed on December 14, 1979, at the Ensemble Studio Theatre in New York City. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1942 books | Books starting with S | 1943 films | Best Picture Oscar Nominee | Best Actress Oscar (film) | Best Supporting Actor Oscar Nominee (film) | Best Supporting Actress Oscar Nominee (film) ... For other uses, see The Sound of Music (disambiguation). ... A Time For Miracles is a 1980 made for TV film chronicling the life story of Americas first native born saint, Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton. ... Two Mules for Sister Sara is a western movie starring Clint Eastwood and Shirley MacLaine. ... The Trouble with Angels is a 1966 movie comedy starring Rosalind Russell and Haley Mills set in a fictional all-girls Catholic boarding school operated by an order of nuns. ...

See also

Ani is a prefix added to the name of a nun in Tibetan Buddhism. ... Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (8 September 1774 - 9 February 1824) was a Catholic Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic. ... Bernadette Soubirous Statue of Our Lady of Lourdes in Lourdes, France. ... Black Veil, in the Roman Catholic Church, the symbol of the most complete renunciation of the world and adoption of a nuns life. ... Catalina de Erauso was a Basque woman, daughter and sister of soldiers from the city of San Sebastian, 1592. ... Catherine Labour (May 2, 1806 - December 31, 1876) was born at Fain-l s-Moutiers, Burgundy, France to a farmer by the name of Pierre Labour and his Christian wife. ... Saint Catherine of Siena (March 25, 1347 - April 29, 1380) was a Dominican Tertiary (lay affiliate) of the Dominican Order. ... The Community of St. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Congregation of the Ursulines of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus, also known as the Grey Ursulines, are a Catholic order founded by St. ... As well as the friars, Dominican sisters , also known as the Order of Preachers, live their lives supported by four common values, often referred to as the Four Pillars of Dominican Life, they are: community life, common prayer, study, and service. ... The Dominican Sisters of San Rafael are a Roman Catholic congregation of Dominican nuns located in San Rafael, California, USA. The congregation is part of the Third Order of St. ... The Dominican Contemplative Nuns of the Monastery of the Heart of Jesus, located in Lockport, Louisiana, belong to a world-wide religious order which was founded by Saint Dominic Guzman in 1206. ... Sister Dorothy Stang Dorothy Mae Stang (June 14, 1940–February 12, 2005) was an American-born, Brazilian sister of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur order, who was murdered in Anapu, a city in the state of Pará, in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. ... Edith Stein (October 12, 1891 – August 9, 1942) was a German philosopher, a Carmelite nun, martyr, and saint of the Catholic Church, who died at Auschwitz. ... Eibingen Abbey, otherwise St. ... Enclosed religious orders of the Christian church have solemn vows with a strict separation from the affairs of the external world. ... Franciscan Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary by Mother Catherine Troiani. ... The Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters are cloistered contemplative nuns. ... Sancha of Portugal (pron. ... Ita Ford, M.M. (April 23, 1940 - December 2, 1980) was a Roman Catholic Maryknoll Sister missionary to Bolivia, Chile and El Salvador. ... La Sainte Union in Southampton was a teacher training college. ... Sister Lúcia of Jesus Maria Lúcia Rosa dos Santos – Sister Lúcia of Jesus and of the Immaculate Heart, better known as Sister Lúcia of Jesus – (March 22, 1907 – February 13, 2005) was a Roman Catholic Carmelite nun. ... Magdalen Laundry in Ireland, c. ... Saint Marguerite Marie Alacoque or Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque (22 July 1647 – 17 October 1690) was a French Catholic nun and mystic, who fomented and promoted the growth and development of the Catholic devotion of the Sacred Heart in its modern form. ... Monica Baldwin (1896-1975) was a niece of Stanley Baldwin. ... Mother Angelica, PCPA, born Rita Antoinette Rizzo April 28, 1923 is an American Catholic nun and founder of the Eternal Word Television Network. ... Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini (July 15, 1850 – December 22, 1917) known during her life as Mother Cabrini, was the first American citizen to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: ) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. ... The Order of St. ... In general religious use, ordination is the process by which one is consecrated (set apart for the undivided administration of various religious rites). ... The Congregation of Sisters of St. ... Saint Thérèse de Lisieux (January 2, 1873 - September 30, 1897), or more properly Sainte Thérèse de lEnfant-Jésus (Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus), born Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin, was a Roman Catholic nun who was canonised as a... The Monasterio de Santa Catalina is located in Arequipa, Peru. ... School Sisters of Notre Dame is a a worldwide order of Roman Catholic nuns devoted to primary, secondary, and post-secondary education. ... Sister Brigitte Yengo is a Roman Catholic Congolese nun, and the head of Sister Yengos Children, Inc. ... Sister Karen Klimczak, a Catholic nun in Buffalo, New York was murdered on April 14, 2006. ... Sister Kate was an American situation comedy debuting on the NBC television network in 1989 and lasting one season. ... Sister Mary Bernard, was a fictional character on the ABC television series Desperate Housewives. ... Sister Mary Elizabeth Clark is the main mover of the AIDS Education and Global Information System database, now located at www. ... Sister Mary Stanislaus MacCarthy, Irish poet and nun (1849-1897). ... Sister Mary Philippa Brazill, DBE, was born Joanna Brazill (Christmas Day 1896-January 1, 1988) in County Limerick, Ireland. ... Sister Wendy Beckett (born 1930) is a South African nun who became an unlikely celebrity during the 1990s, presenting a series of acclaimed art history documentaries for the BBC. Biography She was born in South Africa and raised in Scotland. ... The Sisters Adorers of the Royal Heart of Jesus Christ Sovereign Priest is a religious order of nuns in the Roman Catholic Church, associated with the Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest. ... A sisters college is a college that primarily serves a place for the education of future and current nuns. ... The Sisters of the Holy Family is the name for two different American orders of nuns. ... The Society of Saint Margaret is an order of women in the Anglican Church originaly dedicated to nursing the sick. ... Teresa of Avila by Peter Paul Rubens Saint Teresa of Avila (known in religion as Teresa de Jesús, baptised as Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada) was a Spanish Roman Catholic mystic and monastic reformer; born at Avila (53 miles north-west of Madrid), Old Castile, March 28, 1515; died... Serialized in Asuka Original run March 17, 2004 – No. ... The Singing Nun was Jeanine Deckers (born Jeanne-Paule Marie Deckers; October 17, 1933 – March 29, 1985), a member (as Sister Luc Gabriel) of the Dominican Fichermont Convent in Belgium. ... Sister Theophister (also spelled Theopister) Mukakibibi is a Rwandan nun convicted by a Gacaca court of genocide for her actions in the the Rwandan Genocide in 1994[1]. On November 9th, 2006, she was sentenced to 30 years imprisonment for helping Hutu militia kill hundreds of Tutsi who had sought...

