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Encyclopedia > Nuclear weapons in popular culture
The 1957 photograph of Miss Atomic Bomb, a Las Vegas showgirl with a mushroom cloud dress, has often been used as representative of Cold War kitsch and a symbol of the effects of nuclear weapons on American popular culture.

Since their dramatic public debut in August 1945, nuclear weapons have been a recurring motif in popular culture, to the extent that the decades of the Cold War are often referred to as the "atomic age." Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Miss_Atomic_Bomb_1957. ... Image File history File links Miss_Atomic_Bomb_1957. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... The atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped cloud of smoke, flame, or debris resulting from a very large explosion. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Kitsch is a term of German origin that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Atomic Age was a phrase used for a time in the 1950s in which it was believed that all power sources in the future would be atomic in nature. ...

Contents

Images of apocalypse

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ushered in the "atomic age", and the bleak pictures of the bombed-out cities released shortly after the end of World War II became potent symbols of the power of the new weapons (it is worth noting that the first pictures released were only from distances, and did not contain any human bodies—such pictures would only be released in later years). The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The first pictures released of a nuclear explosion—the blast from the Trinity test—focused on the fireball itself; later pictures would focus primarily on the mushroom cloud that followed. After the United States began a regular program of nuclear testing in the late 1940s, continuing through the 1950s (and matched by the USSR), the mushroom cloud has served as a symbol of the weapons themselves. Pictures of nuclear weapons themselves (the actual casings) were not made public until 1960, and even those were only mock-ups of the "Fat Man" and "Little Boy" weapons dropped on Japan—not the more powerful weapons developed more recently. Diagrams of the bombs' internal workings have only been available in the last few years: the design of nuclear weapons has been the most closely guarded secret until long after the secrets had been independently developed—or stolen—by all the major powers and a number of lesser ones. It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... The atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped cloud of smoke, flame, or debris resulting from a very large explosion. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... A post-war Little Boy casing mockup. ...


During the 1950s, many countries developed large civil-defense programs designed to aid the populace in the event of nuclear warfare. These generally included drills for evacuation to fallout shelters, popularized through popular media such as the US film, Duck and Cover. These drills, with their images of eerily empty streets and the ludicrously ineffective activity of hiding from a nuclear bomb under a schoolroom desk, would later become symbols of the seemingly inescapable and common fate created by such weapons. Many Americans—at least among the wealhier classes—built back-yard fallout shelters, which would provide no protection from a direct hit, but would keep out wind-blown fallout, for a few days or weeks (Ironically, Switzerland, which never attempted to acquire nuclear weapons, although it had the technological sophistication to do so long before Pakistan or North Korea—has built nuclear blast shelters that would protect most of its population from a nuclear war.) [citation needed] Duck and Cover was a suggested method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear detonation which the United States government taught to generations of United States school children from the late 1940s into the 1980s. ... A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City. ... Fallout may refer to: Nuclear fallout Half-Life Fallout a Half-Life fan site. ...


After the development of hydrogen bombs in the 1950s, and especially after the massive and widely-publicized Castle Bravo test accident by the United States in 1954, which spread nuclear fallout over a large area and resulted in the death of at least one Japanese fisherman, the idea of a "limited" or "survivable" nuclear war became increasingly replaced by one in which nuclear war meant the potentially instant end of all civilization: in fact, the explicit strategy of the nuclear powers was called Mutual Assured Destruction. Nuclear weapons became synonymous with apocalypse, and as a symbol this resonated through the culture of nations with freedom of the press. Several popular novels—such as Alas, Babylon and On the Beach—portrayed the aftermath of nuclear war. Several science-fiction novels, such as A Canticle for Leibowitz, explored the long-term consequences. Stanley Kubrick's film Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb satirically portrayed the events and the thinking that could begin a nuclear war. A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alas, Babylon is a novel by Pat Frank published in 1959. ... On the Beach is a post-apocalyptic end-of-the-world novel written by British author Nevil Shute after he had emigrated to Australia. ... For the song from The Rocky Horror Show, see Science Fiction/Double Feature. ... A Canticle for Leibowitz is a post-apocalyptic science fiction novel by Walter M. Miller, Jr. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... For the hit 1987 single by Depeche Mode, see the album Music for the Masses Film poster for Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 satirical film directed by Stanley Kubrick. ...

The now-familiar peace symbol was originally a specifically anti-nuclear-weapons icon.
The now-familiar peace symbol was originally a specifically anti-nuclear-weapons icon.

Nuclear weapons are also one of the main targets of peace organizations. The CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament) was one of the main organisations campaigning against the 'Bomb'. Its symbol, a combination of the semaphore symbols for "N" (nuclear) and "D" (disarmament), entered modern popular culture as an icon of peace. Image File history File links Peace_symbol. ... Image File history File links Peace_symbol. ... Peace sign ------redirects here. ... CND logo In British politics, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has been at the forefront of the peace movement in the United Kingdom and claims to be Europes largest single-issue peace campaign. ... A Chappe semaphore tower near Saverne, France // The semaphore or optical telegraph is an apparatus for conveying information by means of visual signals, with towers with pivoting blades or paddles, shutters, in a matrix, or hand-held flags etc. ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... Peace sign ------redirects here. ...


