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Encyclopedia > Nudity
Line art depictions of a nude man and a woman designed to educate extraterrestrials about the appearance of the human body, from the Pioneer plaques.

Nudity is the state of wearing no clothing. It is sometimes used to refer to wearing significantly less clothing than expected by the conventions of a particular culture and situation, and in particular exposing the bare skin of intimate parts and has analogous uses. The word nude may refer to: The state of nudity (see also Clothing) A strain of immunodeficient mice used in immunological research, so named because they lack hair. ... The meanings of naturism and nudism are very similar, and refer to a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and public spaces. ... Nakedness refers to the state of being completely naked(without clothing) or very sexy, Naked can also refer to: Naked (film), a 1993 film, directed by Mike Leigh. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Pioneer plaque - Man and woman NASA Image of the Pioneer plaque. ... Pioneer plaque - Man and woman NASA Image of the Pioneer plaque. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Line Art. ... Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... Diverse women. ... Green people redirects here. ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... The illustration on the Pioneer plaque The Pioneer plaques are a pair of aluminum plaques which were placed on board the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft, featuring a pictorial message from humanity, in case either Pioneer 10 or 11 are intercepted by extraterrestrial beings. ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... “Private parts” redirects here. ...

Contents

Terminology

The Drunkenness of Noah, Sistine Chapel ceiling fresco by Michelangelo.

Although "nude", "naked", "bare", "stripped", and other terms have the same objective meaning (i.e., not covered by clothing), they have differing subjective connotations, which partly match their differing etymologies. "Nude" originally had a meaning of "plain, bare, unadorned" in a broader sense when introduced into English from Latin nudus, originally only as a legal term meaning "unsupported by proof", since 1531; later used an artistic euphemism for physical nakedness in 1631. Meanwhile "bare" and "naked" derive from the common Old English words, with many cognates, for "uncovered". Some consider one term more appropriate than the other. The book Nude, Naked, Stripped suggests that these three terms define a continuum ranging from artistic or tasteful absence of clothing by choice, at one end, to a forced or mandatory condition of being without clothes (e.g., a strip search), at the other. In general, a "nude" person is unclad by choice and is generally shameless; a "naked" person is involuntarily caught undressed and is generally embarrassed.[original research?] Image File history File links Michelangelo_drunken_Noah. ... Image File history File links Michelangelo_drunken_Noah. ... The iconic image of the Hand of God giving life to Adam. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Connotation is a subjective cultural and/or emotional coloration in addition to the explicit or denotative meaning of any specific word or phrase in a language, i. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Old English redirects here. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In mathematics, the word continuum sometimes denotes the real line. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... A strip search is the stripping (removal of clothing, search of person, or personal effects) of a person to check for weapons or other contraband. ...


Various synonyms refer specifically — often as a negative — to the absence or rather removal of clothing, such as denuded, divested, peeled, stripped, unclad, unclothed, uncovered, undressed and dis- or un-robed.


Another euphemism for the embarrassing state of nakedness is "exposed", to glances no less than to the elements; not only the expression "to show skin" refers to nudity in terms of the dermis, in Manx Gaelic jiarg-rooisht and Scottish Gaelic dearg rùisgte, translated as "stark naked", is literally 'red' naked, as such exposure may make one 'blush'. Manx (Gaelg or Gailck), also known as Manx Gaelic, is a Goidelic language spoken on the Isle of Man. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


Full nudity

Woman bathing
Woman bathing

A state of total nudity, with nothing covering intimate parts. In English, phrases such as "nude", "bare" or "in the buff" (a reference to leather, i.e. skin notably hairless, unlike a pelt; compare "buck-naked"; Spanish also has the euphemism "en cueros", meaning "in leathers") carry a similar meaning. Image File history File links Vintage_photo_nude_woman_1. ... Image File history File links Vintage_photo_nude_woman_1. ...


A special case is "stark naked", or "starkers", as these terms were erroneously changed from "start naked" (start is an Old High German word for "tail") to the "stark", an old Germanic word meaning "strong" but used as "utter(ly)".[original research?] The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ...


Euphemisms may be used, such as "birthday suit" and "au naturel" (French for "in the natural state"). In the Dutch language a naked person may be described as "spiernaakt" ("muscle-naked", since the musculature is visible under bare skin) or "poedelnaakt" ("poodle-naked", which refers to the often-ridiculed shaving of poodle dog breeds), or as wearing "Adamskostuum" ("Adam's suit", i.e. the original unclothed state of Adam and Eve in Eden). A similar expression exists in Italian ("costume adamitico"). The French "à poil" — "to the (body) hair (or fur)" — and its Spanish equivalent "en pelota" ("in the hair"), emphasize that human hair growth is generally too sparse for one to be considered covered without artificial clothing (while the pubic hair is often thicker, this area of the body is also most critical in the Christian tradition; in a few[clarify] Germanic languages, the very word for pubic literally means (and is cognate with the English word) "shame": skam in Danish, schaam in Dutch, Scham in German). Likewise in French, "nu comme un ver" ("naked as a worm") refers to absence of visually shielding hair, via a dysphemistic metaphor. While negatives such as "undressed" may also refer to partial nudity (cf. "topless", below) unless explicitly qualified, in artistic modelling the term "undraped" means completely nude, as opposed to such common practices as draping something over the sexual body parts (or over the face so as to make the model anonymous).[original research?] Dutch (  ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... For the political insult see poodle (insult). ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... Pubic hair is hair in the frontal genital area, the crotch, and sometimes at the top of the inside of the legs; these areas form the pubic region. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In language, both dysphemism (from the Greek “dys” δυς = non and “pheme” φήμη = speech) and cacophemism (in Greek “cacos” κακός = bad) refer to the usage of an intentionally harsh word or expression instead of a polite one; they are rough opposites of euphemism. ...

