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Encyclopedia > Nudibranch
Nudibranch
Spanish shawl, Flabellina iodinea
Spanish shawl, Flabellina iodinea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Orthogastropoda
Superorder: Heterobranchia
Order: Nudibranchia
Suborder: Doridina

Dendronotina Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1700x1292, 1338 KB) Summary Spanish Shawl (Flabellina iodinea). ... Binomial name Flabellina iodinea Cooper, 1862 The Spanish shawl, Flabellina iodinea, is a nudibranch in the family Flabellinidae, native to the North American west coast. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontida The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum Mollusca. ... Subclasses Eogastropoda (True Limpets and relatives) Orthogastropoda The gastropods, also previously known as gasteropods, or univalves, and more commonly known as snails and slugs, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 known living species. ... Infraclasses Apogastropoda Cocculiniformia Murchisoniina Neritopsina Vetigastropoda In their work, which has become a standard reference in the field, Ponder and Lindberg (1997) showed that the Orthogastropoda is one of two subclasses of the Gastropoda the class of molluscs, the other subclass being the Eogastropoda. ... Orders Heterostropha Opisthobranchia Pulmonata This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Arminina


Aeolidina


See text for superfamilies

A nudibranch (pronounced /nudɪbɹaŋk/) common name sea slug, is any member of a suborder of soft-bodied, shell-less marine gastropod mollusks noted for their often extraordinary colors and striking forms. The suborder, Nudibranchia, is the largest suborder of heterobranchs, with more than 3,000 described species. In science, a common name is any name by which a species or other concept is known that is not the official scientific name. ... This article is about land slugs. ... Marine is an umbrella term for things relating to the ocean, as with marine biology, marine geology, and as a term for a navy, etc. ... Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Orders Heterostropha Opisthobranchia Pulmonata Heterobranchia (meaning different-gilled snails) is a taxonomic superorder of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks. ...


It is necessary to point out however, that although nudibranchs are indeed one kind of sea slug, that does not mean that all "sea slugs" are nudibranchs. There are numerous other kinds of sea slugs which belong to taxonomic groups not very closely related to nudibranchs, such as the heterobranch sea butterflies, sea angels, and sea hares, as well as the only very distantly related, pelagic, caenogastropod sea slugs within the superfamily Carinarioidea. Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either a hierarchical classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ... Families Limacinidae Cavoliniidae Clioidae Creseidae Cuvierinidae Praecuvierinidae Peraclididae Cymbuliidae Desmopteridae Sea butterflies, or flapping snails, are holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca, Gastropoda), belonging to the suborder Thecosomata (Blainville, 1824). ... Families Clionidae Cliopsidae Hermaeidae Hydromylidae Laginiopsidae Notobranchaeidae Pneumodermatidae Thliptodontidae Sea angels are small pteropod mollusks of the suborder Gymnosomata. ... Families Superfamily Akeroidea Akeridae Superfamily Aplysioidea Aplysiidae Sea hares (also called sea slugs) are small marine gastropod molluscs of the suborder Anaspidea (P. Fisher, 1883) in the subclass Orthogastropoda, class Gastropoda, phylum Mollusca. ...


The word "nudibranch" comes from Latin nudus, naked, and Greek brankhia, gills. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Distribution

They occur worldwide.


Habitat

Nudibranchs live at virtually all depths, but they reach their greatest size and variation in warm, shallow waters.

Nudibranchs (Hermissenda crassicornis) in Moss Beach, California.
Nudibranchs (Hermissenda crassicornis) in Moss Beach, California.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 681 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,536 × 2,232 pixels, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 681 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,536 × 2,232 pixels, file size: 4. ...

Description

The body forms of nudibranchs vary wildly, but because they are opisthobranchs, unlike most other gastropods they are bilaterally symmetrical because they have undergone secondary detorsion. In biology, bilateral symmetry is a characteristic of multicellular organisms, particularly animals. ... // Mathmatics In mathematics, the term torsion has several meanings, mostly unrelated to each other. ...


They lack a mantle cavity. The mantle is an organ found in mollusks. ...


They vary in adult size from 20 to 600 mm. A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...


The adult form is without a shell or operculum (a bony plate covering the opening of the shell, when the body is withdrawn). The operculum (plural : opercula or operculums) of gastropods is a corneous plate at the opening of the shell, attached dorsally to the foot. ...


The name nudibranch is appropriate, since the dorids (infraclass Anthobranchia) breathe through a branchial plume of bushy extremities on their back, rather than using gills. By contrast, on the back of the aeolids in infraclass Cladobranchia there are brightly colored sets of tentacles called cerata. Aeolidia papillosa showing cerata Cerata are dorsal and lateral outgrowths on the body of nudibranches. ...


Nudibranchs have cephalic (head) tentacles, which are sensitive to touch, taste, and smell. Club-shaped rhinophores detect the odors. Hypselodoris bullocki showing its two orange rhinophores A rhinophore is one of a pair of club-shaped structures which are the most prominent part of the external head anatomy of a group of sea slugs, marine gastropod opisthobranch mollusks in the order Nudibranchia, the nudibranchs, specifically the dorid nudibranchs. ...


Life habits

Reproduction

Nudibranch eggs in Moss Beach, California.
Nudibranch eggs in Moss Beach, California.

Nudibranchs are hermaphroditic, and thus have a set of sex organs for both genders, but they can rarely fertilize themselves. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,632 × 1,224 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,632 × 1,224 pixels, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Hermaphrodite (disambiguation). ...


