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Encyclopedia > Number of the Beast
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The Number of the Beast is a concept from the Book of Revelation of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The Number is 666 in most manuscripts of the New Testament, and in modern translations and critical editions of the Greek text. However, there is some doubt about the original reading; modern studies have shown that the earliest known manuscript of the Book of Revelation (from the 3rd century) used 616. One 11th century manuscript also shows 665. This topic is a source of contention for many church groups and theologians.[1] Some scholars contend that the number is a code for the Roman Emperor Nero.[2][3] The Number of the Beast may refer to: The Number of the Beast, 666, a biblical allusion to the Book of Revelation The Number of the Beast (novel), by Robert Heinlein The Number of the Beast (album), an album and song by Iron Maiden, also covered by Dream Theater The... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1993x1300, 432 KB) A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... 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Bible prophecy, or biblical prophecy is the belief that the exegesis and hermeneutics that relate to those scriptures containing various prophecies regarding global politics, natural disasters, the future of the nation of Israel, the coming of a Messiah and a Messianic Kingdom, and the ultimate destiny of humankind are true. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical... Biblical infallibility is the theological term to describe the belief that the Bible is free from errors on issues of faith and practice. ... when thousands of people call a person as thief, he becomes thief. ... In Islam, the Bible is held to reflect true unfolding revelation from God; but revelation which had become corrupted or distorted in its handing down (in Arabic: tahrif); which necessitated the giving of the Quran to Mohammed, to correct this deviation. ... The Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to over fifty people also found in the Bible, typically in the same or similar narratives. ... This article discusses the relationship between Gnosticism and the New Testament. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... Image File history File links Portal. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... // 666 is the natural number following 665 and preceding 667. ... Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... 616 (six hundred sixteen in American English, six hundred and sixteen elsewhere) is believed by some to have been the original Number of the Beast in the Book of Revelation in the Christian Bible. ... 600 (six hundred) is the natural number following five hundred and ninety-nine and preceding six hundred and one. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Bible

666

The Number of the Beast is described in the Book of Revelation 13:18. The original Greek reads: Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...

ωδέ η σοφία εστίν; ο έχων νουν ψηφισάτω τον αριθμόν του θηρίου; αριθμός γαρ ανθρώπου εστί; και ο αριθμός αυτού χξϛ΄.

The King James translates:[4] The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ...

Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. 60 (sixty) is the natural number following 59 and preceding 61. ...

In the Greek manuscripts, the Number is rendered in Greek numerical form as χξϛ',[5] or sometimes literally as “six hundred and sixty-six”, “εξακοσιοι εξηκοντα εξ ”.[6][7] [hexakosioi hexékonta hex, lit. six hundred sixty six] A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ...


Scholars such as Dr. Ellen Aitken, Dean of the Faculty of Religious Studies at McGill University, have speculated that the reference to this passage was a way of speaking in code about then contemporary figures about whom it would have been politically dangerous to criticize openly. In an educational setting, a dean is a person with significant authority . ... A faculty is a division within a university. ... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... McGill University is a public co-educational research university located in Montréal, Québec, Canada. ...


Many scholars believe that 666 refers to a Roman Emperor such as Nero[8] (whose name, written in Aramaic, was valued at 666, using the Hebrew numerology of gematria, a manner of speaking against the emperor without the Roman authorities knowing). For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Gematria (Rabbinic Hebrew , from the Greek ; English since the 17th century) is the numerology of the Hebrew language and Hebrew alphabet, and is used by its proponents to derive meaning or relative relationship. ...


616

In May 2005, it was reported that scholars at Oxford University using advanced imaging techniques[9] had been able to read previously illegible portions of the earliest known record of the Book of Revelation, from the Oxyrhynchus site, Papyrus 115 or P115, dating to the mid to late third century. The fragment gives the Number of the Beast as 616 (chi, iota, stigma), rather than the majority text 666 (chi, xi, stigma).[1] The other early witness Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (C) has it written in full: hexakosiai deka hex (lit. six hundred sixteen).[10] The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Oxyrhynchus (Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important ever discovered. ... Papyrus 115 (P115 or 4499) is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Greek iota. ... Stigma is a ligature of the Greek letters sigma and tau, sometimes used nowadays to represent the Greek numeral 6. ... Look up Ξ, ξ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus is an early 5th century Greek manuscript of the Bible, the last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible (see Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Vaticanus). ...