Full frontal nudity means wearing no clothing and facing the observer showing the pubic area, as opposed to only showing toplessness/barechestedness or bare buttocks. It is usually considered the most far-reaching form of nudity, with exception of a close-up of the genitals. In many cases, full frontal nudity is avoided in motion pictures by purposely placing objects to obscure an actor's or actress's genitals, or the shot is diffused by hazy lighting or focus. In one scene from A Shot in the Dark, actor Peter Sellers infiltrates a nudist colony but avoids full nudity by holding a guitar in front of his crotch. Unlike the nudists, he is intensely embarrassed. Such techniques not only make some actors more comfortable but usually aim to pass censorship or prevent the film from receiving an unfavorable rating, which may impede the film's commercial success. Thus, revealing shots may be cut during the editing; sometimes a more liberal version is released separately: e.g., as director's cut. Few non-pornographic, mainstream American films show full frontal nudity in their theatrical versions, while more complete versions may be distributed in other countries, and/or on video tape or DVD (media which generally are more ready to distribute productions offending various taboos). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1029x2501, 771 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Truth Talk:Truth Jules Joseph Lefebvre ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1029x2501, 771 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Truth Talk:Truth Jules Joseph Lefebvre ... Jules Joseph Lefebvre (1836 – 1911) was a French figure painter. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of those anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... “Topless” redirects here. ... Going bare chested refers to a man wearing no clothes above the waist, exposing the torso and arms. ... Bottom commonly refers to the human buttocks but also has other uses. ... For other uses, see Shot in the Dark (disambiguation) A Shot in the Dark is a 1964 film directed by Blake Edwards and is the second installment (and considered by many to be the best) in the Pink Panther series. ... Peter Sellers, CBE (8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was a British comedian and actor best known for his three roles in Dr. Strangelove and as Inspector Clouseau in The Pink Panther films. ... A nudist colony is a group of nudists who choose to live together on a permanent basis for the purpose of eschewing clothing. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... A motion picture rating system categorizes films with regard to suitability for children and/or adults in terms of issues such as sex, violence and profanity. ... A directors cut is a specially edited version of a film, and less often TV series, music video, commercials or video games, that is supposed to represent the directors own approved edit. ... Porn redirects here. ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ...


Partial nudity

As the concept of nudity often refers more to perception by the observer than the mere description whether someone's body is covered or not, there can be a grey area, known as partial nudity. Thus, while someone exposing 'private parts' is often called 'naked' regardless of garments on other body parts (indeed, an 'undressed' state is even considered by some more sexually arousing than full nudity) hence the terms half-naked and, a fortiori, near-naked refer to a body that is not completely exposed, but showing more than is customary or considered quite acceptable, at least in a given context. However the quantity of skin exposed is not the determining criterion, it's the "quality" that counts for perception. Sexual arousal is the process and state of an animal being ready for sexual intercourse. ...


Today even wearing boxer shorts, sufficient to guard the modesty of a shooto fighter, is described as near-naked in Japan because the appropriate kimono-type uniform associated with traditional martial arts is missing. Half-naked is also used for a degree of skin exposure that is not offensive (as no delicate zone is shown) but still barer than 'fully dressed', such as a man in bare torso. Yet for swimming the Japanese man feels comfortable in a most revealing fundoshi. Boxer shorts (also known as loose boxers or, imprecisely, as boxers) are a type of underwear worn by men. ... Shooto logo ISC logo This article deals with the martial arts organization, for the baseball pitch, see gyroball. ... A traditional wedding kimono The kimono literally something worn) is the national costume of Japan. ... Going bare chested refers to a man wearing no clothes above the waist, exposing the torso and arms. ... The fundoshi (褌) is a traditional Japanese male loincloth, made from a strip of cotton cloth, one shaku (traditional Japanese foot, 35 cm = 14 inches) wide and about 2. ...