Nudibranchs typically deposit their eggs within a gelatinous spiral. [1]


Feeding

They are carnivorous. Some feed on sponges, others on hydroids, others on bryozoans, and some are cannibals, eating other sea slugs, or, on some occasions, members of their own species. There is also a group that feeds on tunicates and barnacles. Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Orders Actinulida Capitata Chondrophora Filifera Hydroida Siphonophora Trachylina Organisms that are in Class Hydrozoa come from the Phylum Cnidaria. ... Classes Stenolaemata Gymnolaemata Phylactolaemata Bryozoans are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... Cannibalism is the act or practice of eating members of the same species, e. ... Classes Ascidiacea (2,300 species) Thaliacea Appendicularia Sorberacea Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates, sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with incurrent and excurrent siphons. ... For other uses, see Barnacle (disambiguation). ...


Colors in nudibranchs

Among this group can be found the most colorful creatures on earth. Because sea slugs, in the course of evolution, have lost their shell, they have had to evolve other means of defense. Some nudibranchs utilize camouflage, through color patterns that make them invisible (cryptic behavior). Others warn off predators by being brightly colored, which serves to remind predators that they are distasteful or poisonous (aposematic behavior). This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... The bright colours of this Yellow-winged Darter dragonfly serve as a warning to predators of its noxious taste. ...


Champions in their colorful display are the Chromodorids. Nudibranchs that feed on hydroids store the hydroid's nematocysts (stinging cells) in the dorsal body wall. This enables the nudibranch to ward off potential predators. Binomial name (Rueppell & Leuckart, 1828) Chromodoris quadricolor is a species of very colorful sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusk. ... Cnidocytes are prey-capture and defensive cells found on animals of the phylum Cnidaria. ... In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper or back side of an animal, as opposed to the ventrum. ...


Taxonomy

"Nudibranchia", from Ernst Haeckel's Artforms of Nature, 1904.
"Nudibranchia", from Ernst Haeckel's Artforms of Nature, 1904.

The taxonomy of the Nudibranchia is still evolving. Many taxonomists used to treat Nudibranchia as an order, based on the authoritative work of Johannes Thiele (1931), who built on the concept of Henri Milne-Edwards (1848). But new insights through morphological data and gene-sequence research, cause some confidence in the congruence of the data sets of the new and the old. On the basis of investigation of 18S rDNA sequence data, there has been found strong evidence for support of the monophyly of the Nudibranchia and its two major groups, the Anthobranchia/Doridoidea and Cladobranchia Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2277x3234, 1585 KB) Summary The 43rd plate from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), depicting oranisms classified as Nudibranchia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2277x3234, 1585 KB) Summary The 43rd plate from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), depicting oranisms classified as Nudibranchia. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Johannes Thiele (1860 - 1935) was a German zoologist specialized in malacology. ... Henri Milne-Edwards (October 23, 1800 - July 29, 1885) was an eminent French zoologist. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one race) if it consists of an inferred common ancestor and all its descendants. ...

A new study, published in May 2001, has again revised the taxonomy of the Nudibranchia [2]. They are thus divided into two major clades: Families See text. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Families See text. ... Families See text. ... Families and genera See text. ... Families See text. ... John Edward Gray. ... Families See text. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Families See text. ... Families See text. ...

  • Anthobranchia (= Bathydoridoidea + Doridoidea)
  • Dexiarchia nom. nov. (= Doridoxoidea + Dendronotoidea + Aeolidoidea + “Arminoidea”).

The dorids (infraorder Anthobranchia) have the following characteristics: the branchial plume forms a cluster on the posterior part of the neck, around the eyes. Fringes on the mantle do not contain any intestines.


The aeolids (infraorder Cladobranchia) have the following characteristics: Instead of the branchial plume, they have cerata. They lack a mantle. Only species of the Cladobranchia are reported to home. zooxanthellae. Zooxanthellae are golden-brown intracellular endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa, especially anthozoans. ...


Where to view nudibranchs

The Birch Aquarium at La Jolla, California, has the largest collection of nudibranchs on display in the U.S.A. Birch Aquarium at Scripps (sometimes referred to as Scripps Aquarium or Birch Aquarium) is the public exploration center for the world-renowned Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. ... One of the beaches at La Jolla Cove. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Klussmann-Kolb A (2001). "The Reproductive Systems of the Nudibranchia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia): Comparative Histology and Ultrastructure of the Nidamental Glands with Aspects of Functional Morphology". Zoologischer Anzeiger 240 (2). 
  2. ^ Schrödl M.; Wägele H.2 Willan R.C. (2001). "Taxonomic Redescription of the Doridoxidae(Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), an Enigmatic Family of Deep Water Nudibranchs, with Discussion of Basal Nudibranch Phylogeny". Zoologischer Anzeiger, 240 (1). 

See Also

Hooded nudibranch Binomial name Gould, 1852 The hooded nudibranch, Melibe leonina or the lion nudibranch is a small sea slug, a predatory nudibranch, a marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusk in the family Tethydidae. ...


References

  • H. Wägele and R. C. Willan (September 2000). "Phylogeny of the Nudibranchia". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 1 (1): 83–181. 

External links

Images


  Results from FactBites:
 
Naked ...Gills on Snails by Ronald L. Shimek, Ph.D. - Reefkeeping.com (4114 words)
Nudibranch means "naked gills" and this month I thought I would briefly review these gorgeous and wonderful animals; animals that, almost without exception, have no place in aquaria, but which find their way there anyway.
Nudibranchs, fortunately, are grouped together in what taxonomists call, the "Order Nudibranchia." Among some other things, this means that all of them have some characteristics in common that will help in the determination of whether or not a newly found slug becomes a pest or a pet.
The system of dorid nudibranchs and their prey forms an interesting "double warning system." Sponges, tunicates, and bryozoans, the foods of dorid nudibranchs, are also often quite toxic, and brightly colored, providing a signal to fend off their own visually oriented predators.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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