Significantly, P115 aligns with Codex Alexandrinus (A) and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (C) which are generally regarded as providing the best testimony to Revelation. Thus, P115 has superior testimony to that of P47 which aligns with Codex Sinaiticus and together form the second-best witness to the Book of Revelation. This has led some scholars to conclude that 616 is the original number of the beast.[11][12] A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8. ...

Red arrow points to χιϛ'(616), "number of the beast" in P115 deciphered in May 2005.
Red arrow points to χιϛ'(616), "number of the beast" in P115 deciphered in May 2005.

Dr. Paul Lewes in his book, A Key to Christian Origins (1932) wrote: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (609x651, 72 KB) Summary Oxyrhynchus Papyri (academic public domain) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (609x651, 72 KB) Summary Oxyrhynchus Papyri (academic public domain) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

"The figure 616 is given in one of the two best manuscripts, C (Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, Paris), by the Latin version of Tyconius (DCXVI, ed. Souter in the Journal of Theology, SE, April 1913), and by an ancient Armenian version (ed. Conybaere, 1907). Irenaeus knew about it [the 616 reading], but did not adopt it (Haer. v.30,3), Jerome adopted it (De Monogramm., ed. Dom G Morin in the Rev. Benedictine, 1903). It is probably original. The number 666 has been substituted for 616 either by analogy with 888, the [Greek] number of Jesus (Deissmann), or because it is a triangular number, the sum of the first 36 numbers (1+2+3+4+5+6...+36 = 666)".[13] Ticonius, also spelled Tyc(h)onius (370 – 390 AD) was an African Donatist writer who introduced the postmillennial view of eschatology which St. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ...

Professor David Parker, Professor of New Testament Textual Criticism and Paleography at the University of Birmingham, thinks that 616, although less memorable than 666, is the original. Dr. Ellen Aitken said, “Scholars have argued for a long time over this, and it now seems that 616 was the original number of the beast. It's probably about 100 years before any other version."[14] This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... Palaeography, literally old writing, (from the Greek words paleos = old and grapho = write) is the study of script. ... Website http://www. ...


The early Church father Irenaeus knew several occurrences of the 616-variant but regarded them as a scribal error and affirmed that the number 666 stood "in all the most approved and ancient copies" and is attested by "those men who saw John face to face".[15] Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ...


The difference in numbers has also been explained by the fact that the Greek and Latin spellings of Nero’s name transliterate differently into Hebrew (the language used to create the coded numerology. The Greek spelling, “Neron Caesar,” transliterates into Hebrew as “nrwn qsr,” which equates numerically to 666 in Hebrew gematria. By contrast, the Latin title for Nero is spelled simply “Nero Caesar,” which transliterates to “nrw qsr” and has a value of 616.[16] Gematria (Rabbinic Hebrew , from the Greek ; English since the 17th century) is the numerology of the Hebrew language and Hebrew alphabet, and is used by its proponents to derive meaning or relative relationship. ...


665

The 11th century minuscule manuscript Codex 2344 identifies the Number of the Beast as 665 (χξε').[citation needed] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Old Testament

The number 666 appears several times in the Old Testament, including in 1 Kings 10:14-22 as the number of talents of gold received by King Solomon in one year. "Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was 666 talents of gold". Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... A talent is an ancient unit of mass. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ...


Interpretations

Name

One interpretation is that 666 encodes the letters of someone’s name or title, identifying the Antichrist. In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person, office, or group recognized as fulfilling the Biblical prophecies about one who will oppose Christ and substitute himself in Christs place. ...

Nero

Scholars who believe that the Book of Revelation refers to historical people and events argue that the number represents Nero. In Hebrew gematria, every letter has a corresponding number. Summing these numbers gives a numeric value to a word or name. In Hebrew, "Nero Caesar" is spelled “נרון קסר”, pronounced "Neron Qe[i]sar". Adding the corresponding values yields 666, as shown: Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Gematria (Rabbinic Hebrew , from the Greek ; English since the 17th century) is the numerology of the Hebrew language and Hebrew alphabet, and is used by its proponents to derive meaning or relative relationship. ...

