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Encyclopedia > Nucleotides
Nucleotide codes
Code Equivalence Complement
A A T or U
C C G
G G C
T or U T A
M A or C K
R A or G Y
W A or T W
S C or G S
Y C or T R
K G or T M
V A or C or G B
H A or C or T D
D A or G or T H
B C or G or T V
X or N A or C or G or T X

A nucleotide is an organic molecule consisting of a heterocyclic nucleobase (a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA), and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. (A nucleoside is similar, except that it contains only the sugar and base, without a phosphate.)


Nucleotide names are abbreviated into standard four-letter codes. The first letter is lower case and indicates whether the nucleotide in question is a ribonucleotide (r) or deoxyribonucleotide (d). The second letter indicates the nitrogenous base included (G,A,T,C,U). The third and fourth letters indicate the number of attached phosphates (Mono-, Di-, Tri-) and the presence of a phosphate (P). For example, deoxy-cytosine-triphosphate is abbreviated as dCTP.


Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids and also play important roles in cellular energy transport and transformations (notably ATP and NAD+/NADH) and in enzyme regulation (see for example, protein kinase).


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nucleotide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (551 words)
A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups.
In the most common nucleotides the base is a derivative of purine or pyrimidine, and the sugar is the pentose (five-carbon sugar) deoxyribose or ribose.
Nucleotides are the structural units of RNA, DNA, and several cofactors - CoA, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP.
Nucleotide (337 words)
A nucleotide is the monomer structural unit of nucleotide chains that form the nucleic acids RNA and DNA, as well as several lesser nucleic acids.
Nucleotides code for proteins and enzymes as well as determine the genetic structure of life.
Nucleotides are also crucial for cellular energy transportation and transformation and in the regulation of enzymes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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