As the exposure of specific, usually intimate, skin zones suffices to be offensive and/or sensual, it is not surprising that specific terms are commonly used for such cases. More specifically:

  • Terms like bare balls (not to confuse with freeballs) and bollock-naked are used to explicitly emphasize the naked exposure of the most private parts, often as a dysphemism for total male nudity, even in a context where another part of the anatomy is functionally more relevant.
  • Terms like bare-butt and bare-ass or kaalgat in Afrikaans (literally 'bald [arse-]hole', also an illustration that one's own dense body hair is considered to undo or at least mitigate nudity; animal furs are probably the oldest form of warm clothing) focus only on the buttocks; apart from the literal sense (which may be functional, as in the case of a spanking) this is also a popular metaphor (also in other languages) for full nudity, at the same time more explicit than most euphemisms and yet avoiding to mention the genitals.
  • The term topfree or topless is sometimes used — especially in reference to females — to describe the lack of clothing covering the breasts. For men, the same state of undress, however less strategic, is called bare chested or shirtless.
  • See also cleavage (breasts) and cleavage (buttocks)
  • Even a term referring to an apparently less revealing skin zone can be significant in a functional context, e.g., bare-knuckle in certain martial arts, or even sometimes have strong cultural associations, as with barefoot. In the case of bare hand(s), the expression is even commonly extended as a counterpart to handling something with gloves to protect the hands, or even with a mechanical device, whether operated manually or not, allowing to keep the hands at safe distance. The naked eye is a similar figure of speech referring to human visual perception that is unaided by optic equipment.

Nudity may be indirectly exposed through reflection. This may be accidental, or accomplished deliberately by the nude person [1], or accomplished by a voyeur. Team CSC going commando at Tour de France 2007 Going commando (or to go commando) is the act of not wearing underwear under ones outer clothing. ... Bith buttocks. ... Categories: Stub | Nudity | Social movements ... “Topless” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... Shirtless man Bare chested refers to the state of not wearing any clothes above the waist. ... Aria Giovanni displaying cleavage Suzanne Valadon, painting by Renoir, 1885. ... A painting by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg of a woman with visible cleavage Butt cleavage is minor exposure of the buttocks and the anal cleft between them, often because of low slung trousers. ... Bare-knuckle boxer John Lawrence Sullivan. ... Walking barefoot Going barefoot is the practice of not wearing shoes, socks, or other foot covering. ... The naked eye is a figure of speech referring to human visual perception that is unaided by enhancing equipment, such as a telescope or binoculars. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... Reflectoporn is the term used to describe a form of exhibitionism[1] in which the participant removes their clothing, and then takes a photograph of an object with a reflective surface in such a way that their naked body can be seen in the reflection. ... Voyeurism is a practice in which an individual derives sexual pleasure from observing other people. ...


Analogous 'nakedness'

In biology, names like Bare-throated Tiger-Heron, Naked Mole Rat or Nude mouse are used to indicate that certain animal species or at least specified skin zones on them are not covered by hair (as opposed to furry species), plumage, scales etc., which is however a permanent (or cyclic, in the case of moulting) and involuntary condition of their anatomy, since man is the only species that wears (removable) clothes (not counting 'housing' like a hermit crab's seashell use). Similarly, plant names like Eriogonum nudum refer to the lack of foliage. In genera where total exposure is the anatomical rule, a mild, in se unnotable hair growth can on the contrary suffice to justify a name like furry lobster. Binomial name Tigrisoma mexicanum Swainson, 1834 The Bare-Throated Tiger Heron Tigrisoma mexicanum is a wading bird of the heron family Ardeidae, found from Mexico to northwestern Colombia. ... Binomial name Rüppell, 1842 Distribution of the Naked Mole Rat The Naked Mole Rat (Heterocephalus glaber), also known as the Sand Puppy, or Desert Mole Rat, is a burrowing rodent native to parts of East Africa and the only species currently classified in genus Heterocephalus. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... In birds, moulting or molting is the routine shedding of old feathers. ... Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infra-order Paguroidea, distinct from the true crabs in the infra-order Brachyura. ... Binomial name Eriogonum nudum Dougl. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a grouping in the classification of living organisms having one or more related and morphologically similar species. ... Genera and Species see text Furry lobsters (sometimes called coral lobsters) are small decapod crustaceans, closely related to the slipper lobsters and spiny lobsters. ...


By a kink in human psychology, the act of revealing skin or even removing clothes, even when only to show another covering layer, is often regarded at least as erotic or offensive as the actual sight of bare skin. Thus one often feels the need to use a dressing-box etc. or at least retreats into a lockerroom with restricted access in order to change, even if one is already wearing underneath one's clothes the swimwear that will be shown without jeans after emerging, so not an inch of embarrassing exposure was involved in the disrobing. This very suggestive power of divesting is the basis of striptease, the very word rather referring to such a 'tease' by partial stripping off, rather than the 'full monty'. Such phobias are far more common in North America than in Europe or much of the rest of the world (e.g. Japan). In many european nations such fear of undressing would be classed as a form of mental illness. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Striptease (disambiguation). ...


Similarly attitudes quite like those concerning nudity are often displayed towards clothing which covers the skin, but suggestively follows the contours of a sensitive body part, such as the male genitals in tights. Wet clothing which sticks to the skin, e.g. the buttocks or a female breast (as in a wet t-shirt contest), can thus also be regarded as if it had become truly transparent. Three women wearing different styles of tights. ... Wet participant (wearing a tank top rather than a T-shirt) A wet T-shirt contest is a form of exhibitionistic beauty contest that typically features young women performing before a predominantly male audience, usually at a nightclub, bar, or resort. ...