Resh Samekh Qoph Nun vav Resh Nun TOTAL
200 60 100 50 6 200 50 666

Removing the terminal נ (written as ן) makes the name "Nero" rather than "Neron", and makes the numeric value 616, which may explain that variation.

Resh Samekh Qoph vav Resh Nun TOTAL
200 60 100 6 200 50 616

The hypothesis that 666 is a code for a Roman emperor seems to have historical support. The emperors were noted for their oppression of both Jews and Christians. Both communities were known to use numerology, codes and symbols (such as the Ichthys) when living under Roman rule to avoid persecution. Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The ichthys has been used to represent a number of ideas. ...

Caligula

David Parker, professor of New Testament Textual Criticism and Paleography at the University of Birmingham said that the correct number, 616, refers to the emperor Caligula[17]. Caligula's attempt to erect his statue in the Temple in Jerusalem may have inspired the author of Revelation to speak against the Roman Emperor.[18] In Hebrew, Gaius Caligula Caesar is גסקלגסקסר (gsqlgs qsr). Adding the values yields 616. Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... Palaeography, literally old writing, (from the Greek words paleos = old and grapho = write) is the study of script. ... Website http://www. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew:  ; The Holy House), refers to a series of structures located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...

Resh Samekh Qoph Samekh Gimel Lamed Qoph Samekh Gimel TOTAL
200 60 100 60 3 30 100 60 3 616

In Greek, "Gaios Kaisar" also yields 616.

Γ α ι ο σς Κ α ι σς α ρ TOTAL
3 1 10 70 200 20 1 10 200 1 100 616
Domitian

The German Protestant theologian Ethelbert Stauffer, arguing that gematria had been the most popular form of numerology not only among Jews but also in the Graeco-Roman world (Pergamon, Pompeii)[19], conceived a Greek gematrical procedure to explain the number 666. Judging from the precise information that the Book of Revelation gives about the person behind the number 666[20], Stauffer concluded that the "beast" can in general only refer to a Roman emperor and argued that this Emperor must be Domitian, because he had reigned during the proposed time of origin of the Apocalypse and supposedly was called "The Beast" as a "secret derisive nickname" by Romans, Greek, Christians and Jews.[21] Stauffer computed the Number of the Beast using the short form of Domitian's five titles and names A KAI ΔOMET ΣEB ΓE, as derived from the abbreviations on coins and inscriptions.[22] Domitian's official title in Latin was Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus. This was rendered as Autokrator Kaisar Dometianos Sebastos Germanikos for his Greek-speaking subjects. And in turn, for their coins, this abbreviated to A.KAI.DOMET.SEB.GE which totals 666 in Greek Gematria. Ethelbert Stauffer (born May 8, 1902, in Friedelsheim; died August 1, 1979 in Erlangen) was a German Protestant theologian and numismatist. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Gematria (Rabbinic Hebrew , from the Greek ; English since the 17th century) is the numerology of the Hebrew language and Hebrew alphabet, and is used by its proponents to derive meaning or relative relationship. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Isopsephy (iso meaning equal and psephos meaning pebble) is the Greek language word for the practice of adding up the number values of the letters in a word to form a single number. ...

Α Κ Α Ι Δ Ο M Ε Τ Σ Ε Β Γ E TOTAL
1 20 1 10 4 70 40 5 300 200 5 2 3 5 666

Robert Graves suggested that DCLXVI, 666 in Roman numerals, is an abbreviation for the Latin sentence “Domitianus Caesar Legatos Xti Violenter Interfecit”, or “The Emperor Domitian violently killed the envoys of Christ”.[23] Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Papacy

Some Protestant Bible commentators have equated the "beast" of Revelation chapter 13 with the Papacy.[24] The earliest extant record of a Protestant writer on this subject is that of Professor Andreas Helwig in 1612 in his work Antichristus Romanus. The title was contained in the Donation of Constantine a forged document falsely claiming to come from the Emperor Constantine the Great, by which large privileges and rich possessions were conferred on the pope and the Roman Church.[25] The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... A 13th C. fresco of Sylvester and Constantine, showing the purported Donation. ...