References

  • Simpson J. A. & Weiner, E. S. C. (1989) The Oxford English Dictionary, Clarendon Press, Oxford

Notes

  1. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary, vol X, page 599.
  2. ^ Archpriest Seraphim Slobodskoy, The Law of God (Printshop of St. Job of Pochaev, Jordanville, NY, ISBN 0-88465-004-8), p. 618.
  3. ^ canon 667.3 CIC 1983
  4. ^ c 648, CIC 1983
  5. ^ c. 656 CIC 1983
  6. ^ canon 655 CIC 1983
  7. ^ c 657, CIC 1983
  8. ^ canon 667.3 CIC 1983, SCRIS instruction, Venite seorsum August 15, 1969, in AAS 61 (1969) 674–690
  9. ^ http://www.ssmbos.com/Pages/whatwedo.html

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Egypt: Nun and Naunet, Deities of Chaos and Water (1136 words)
Nun was thought to be the father of Ra, who was known as the father of the gods.
Nun was also thought to continue to exist as subsoil water beneath the earth and as the source of the annual flooding of the Nile River.
Though Nun was a being of chaos, he was thought to have a beneficial side rather than the serpent of chaos, Apep, Ra's enemy.
Blue Nun (1592 words)
Like these brands, Blue Nun was saddled with a label that read "naff" in purple Day-Glo letters; no clued-up wine drinker would dream of bringing a bottle to a dinner party.
But an early indication that Blue Nun today might be a different prospect, came when I was invited to visit their operation, not in Germany, but in the Languedoc in southern France.
Blue Nun now contains a minimum of 30% Riesling in the blend, and the wine is made in a noticeably drier style, with residual sugar reduced from 42 grammes per litre, to 28 g/l.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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