The taboo by association can go even further: garments which prevent any exposure of strategic skin zones can themselves be given a subjective status rather fitting a revealing one, especially underwear - thus a man whose open trousers fly reveals nothing more than the color of the underwear, no skin, is nevertheless considered embarrassingly exposed. Thus euphemisms are used for undergarments, notably those in touch with the intimate parts, or even, as in the case of the word unmentionables, the trousers worn above these. The word dishabille (from the French déshabillé 'undressed', which still refers to a negligee) uses a common euphemism for nudity to refer to being partially or very casually dressed, a matter of comparison with the fashion-sensitive 'proper' dress, not to an actual revealing characteristic of the 'lesser' garments worn. In certain erotic fethisms, a second skin — which in fact covers up the real skin — is called this because it is perceived as providing a more intense stimulus than the normal response associated with real naked hide. A pair of mens briefs Undergarments, also called underwear or sometimes intimate clothing, are clothes worn next to the skin, usually under other clothes. ... The negligee is a form of womenswear intended for wear at night and in the bedroom or in a airport parking lot. ... The concept of a second skin is common to a range of clothing-related fetishes. ...


Finally the 'image' of nudity and the notion of vulnerability are used for various absences of clothing and other symbolical objects where no body visibility is required — thus people say they 'feel naked without...' about uniform, a badge of office, even a weapon.


Historical overview

"Adam and Eve", 1543. Engraving, by Hans Sebald Beham
"Adam and Eve", 1543. Engraving, by Hans Sebald Beham
Main article: History of nudity

Anthropologists logically presume that humans originally lived naked, without clothing, as their natural state. They postulate the adaptation of animal skins and vegetation into coverings to protect the wearer from cold, heat and rain, especially as humans migrated to new climates; alternatively, covering may have been invented first for other purposes, such as magic, decoration, cult, or prestige, and later found to be practical as well. For men and women, public nudity was at least permissible in ancient Sparta, and customary at festivals. Image File history File linksMetadata Sebald_Beham_001. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sebald_Beham_001. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Michelangelos David See also Timeline of non-sexual social nudity. ...


Various modern-era attitudes

Society's response to public nudity varies on the culture, time, location and context of the activities. There are many exceptions and particular circumstances in which nudity is tolerated, accepted or even encouraged in public spaces. Such examples would include nude beaches, within some intentional communities (such as naturist resorts or clubs) and at special events. Fashion line Imitation of Christ incorporated toplessness in its public fashion show, which brought comparisons to Vanessa Beecrofts art. ... Public art in a public space in Lille, France One definition of public space or a public place is a place where anyone has a right to come without being excluded because economic or social conditions (fees, paying an entrance, being poor, ...). Malls are examples of private space with the... Bredene naturist beach in Belgium. ... ... Naturists find going without clothing both enjoyable and relaxing. ...


In general and across cultures, more restrictions are found for exposure of those parts of the human body that display evidence of sexual arousal. Therefore, sex organs and often women's breasts are covered, even when other parts of the body may be freely uncovered. Yet the nudity taboo may have meanings deeper than the immediate possibility of sexual arousal, for example, in the cumulative weight of tradition and habit. Clothing also expresses and symbolizes authority, and more general norms and values besides those of a sexual nature. It is thus not clear what society and people's spiritual beliefs would have to be like, were nudity to be regarded as universally normal. Turn on redirects here. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of those anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... A habit is the usual condition or state of a person or thing, either natural or acquired, regarded as something had, possessed, and firmly retained. ...

Nudity in a 1981 Nambassa Village Market

Similar to religious traditions in which nudity symbolizes a non-recoverable state of primal innocence, there also exist secular, cynical attitudes, accusing nudism of hypocrisy and repression. Such views are rarely taken seriously, however. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Nambassa was a series of hippie-conceived festivals held between 1976 and 1981 on large farms around Waihi and Waikino in New Zealand. ...


Not all naturists frequently contemplate a society that would accept nudity in all situations, but when the question is put to them they do not tend to shun such a possibility. Still, their own social nudity might be viewed by some as merely an agreement of trust with others who share a rare degree of confidence and comfort in being nude.


Nudity in front of a sexual partner is widely accepted, but there may be restrictions — for example, only at the time and place of sex, or with subdued lighting, during bathing with the partner or afterward, covered by a sheet or blanket, or while sleeping. This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ...


Another common distinction, also considered by censoring authorities, is that gratuitous nudity is perceived as more offensive than the same degree of physical exposure in a functional context, where the action could not conveniently be performed dressed, either in reality or in a fictitious scene in art. The intent can also be invoked: whether the nudity is meant to affect observers; e.g., streaking can be considered unacceptably provocative, nude sun tanning viewed mildly as rather inoffensive. A participant of the Bay to Breakers. ... A suntanned arm showing browner skin where it has been exposed. ...


Western culture

Nude anti-censorship protest by members of Rage Against the Machine in 1993.
Sunbathing in Formentera, Spain.
Sunbathing in Formentera, Spain.