V I C A R I V S F I L I I D E I TOTAL
5 1 100 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 50 1 1 500 0 1 666

Seventh-day Adventists believe that the "mark of the beast" (but not the number 666) refers to a future, universal, legally enforced Sunday-worship. “Those who reject God’s memorial of creatorship — the Bible Sabbath — choosing to worship and honor Sunday in the full knowledge that it is not God’s appointed day of worship, will receive the ‘mark of the beast.’”[26] "The Sunday Sabbath is purely a child of the Papacy. It is the mark of the beast."[27] The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA), colloquially referred to as the Adventists, is an evangelical Protestant Christian denomination that grew out of the prophetic Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century. ...


Some fundamentalists believe that the mark of the beast refers to the Catholic practice of making the sign of the cross. [28] For other uses, see Sign of the cross (disambiguation). ...


Martin Luther wrote in a footnote to Rev 13:15-18: "Spirit means / that it is active / and not a dead image / but that it has its rights and offices in its womb. These are six hundred and sixty and six years. So long the earthly papacy remains." During the Reformation, Martin Luther noted that "Benediktos" added up to 666 in Greek gematria, and he thought it might refer to a Pope named Benedict or to Benedictine monks. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...

Β ε ν ε δ ι κ τ ο σς TOTAL
2 5 50 5 4 10 20 300 70 200 666

Luther has many comments and theories against the papacy in the footnotes to his translation of the Book of Revelation.


Lateinos, Euanthas, Teitan

  • Irenaeus suggested that the number indicates that the beast is the sum of all apostasy committed over the course of six thousand years.[29] Irenaeus suggested that 666 might refer to Lateinos(The ancient Greek word for "Latin man"), Euanthas or Teitan. Irenaeus wrote:

It is not through a want of names containing the number of that name that I say this, but on account of the fear of God, and zeal for the truth: for the name Evanthas (ΕΥΑΝΘΑΣ ) contains the required number, but I make no allegation regarding it. Then also Lateinos(ΛΑΤΕΙΝΟΣ) has the number six hundred and sixty-six; and it is a very probable [solution], this being the name of the last kingdom [of the four seen by Daniel]. For the Latins are they who at present bear rule: I will not, however, make any boast over this [coincidence]. Teitan too, (ΤΕΙΤΑΝ, the first syllable being written with the two Greek vowels ε and ι, among all the names which are found among us, is rather worthy of credit. For it has in itself the predicted number, and is composed of six letters, each syllable containing three letters; and [the word itself] is ancient, and removed from ordinary use; for among our kings we find none bearing this name Titan, nor have any of the idols which are worshipped in public among the Greeks and barbarians this appellation.Among many persons, too, this name is accounted divine, so that even the sun is termed "Titan" by those who do now possess [the rule]. This word, too, contains a certain outward appearance of vengeance, and of one inflicting merited punishment because he (Antichrist) pretends that he vindicates the oppressed. And besides this, it is an ancient name, one worthy of credit, of royal dignity, and still further, a name belonging to a tyrant. Inasmuch, then, as this name "Titan" has so much to recommend it, there is a strong degree of probability, that from among the many [names suggested], we infer, that perchance he who is to come shall be called "Titan."[30] Image File history File links Wikitext. ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ...

L A T E I N O S TOTAL
30 1 300 5 10 50 70 200 666
T E I T A N TOTAL
300 5 10 300 1 50 666
E U A N TH A S TOTAL
5 400 1 50 9 1 200 666

Other suggested names

Andrew of Caesarea in his Commentary on Revelation gives seven names: Lampetis (the lustrous one), Teitan, Palaibaskanos (an ancient sorcerer), Benediktos (blue bastard), Kakos Odegos (wicked guide), Alethes Blaberos (really harmful), and Amnos Adikos (unjust lamb) each of which gives a total of 666. Most of these names are repeated by Arethas of Caesarea, who in his Commentary adds Teitan from Irenaeus and O Niketes (the conqueror).[31] Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Arethas of Caesarea was born at Patrae, Greece, about 860; was, like all the eminent men of that time, a disciple of Photius. ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ...


Victorinus of Pettau gives the names Teitan, Antemos (opponent), Diclux (double-dealer) and Genserikos; the last he calls Gothic. As it is plainly Genseric, the Vandal king, who captured Rome in 455 AD., the passage as a whole can not go back to Victorinus, who belonged to the third century. It is not, however surprising that the commentary should be brought up to date, after Genseric became notorious through the sack of Carthage or of Rome. Of the other names in Victorinus only Diclux needs mention. It is said to be the Latin counterpart of Teitan and by reckoning each letter at its value in Roman numerals, the total of 666 is again given.[31] Saint Victorinus of Pettau, also called Victorinus Petravionensis or Victorinus Pictaviensis (born 3rd century in Greece; died 303 or 304) was a Catholic martyr. ... Look up Gothic, goth, Goth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Geiseric (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Venerable Bede gives three names: Teitan, Antemos (opponent), and Arnoyme (I deny). Bede, commonly known as the Venerable Bede, (c. ...


Beatus, a Spanish monk, gives eight names among which are Damnatus(Damned), Antichristus(Antichrist), and Acxyme(for aichime or achine=666). The numerical interpretation of Antichristus is based on the order of letters in the Latin alphabet, a=1 to x =300, but the accusative must be taken and spelled Antechristum.[31] The world map from the Saint-Sever Beatus measuring 37 X 57 cm. ...


Mark of commerce

He also forced everyone, small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead, so that no one could buy or sell unless he had the mark, which is the name of the beast or the number of his name.

Rev. 13:16-17 (NIV) The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ...

Futurist Christian eschatology typically holds that the Mark of the Beast is one way in which the Antichrist will exercise power over the Earth during the period of Tribulation, because of the prophetic statement in Revelation 13:16-17 that "the Beast" (θηριον) will require all people to receive the mark (χάραγμα "branded mark or character") in their right hands or foreheads in order to buy or sell, making survival for those on the run much more difficult. A possible translation of the meaning of the number 666 may be: the number 666 will be the number that all currency will be based upon. Exact interpretations of this vary widely. For example: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the... In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person, office, or group recognized as fulfilling the Biblical prophecies about one who will oppose Christ and substitute himself in Christs place. ... Image:Durer Revelation Four Riders. ... Look up fugitive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Some Christians interpret the mark as a requirement for all commerce to mean that the mark might actually be an object with the function of a credit card (eg. RFID).[32]
  • Steven D. Miller proposes that the mark of the beast may refer to a social security number or card.[33]
  • Terry Watkins supposes the mark to be a microchip and or barcode on the human body.[34]

Some support this barcode theory through reference to the guard bars found in some common barcode systems such as the UPC. The rationale relies on interpreting each of the groups of guard bars as a '6', even though they are not encoded as a '6' using the barcode system.[35] An EPC RFID tag used by Wal-Mart Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. ... A human microchip implant is an integrated circuit device or RFID tag encased in silicate glass and implanted into a humans body. ... For the taxonomic method, see DNA barcoding. ... The Universal Product Code (UPC) is one of a wide variety of bar code languages called symbologies. ...


Other interpretations

  • The Roman numeral writing of 666, "DCLXVI" is also composed with the first six Roman numerals (I, V, X, L, C, D), written in descending order.
  • In Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism), the number 666 may be considered mystical and holy and may represent the physical universe.[36]
  • Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that the Beast for which 666 stands symbolizes many governments, harmonizing with the symbolic depiction of past governments (denoted as "kings") in the Book of Daniel as wild beasts. The Beast is said to have "a human number" in that the governments that the beast symbolizes are all of a human origin, they aren't made up of spirit or demon entities. The number 666 is also believed to be symbolic, standing for imperfection. The number seven is interpreted as being a "perfect" or "complete" number based on the fact that it is used frequently in the Bible to signify completeness, for example Psalm 12:6 and the Genesis creation week. Just as six is one short of seven, imperfection is short of perfection, and hence six is interpreted as symbolizing imperfection. Six is repeated three times for emphasis, producing the number 666. [37] (This is similar to Vines Expository Dictionary under "Sixty, Sixtyfold," which states: "The number is suggestive of the acme of the pride of fallen man, the fullest development of man under direct satanic control, and standing in contrast to 'seven' as the number of completeness and perfection.")
  • Aleister Crowley (1875–1947) claimed that he was the Beast prophesised in the Book of Revelation and took the name “Το μεγα θηριον” ("To Mega Therion"), Greek for “The Great Beast”, which adds up to 666 by isopsephy, the Greek form of gematria.[38][39]
  • In the writings of the Bahá'í Faith, `Abdu'l-Bahá states that the numerical value given to the beast referred to the year 666 A.D., when the Umayyad ruler Muawiyah I, who opposed the Imamate, arose.[40]

Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Jehovahs Witnesses (JWs) are members of a worldwide Christian religion. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the biblical text. ... Vines Expository Dictionary is a reference guide to Old Testament Hebrew and New Testament Greek words for English readers. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and yogi. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Revelation (KJV) Chapter 13 To Mega Therion (Τὸ Μέγα Θηρίον) is Greek for The Great Beast and is a reference to the Book of Revelation: Revelation 13:1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast [θηρίον, therion] rise up out... Isopsephy (iso meaning equal and psephos meaning pebble) is the Greek language word for the practice of adding up the number values of the letters in a word to form a single number. ... Gematria (Rabbinic Hebrew , from the Greek ; English since the 17th century) is the numerology of the Hebrew language and Hebrew alphabet, and is used by its proponents to derive meaning or relative relationship. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Muawiyah I (Arabic: ; Transliteration: ; 602-680) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... The Imamate was the state built up by the imams of Dagestan during the early and middle of the nineteenth century in the Eastern Caucasus, especially in Chechnya and Dagestan, to fight against the invasion of the Russian Empire. ...

6,666 Martyrs of the Theban Legion

The long-standing tradition of Christian hagiography regarding the Theban Legion - an entire Roman legion whose members had supposedly converted en masse to Christianity and were martyred together, in 286 - gives their number as precisely "six thousand six hundred and sixty-six men", which was not the normal number of soldiers in a Roman Legion.[citation needed] This number is similar to the "Number of the Beast" though with an additional digit, but has a precisely opposite connotation as the number of highly honoured and revered martyrs for the Christian cause. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... The Theban legion figures in hagiography as an entire Roman legion — of six thousand six hundred and sixty-six men — who had converted to Christianity and were martyred together, in 286 A.D., according to the hagiographies of Saint Maurice, the chief among the Legions saints. ... Legion redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 286. ...


Culture and psychology

The number 666 retains a peculiar significance in the culture and psychology of Western societies, where some perceive it as “the Devil’s number”, even in contexts usually remote from superstition. The fear of the number 666 is called hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... Hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia (literally, fear of the number six-hundred and sixty-six) is the fear that originates in the Biblical verse Revelation 13:18 which indicates that the number 666 is the Number of the Beast, linked to Satan or the Anti-Christ. ...


The Number of the Beast is also a popular song by heavy metal band Iron Maiden who incorporate superstitious lyrics based on 666 into their song. The number is also featured in the 1976 film The Omen, which had a remake released on June sixth, 2006; the "6/6/06" date featured heavily in the film's marketing. The Number of the Beast is Iron Maidens seventh single and the second single from Iron Maidens 1982 album of the same name. ... Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band from Leyton in the East End of London. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Mathematics

  • An apocalypse number is defined as any number having exactly 666 digits.[41]
  • An apocalyptic number is any number that follows the formula 2n and contains three sixes consecutively, such as 2157, which is the first one of this kind.[42]
  • Apocalypse primes are given by the formula 10665+n for n=123, 1837, 6409, 7329, 8569, 8967, 9663, ... The smallest apocalypse prime containing the digits 666 is 10^(665)+166657 (Rupinski).[41]
  • The number 666 is also a triangular number. If all the numbers from 1 to 36 (6*6) are added together, the sum is 666.[43]
  • The Golden Ratio  varphi = frac{1+sqrt{5}}{2} has a certain trigonometric identity that was recently discovered on 1994.
    • If we multiply the golden ratio with  -frac{1}{2} the answer is coincidently equal to the  sin666^circ which in terms of cosines is also equal to  cos(6*6*6^circ) and so:
    •  -frac{varphi}{2} = sin666^circ = cos(6*6*6^circ)
    •  therefore -varphi = sin666^circ + cos(6*6*6^circ)

In mathematics, a prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 which has exactly two distinct natural number divisors: 1 and itself. ... A triangular number is the sum of the n natural numbers from 1 to n. ... Not to be confused with Golden mean (philosophy), the felicitous middle between two extremes, Golden numbers, an indicator of years in astronomy and calendar studies, or the Golden Rule. ...