Nudity in front of strangers of the same sex is often more accepted than in front of those of the other or both sexes, for example when bathing or showering, in common changing rooms, etc. Sex-specific changing rooms and toilets serve to prevent accidental partial nudity in front of the other sex. In some cultures, even for people of the same sex to see each other nude is considered inappropriate and embarrassing. Also, the implication of homosexuality among naked members of the same sex can discourage this type of nudity. Image File history File linksMetadata Lollapaloozaratm. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lollapaloozaratm. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... Rage Against the Machine (also Rage and RATM) is an American rock band, noted for their blend of hip hop, heavy metal, punk and funk as well as their revolutionary politics and lyrics. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1502x574, 142 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sun tanning User:Markaci/Nudity User:Cyde/Weird pictures User talk:Hanby ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1502x574, 142 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sun tanning User:Markaci/Nudity User:Cyde/Weird pictures User talk:Hanby ... Flag of Formentera Formentera is the smallest and southernmost island of the Illes Pitiüses group (which includes Eivissa (Ibiza) and Formentera) and belongs to the Balearic Islands autonomous community (Spain). ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... It has been suggested that Steam shower be merged into this article or section. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


Functional nudity for a short time, such as when changing clothes on a beach, is sometimes acceptable when staying nude on the beach is not. However, even this is often avoided or minimized by a towel, going to a changing room, or changing at home before and after going to the beach.

Woman walking downstairs, a motion study by photographer Eadweard Muybridge.
Woman walking downstairs, a motion study by photographer Eadweard Muybridge.

In certain structured settings in which nudity serves a practical purpose — such as providing access to a patient's body during a medical procedure, examination or therapeutic massage, or providing figure drawing students or artists with unobstructed views of the human body — an individual may be naked in front of one or several clothed people. In most such situations, the exposed individual will be given a loose robe or cloth to cover themselves partially, even if their "private parts" must be exposed. Total nudity for the model remains the norm in figure drawing studios, however. Similarly, pornography is typically photographed with the models fully nude and the crew fully dressed. None of these settings are routinely experienced by most members of society, however, so they are not normative; attempts to have subjects pose in the nude in public view as Spencer Tunick stages all over the world are often received with more mixed feelings, if not repressed as indecent exposure. Download high resolution version (2158x1146, 430 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2158x1146, 430 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Eadweard Muybridge Muybridges The Horse in Motion. ... Massage in Tarifa, Spain. ... Figure drawing by Leonardo da Vinci Figure drawing is an exercise in drawing the human body in its various shapes and positions. ... Art modeling involves the posing of a model to as an aid in creating a work of art. ... Brugge 2, (2005), an installation of 700 nude people arranged in a theatre in Bruges. ...


Although exposure of women's breasts is considered perfectly acceptable in most western countries in appropriate settings, such as while suntanning, in the United States of America exposure of female nipples is still considered criminal by many states and not usually allowed in public. Public breastfeeding, since the exposure it involves is functional, may be looked upon more mildly, but still it is sometimes considered problematic. However, courts in every single US jurisdiction where legal challenges have arisen, and other North American jurisdictions like Ontario have legalized the exposure of women's nipples on equal protection grounds (see United States Constitution/Amendment Fourteen). The movement of "topfree equality" promotes equal rights for women to have no clothing above the waist; the term "topfree" rather than "topless" is used to avoid the latter term's sexual connotations. However, there are still extreme reactions on the parts of many to exposure of the full breast, as in Janet Jackson's partial breast exposure during the half-time show of the 2004 Super Bowl. An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall make or enforce any law which shall. ... Amendment XIV (the Fourteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and includes the due process and equal protection clauses (Section 1). ... A mixed group of people demonstrating the kind of equality that this movement seeks. ... Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16, 1966) is an American singer, actress, songwriter, record producer, dancer, activist, and pop icon. ... Janet Jackson covers her exposed breast immediately after Justin Timberlake tears off part of her wardrobe to expose it Super Bowl XXXVIII, which was broadcast live on February 1, 2004 from Houston, Texas, was noted for a controversial halftime show in which Janet Jacksons bare breast was exposed by... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ...


Nakedness (full or partial) can be part of a corporal punishment or as an imposed humiliation (especially when administered in public). In fact, torture manuals may distinguish between the male and female psychological aversion from self-exposure versus being disrobed. Corporal punishment is forced pain intended to change a persons behaviour or to punish them. ... Public humiliation was often used by local communities to punish minor and petty criminals before the age of large, modern prisons (imprisonment was long unusual as a punishment, rather a method of coercion). ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


Nudity is closely associated with sexuality in most cultures where some level of body modesty is expected. This is evidenced by the existence of striptease in these cultures. Sexual dimorphism when depicted in the main stream media of these cultures is often seen as sexually related. As an effect of Catholic cultural heritage, in Latin cultures the common definition of modesty does not generally admit genital nudity, but the definition of what is lewd has changed and women's breasts are now commonly exposed or depicted without scandal. This article is about sexual practices (i. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Striptease (disambiguation). ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...


The trend in some European countries (for instance Germany, Finland and the Netherlands) is to allow both sexes to bathe together naked. Typically, older German bathhouses, such as Bad Burg, remain segregated by sex. On the other hand Finnish saunas can be mixed and are always attended nude. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A bath house is a place where people bathe. ... For the modern global sauna variants, see sauna. ...


Some people enjoy public nudity in a non-sexual context. Common variants of the clothes free movement are nudism and naturism, and are often practised in reserved places that used to be called "nudist camps" but are now more commonly referred to as naturist resorts, nude beaches, or clubs. Such facilities may be designated topfree, clothing-optional, or fully nude-only. Public nude recreation is most common in rural areas and outdoors, although it is limited to warm weather. Even in countries with inclement weather much of the year and where public nudity is not restricted, such as the United Kingdom, Germany and Denmark, public nude recreation indoors remains rare. One example is Starkers Nightclub in London, a monthly nude-only disco party. Fashion line Imitation of Christ incorporated toplessness in its public fashion show, which brought comparisons to Vanessa Beecrofts art. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A nudist sunning herself on a beach in Formentera. ... The meanings of naturism and nudism are very similar, and refer to a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and public spaces. ... People skinny dipping and sunbathing nude at Bredene nudist beach in Belgium. ... Starkers Club London It is unique in that it is the only disco in England where everyone is naked. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Others practise public nudity more casually. Topfree sunbathing is considered acceptable by many on the beaches of France, Spain and most of the rest of Europe (and even in some outdoor swimming pools); however, exposure of the genitals is restricted to nudist areas in most regions. In the United States, topfree sunbathing and thongs are common in many areas, with a number of nude beaches in various locations. Categories: Stub | Nudity | Social movements ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... For the 2003 film, see Swimming Pool (film). ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... See Thong for other meanings. ... People skinny dipping and sunbathing nude at Bredene nudist beach in Belgium. ...


Even where the general public is fairly tolerant of public nudity, it is still notorious enough to be used as a deliberate, often successful means to attract publicity, either by naturists promoting their way of life or by others for various purposes, such as commercial nudity in advertising or staging nude events as a forum for a usually unrelated messages, such as various nude biker tours demonstrating for different causes or celebrities revealing their natural state by removing a fur coat to support a campaign against fur sales. Sex in advertising is the use of sexual attraction as a tool of persuasion to draw interest to a particular product, for purpose of sale, generally using attractive models. ... // 1800 through 1950 1868 Aproximate date of the introduction of the swimsuit. ...

Nackt Radtour cycling event in Karlsruhe.
Nackt Radtour cycling event in Karlsruhe.

In Judaism and in Jewish communities, men and women use ritual baths called mikvahs for a variety of reasons, mostly religious in the present day. Immersion in a mikvah requires that water covers the entire body (including the entire head). To make sure that water literally touches every part of the body, all clothing, jewelry and even bandages must be removed. In contemporary mikvahs for women, there is always an experienced attendant, commonly called the "mikvah lady", to watch the immersion and ensure that the women have been entirely covered in water. Image File history File links NRT1_2001. ... Image File history File links NRT1_2001. ... FKK-Radtour 2001 on June 14, 2001 in Karlsruhe. ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ...


At the same time, religious Jews are very protective about their naked body. Under the laws of tznius (modesty), both men and women cannot reveal the body parts considered to have sexual connotation (including upper arms, collarbones, legs, and — for married women and all men — hair, which is covered completely or partially). It is postulated in the Shulchan Aruch (the Code of Law) that one must uncover as little body as possible when in the toilet room and even when changing before sleep (trousers are often taken off and exchanged for the pajamas under the covers). By Jewish law, no clothes or jewelry at all can be present during sex; at the same time, it must be done completely under covers, and in complete darkness[citation needed]. This ensures maximum acuteness of the sensation experienced during sex and also decreases the risk of self-awareness and shame about one's body.


Non-Western attitudes

A woman wearing traditional clothing in Southern Ethiopia - many cultures do not stigmatise toplessness among women
A woman wearing traditional clothing in Southern Ethiopia - many cultures do not stigmatise toplessness among women

Attitudes in Western cultures are not all the same as explained above, and likewise attitudes in non-western cultures are many and variant. In almost all cultures, acceptability of nudity depends on the situation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 2090 KB) Junge Hamer-Frau in Südäthiopien (nahe Turmi) Eigenes Foto März 2006 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Toplessness Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 2090 KB) Junge Hamer-Frau in Südäthiopien (nahe Turmi) Eigenes Foto März 2006 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Toplessness Metadata This file... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Cultural and/or religious traditions usually dictate what is proper and what is not socially acceptable. Many non-western cultures allow women to breast feed in public, while some have very strict laws about showing any bare skin.


In some hunter-gatherer cultures in warm climates, near-complete nudity has been, until the introduction of Western culture, or still is, standard practice for both men and women. In some African and Melanesian cultures, men going completely naked except for a string tied about the waist are considered properly dressed for hunting and other traditional group activities. In a number of tribes in the South Pacific island of New Guinea, the men use hard gourdlike pods as penis sheaths. While obscuring and covering the actual penis, these at a longer distance give the impression of a large, erect phallus. Yet a man without this "covering" could be considered to be in an embarrassing state of nakedness. Among the Chumash Native Americans of southern California, men were usually naked, and women were often topless. Native Americans of the Amazon Basin, usually went nude or nearly nude; in many tribes, the only clothing worn was some device worn by men to clamp the foreskin shut. However, other similar cultures have had different standards. For example, other native North Americans generally avoided total nudity, and the Native Americans of the mountains and west of South America, such as the Quechua, kept quite covered. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Melanesia (from Greek black islands) is a region extending from the west Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and north-east of Australia. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... The word sheath has a number of related meanings in English. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Rafael, a Chumash in the 1800s Pre-contact distribution of the Chumash The Chumash are a Native American tribe who historically inhabit mainly the southern coastal regions of California, in the vicinity of what is now Santa Barbara and Ventura, extending as far south as Malibu. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... “Topless” redirects here. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ...