See also

Beast. ... This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ... Gematria (Rabbinic Hebrew , from the Greek ; English since the 17th century) is the numerology of the Hebrew language and Hebrew alphabet, and is used by its proponents to derive meaning or relative relationship. ... // 666 is the natural number following 665 and preceding 667. ... 616 (six hundred sixteen in American English, six hundred and sixteen elsewhere) is believed by some to have been the original Number of the Beast in the Book of Revelation in the Christian Bible. ... United States Highway 666 or Route 666 was a north-south United States highway. ... The A666 is a major road in east Lancashire, England. ... 666 may refer to: 666, popular interpretation of the Number of the Beast 666, the year 666 (band), a German house band. ... 13 (thirteen) is the natural number after 12 and before 14. ... Babylonian clay tablet YBC 7289 with annotations. ... Hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia (literally, fear of the number six-hundred and sixty-six) is the fear that originates in the Biblical verse Revelation 13:18 which indicates that the number 666 is the Number of the Beast, linked to Satan or the Anti-Christ. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

External links

  • BBC News - American town changes '666' phone prefix because of satanic connotations

Notes

  1. ^ a b The Other Number of the Beast. Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents. Retrieved on 2006-06-23.
  2. ^ Hillers, D. R. (1963). “Revelation 13:18 and a Scroll from Murabba’at”. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 170: 65. doi:10.2307/1355990.  Note: website requires subscription.The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Ed. Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990. 1009
  3. ^ Just, Felix (2002-02-02). 666: The Number of the Beast. Retrieved on 2006-06-06.
  4. ^ Revelation 13:18. King James Version of the Bible. Bible Gateway. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
  5. ^ Revelation 13:18. Stephanus New Testament. Bible Gateway. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
  6. ^ Revelation 13:18. Westcott-Hort New Testament. Bible Gateway. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
  7. ^ Revelation 13:18 (JPEG). Codex Alexandrinus. Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
  8. ^ Some Recently Published NT Papyri from Oxyrhynchus: An Overview and Preliminary Assessment by Peter M. Head, Tyndale Bulletin 51 (2000), pp. 1-16 http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/Tyndale/staff/Head/NTOxyPap.htm#_ftn39
  9. ^ Papyrus Reveals New Clues to Ancient World [1]
  10. ^ Hoskier, Concerning the Text of the Apocalypse, vol. 2, p. 364.
  11. ^ Philip W Comfort and David P Barrett, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts,(Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers Incorporated, 2001)
  12. ^ CJO - Abstract - A new Oxyrhynchus Papyrus of Revelation: P115 (P. Oxy. 4499)
  13. ^ Dr. Paul Lewes, A Key to Christian Origins (Watts & Co., London, 1932, p.140
  14. ^ Beast’s real mark devalued to ‘616′[2]
  15. ^ Irenaeus. "Book V, Chapter XXX.", Adversus Haereses. Retrieved on 2007-01-06. 
  16. ^ Nero as the Antichrist[3]
  17. ^ Devil forced to take a new number | Herald Sun
  18. ^ 666 wrong number of prophetic beast?
  19. ^ According to Stauffer (1947) the terminus technicus ψηφίζειν clearly emphasizes the gematrical interpretation. Gematria was also used in an "often-cited old-Christian Apocalypse that is doubtlessly connected with Apocalypse 13,18 and that probably goes back to a secret sign in Johannean times, Orac. Sibyll. I, 324-331."
  20. ^ 1. He has power over all nations, 2. his likeness is worshipped all over the world, 3. his name appears on official signatures, 4. he prosecutes Christianity for its denial to worship his likeness and accept the signing with his name.
  21. ^ E. Stauffer. Coniectanea Neotestamentica XI in honorem Antonii Fridrichsen sexagenarii. Lund 1947.
  22. ^ Aυτοκράτωρ (A = 1); KAIσαρ (KAI = 20 + 1 + 10 = 31); ΔOMETιανός ( ΔOMET = 4 + 70 + 40 + 5 + 300 = 419); ΣEBαστός (ΣEB = 200 + 5 + 2 = 207); ΓEρμανικός (ΓE = 3 + 5 = 8). This results in A KAI ΔOMET ΣEB ΓE (gematrially: 1 + 31 + 419 + 207 + 8 = 666), making Domitian the Beast. In: E. Stauffer. Christus und die Caesaren. Historische Skizzen. 6th extended edition. Hamburg 1964.
  23. ^ Graves, Robert (1948). The White Goddess. 