Boys skinny dipping in a sacred tank of water in India.
Boys skinny dipping in a sacred tank of water in India.

In the ancient culture of Southern Asia, there is a tradition of extreme ascetism (obviously minoritarian) that includes full nudity, from the gymnosophists (philosophers in Antiquity) to certain holy men (who may however cover themselves with ashes) in present Hindu devotion. Image File history File linksMetadata Kids_skinny_dipping_in_India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kids_skinny_dipping_in_India. ... Skinny dipping, or skinny-dipping is swimming naked. ... Gymnosophists is the name (meaning naked philosophers) given by the Greeks to certain ancient Indian philosophers who pursued asceticism to the point of regarding food and clothing as detrimental to purity of thought. ...


Islam on the other hand has a much more conservative and modest view regarding nudity. In Islam the area of the body not meant to be exposed in public is called the awrah, and while referred to in the Qur'an, is addressed in more detail in hadith. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Awrah (Arabic: عورة) is a term used within Islam which denotes the parts of the body that are not meant to be exposed in public. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...

  • For men, the awrah is from the navel well to well below the knees, which mean that in public Muslim men have to cover themselves at least from navel down below the knees.
  • For women, Islam may require them to observe purdah, covering their entire bodies, except the face (see burqa). However, the degrees of covering vary according to local custom and/or interpretation of Islamic Law.

Still very different traditions exist among, for example, Sub-Saharan Africans, partly persisting in the post-colonial era. Whereas some tribes and family-groups including some Togolose and Nilo-Saharan (e.g., Surma people) still commonly parade fully naked or without any covering below the waist (especially at massively attended stick fighting tournaments, where well-exposed young men can hope to catch the eye of a prospective bride), amongst Bantu people there is often a complete aversion from public nudity — thus, in Botswana when a newspaper printed a photograph seen here:[1] of a thief suffering lashes on the bared buttocks imposed by a traditional chief's court, there was national consternation, not about the flogging (actually extended soon to age 50 and to women) but about the 'peeping tom'. The Ugandan Kavirondo tribes, a mix of Bantu and Nilotic immigrants, traditionally went practically naked, but the men eventually adopted western dress. Awrah (Arabic: عورة) is a term used within Islam which denotes the parts of the body that are not meant to be exposed in public. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Ladies of Caubul (1848 lithograph, by James Rattray) showing the lifting of purdah in zenana areas. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Surma is the Ethiopian governments collective name for the Suri, the Mursi and the Meen. ... The Kavirondo are a native people of Uganda (East Africa), who dwell in the valley of the Nzoia River, on the western slopes of Mount Elgon, and along the north-east coast of Victoria Nyanza. ...


See also

Nudity Portal

Michelangelos David See also Timeline of non-sexual social nudity. ... A nudist sunning herself on a beach in Formentera. ... The meanings of naturism and nudism are very similar, and refer to a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and public spaces. ... This is a list of public outdoor clothes free areas for recreation. ... En premiär by Anders Zorn Attitudes toward the nudity of children and children seeing nude people vary substantially, depending on the childs culture, age and the context of the nudity. ... a few scenes out of Johann Schwarzers (1880, Vienna, Austria - 10. ... Depictions of nudity refers to nudity in all the artistic disciplines including vernacular and historical depictions. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Nudity in film is the appearance in motion pictures of people without clothing. ... Attitudes concerning nudity in Western cultures are not all the same, and likewise attitudes in non-western cultures are many and variant. ... Nudity in sport, i. ... Fashion line Imitation of Christ incorporated toplessness in its public fashion show, which brought comparisons to Vanessa Beecrofts art. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

References

Sources and references

  • Rouche, Michel, "Private life conquers state and society," in A History of Private Life vol I, Paul Veyne, editor, Harvard University Press 1987 ISBN 0-674-39974-9
  • Brandom, Robert, "Critical Notice of Blind and Worried", Theoria 70:2-3, 2005.
  • Etymology OnLine- various lemmate & [2]

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Nudity
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Further reading

General topics:

Nudity | Human appearance | Not wearing clothes | Not wearing underwear | Social aspects of clothing Mark Storey is a board member of the Naturist Action Committee and has testified at anti-nudity legislation hearings all over the country. ... Cover of N magazine Issue 24. ... Mark Storey is a board member of the Naturist Action Committee and has testified at anti-nudity legislation hearings all over the country. ... Cover of N magazine Issue 24. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... Underwear redirects here. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

Social nudity:

Naturism | Issues in social nudity | Clothes free organizations | List of people in social nudity | Nudity and children | Criticism of the clothes free movement | Timeline of significant non-sexualized public nudity activities | Public nudity | Topfree equality | Barechested males & female Toplessness | Christian naturism | Gay naturism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The meanings of naturism and nudism are very similar, and refer to a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and public spaces. ... Social nudity is nudity in private and public spaces. ... Many organizations associate with the terms naturism or nudism. ... Andrew Martinez reading the paper in a park in Berkeley, California. ... En premiär by Anders Zorn Attitudes toward the nudity of children and children seeing nude people vary substantially, depending on the childs culture, age and the context of the nudity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // 1800 through 1950 1868 Aproximate date of the introduction of the swimsuit. ... Fashion line Imitation of Christ incorporated toplessness in its public fashion show, which brought comparisons to Vanessa Beecrofts art. ... A mixed group of people demonstrating the kind of equality that this movement seeks. ... Going bare chested refers to a man wearing no clothes above the waist, exposing the torso and arms. ... “Topless” redirects here. ... Christian naturists are followers of the Christian faith who practice naturism or nudism, and thus are part of the clothes-free movement. ... Gay naturism or LGBT naturism (which is generally equated with nudism) concerns a lifestyle in which nudity, especially in a communal context, is viewed as natural, positive and healthy. ...

Hygiene & Recreation:

List of social nudity places | Nude beach | Clothing-optional bike rides | Naked hiking | Nudity in sport | Skinny dipping | Streaking | Hot springs | Sun tanning | Naked yoga | Barefoot | Massage | Hot tub | Bathing & Public bathing | Shower | Sauna | Naked party Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Horseback riding. ... This is a list of public outdoor clothes free areas for recreation. ... People skinny dipping and sunbathing nude at Bredene nudist beach in Belgium. ... The 2005 Solstice Cyclists in Seattle June 18, 2005. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nudity in sport. ... Nudity in sport, i. ... Skinny dipping, or skinny-dipping is swimming naked. ... A participant of the Bay to Breakers. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... A suntanned arm showing browner skin where it has been exposed. ... Woman doing a session of naked yoga. ... Walking barefoot Going barefoot is the practice of not wearing shoes, socks, or other foot covering. ... Massage in Tarifa, Spain. ... Hot tub at Big White Ski Resort A hot tub is a large manufactured tub or small pool full of heated water and used for soaking, relaxation, massage, or hydrotherapy. ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... // Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness. ... It has been suggested that Steam shower be merged into this article or section. ... For the music festival in Finland, see Sauna Open Air Metal Festival. ... A naked party is a party, primarily taking place on college campuses or with college-age people, where the participants are nude. ...

The arts & publicity:

Depictions of nudity | Model (art) | Figure drawing | Figure painting | Body painting | Nudity in advertising | Nudity in film | Nudity in American television | Nudity in science fiction | Nudity in music videos | Nudity in combat This article is about Arts as a group of disciplines. ... Depictions of nudity refers to nudity in all the artistic disciplines including vernacular and historical depictions. ... Art modeling involves the posing of a model to as an aid in creating a work of art. ... Figure drawing by Leonardo da Vinci Figure drawing is an exercise in drawing the human body in its various shapes and positions. ... Sitting nude (1993) oil on canvas by Frans Koppelaar Figure painting is a form of the visual arts in which the artist uses a live model as the subject matter of a two-dimensional piece of artwork using paint as the medium. ... Body art by Youri Messen-Jaschin Face Painter redirects here. ... Sex in advertising is the use of sexual attraction as a tool of persuasion to draw interest to a particular product, for purpose of sale, generally using attractive models. ... Nudity in film is the appearance in motion pictures of people without clothing. ... Nudity in American television has always been a controversial issue. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The portrayal of nudity in music videos has always been controversial. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

Body image:

Gymnophobia | Modesty | Physical attractiveness | Vanity | Objectification Body image is a persons perception of his or her physical appearance. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Features such as a symmetrical face, full lips, and low waist-hip ratio, are commonly considered physically attractive when part of a female, because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. ... For other meanings of vanity, see vanity (disambiguation). ... Objectification refers to the way in which one person treats another person as an object and not as a human being. ...

Partially- and fully-sexualized contexts:

Nudity and sexuality Note: Many of these topics, depending on motivation and contexts, are widely considered to be outside of the non-sexualized, family-friendly clothes free movement. The broader discussion of clothes free activities, however, includes both non-sexualized and sexualized contexts (whether or not those activities and topics are considered by some to be socially acceptable, rude, deviant, harmful or illegal). Exhibitionism | Indecent exposure | Mooning | Voyeurism | Erotic art | Sex-positive This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... a few scenes out of Johann Schwarzers (1880, Vienna, Austria - 10. ... Look up Motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An exhibitionist exposing himself at a soccer game. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mooning is the act of displaying ones bare buttocks by removing clothing, e. ... “Voyeur” redirects here. ... Fragonards The Swing is rather tame for modern standards, but in the 18th century depicting a lady with a man able to look up her skirts was considered highly erotic. ... In sexology, some people use the term sex-positive to describe an attitude towards human sexual behavior that regards sexual activities as fundamentally healthy and pleasurable, and encourages sexual pleasure and experimentation. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Legalize public nudity? (896 words)
Children should not have to be exposed to it in public, unless parents choose to expose them to it, thus having nudity be legal everywhere tramples on parental rights.
Even if nudity is tasteless is some cases, this alone does not make the argument for illegality.
With regards to parental authority, given that nudity would likely not be present everywhere, parents can choose where to go with their kids.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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