  24. ^ Halley, H. H., Halley's Bible Handbook, Zondervan Publishing house, 1978, p726
  25. ^ Donation of Constantine, New Advent, Catholic Encyclopedia
  26. ^ (2005) Seventh-day Adventists Believe (2nd ed). Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 196. 
  27. ^ Advent Review, Vol. I, No. 2, August, 1850.
  28. ^ The Mark of the Beast[http://www.quicksitemaker.com/members/disciples/markofthebeast.html
  29. ^ Irenaeus. "Book V, Chapter XXIX.", Adversus Haereses. Retrieved on 2006-06-23. 
  30. ^ Against Heresies, by Irenæus, Book 5, chapter 30, paragraph 3[4]
  31. ^ a b c Henry A. Sanders (1918) "The Number of the Beast in Revelation", Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 37, No. 1/2. (1918), pp. 95-99 (Subscription required for JSTOR link.)
  32. ^ Scheeres, Julia (2003). When Cash Is Only Skin Deep. Wired News. wired.com. Retrieved on 2003-11-25.
  33. ^ Miller, Steven D. (August 2001). Is your social security card the Mark of the Beast?. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
  34. ^ Watkins, Terry (1999). What about barcodes and 666: The Mark of the Beast?. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
  35. ^ George J. Laurer, George J. Laurer's personal web site; the inventor of the UPC barcode
  36. ^ Lauffer, Reuven; et al. (2000-06-10). Ask the Rabbi. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
  37. ^ “Identifying the Wild Beast and Its Mark” (2004-04-01). The Watchtower. 
  38. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (2003). The Skeptic's Dictionary (Aleister Crowley). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-27242-6
  39. ^ Crowley, Aleister. The Magical Diaries of Aleister Crowley (Tunisia 1923), Skinner, Stephan (editor). Samuel Weiser. ISBN 0-87728-856-9
  40. ^ Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (1986-01-07). Interpretation of Biblical Verses. Bahá'í Library. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  41. ^ a b Apocalypse Number - from Wolfram MathWorld
  42. ^ Apocalyptic Number - from Wolfram MathWorld
  43. ^ [5]
Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Folio 65v from the Codex Alexandrinus contains the end of the Gospel of Luke with the decorative tailpiece found at the end of each book. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tyndale House is a publisher founded in 1962 by Kenneth Taylor, in order to publish his paraphrase of the Epistles, which he had composed while commuting to work at Moody Press in Chicago. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The surviving Sibylline Oracles are not the famous Sibylline Books of Roman history, which were lost not once, but twice, and thus there is very little knowledge of the actual contents. ... The author and poet Robert Graves study of the nature of poetic myth-making, The White Goddess, first published in 1948, and revised, amended and enlarged in 1966, represents a tangential approach to the study of mythology from a decidedly idiosyncratic perspective. ... The General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists is the governing organization of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George J. Laurer developed the Uniform Product Code in 1973. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Watchtower (disambiguation). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
666 wrong number of prophetic beast? (714 words)
For centuries, people have been intrigued by the number 666, the "number of the beast" from the Book of Revelation in the New Testament.
Now, the legendary number is getting a fresh look, as researchers are re-examining evidence the number may actually be 616.
While many Bible have footnotes saying the number translated from the original Greek could be 616, experts say new photographic evidence of an ancient fragment of papyrus from Revelation indeed indicates the number is indeed 616, instead of 666.
Number of the Beast: Information from Answers.com (1233 words)
Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.
Irenaeus suggested that the number indicates that the beast is the sum of all apostasy committed over the course of six thousand years.
The number 666 retains a peculiar significance in the culture and psychology of Western societies, where some perceive it as “the Devil’s number”, even in contexts usually remote from superstition.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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