In fiction, film, and theater

In the 1950s, a common expression in popular culture of the fears of nuclear war and testing were tales of giant, "mutated" animals, such as in the science fiction film Them! (1954).

Nuclear weapons are a staple element in science fiction novels. The phrase "atomic bomb" predates their existence, back to H. G. Wells' The World Set Free (1914) when scientists had discovered that radioactive decay implied potentially limitless energy locked inside of atomic particles (Wells' atomic bombs were only as powerful as conventional explosives, but would continue exploding for days on end). Robert A. Heinlein's 1940 Solution Unsatisfactory" posits radioactive dust as a weapon that the US develops in a crash program to end World War II; the dust's existence forces drastic changes in the postwar world. Cleve Cartmill predicted a chain-reaction-type nuclear bomb in his 1944 science -fiction story "Deadline," which led to the FBI's investigating him, due to concern over a potential breach of security on the Manhattan Project. (see Silverberg). DVD cover scan from the movie Them!, personal scan, claiming fair use (does not detract from original work, scanned from legal copy, image is of sufficiently low resolution). ... DVD cover scan from the movie Them!, personal scan, claiming fair use (does not detract from original work, scanned from legal copy, image is of sufficiently low resolution). ... Them! is a 1954 science fiction film about humanitys battle with a nest of giant mutant ants. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... The World Set Free is a novel published in 1914 by H. G. Wells. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Solution Unsatisfactory is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ...


Many of the characteristics of nuclear weapons themselves have played on ages-old human themes and tropes (penetrating rays, persistent contamination, virility, and, of course, apocalypse), giving their standing in popular culture and politics a particularly emotional valence (both positive and negative). For example, the book Down to a Sunless Sea (1979 novel) is set in a post-holocaust environment, as what may be one of the last planeloads of survivors tries to find a place to land. Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ...


Nuclear weapons have even featured in children's works: The Butter Battle Book, by Dr. Seuss, deals with deterrence and the arms race. In the fantasy novel, 'Wish Upon A Time' by Indian author Nabila Jamshed, the 'Legendary Scimitar' is said to symbolize a nuclear weapon, described as an object of unimaginable destructive power. The plot revolves around it being stolen by a terrorist organization and being recovered by the protagonists. The books cover The Butter Battle Book is a rhyming story written by Dr. Seuss. ... Theodor Seuss Geisel (March 2, 1904 – September 24, 1991) was an American writer and cartoonist best known for his classic childrens books under the pen name Dr. Seuss, including The Cat in the Hat, Green Eggs and Ham, How the Grinch Stole Christmas and One Fish Two Fish Red... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Many films, some of which were based on novels, feature nuclear war or the threat of it. Godzilla (1954) is considered by some to be an analogy to the nuclear weapons dropped on Japan, and was the start of a more general genre of movies about creatures mutated or awakened by nuclear testing. Them! (1954) (giant ants in Los Angeles sewers) is based on a similar premise. The Incredible Shrinking Man (novel) ( film, 1957) starts with a sailor irradiated by a bomb test, based on a real incident of irradiation of Japanese fisherman. In A Canticle for Leibowitz, (novel, no film, 1959) the previous war is known as the "Flame Deluge"; On the Beach (novel 1957, film 1959) is most famous for making the end of humanity a theme in popular thinking on nuclear war; Final War (Japan, 1960) nuclear war erupts after the USA accidentally bombs South Korea. This article is about the character itself. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1954 films | Science fiction films ... The Incredible Shrinking Man is a 1957 science fiction film directed by Jack Arnold and adapted for the screen by Richard Matheson from his novel The Shrinking Man. ... A Canticle for Leibowitz is a post-apocalyptic science fiction novel by Walter M. Miller, Jr. ... On the Beach is a post-apocalyptic end-of-the-world novel written by British author Nevil Shute after he had emigrated to Australia. ... Final War Final War is a skinhead band that started in Orange County, CA. It has gained considerable recognition and is considered one of the only white nationalist bands on the horizon that could become mainstream although highly unlikley. There songs range from many issues in America today to hanging...

In Beneath the Planet of the Apes (1970), a group of post-apolcalyptic mutants worship their "god", a nuclear bomb.

Some nonfiction works of the time had an effect on cultural works. Herman Kahn's innovative non-fiction book On Thermonuclear War, (1961) describing various nuclear war scenarios, was never popular, but the outlandishness of its projections and the possibility of a "Doomsday Machine", an idea Kahn got from the 1958 novel Red Alert, as a way to prevent war were direct inspirations for director Stanley Kubrick to handle Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb as a black comedy. (Menand, 2005) The 1964 film was loosely based on Red Alert, and a later novelization of the film was also written by the original author Peter George. Fail-Safe (novel 1962) (film 1964) (live-tv remake 2000) was a dramatic version of a similar accidental war that came out soon after. The War Game (BBC tv film, 1965), Planet of the Apes (novel) (5 films, 1968-1973), Damnation Alley (1977) features a chilling launch and destruction sequence, followed by a trek across a ruined America; Taiyō o Nusunda Otoko / The Man Who Stole the Sun (1979), When the Wind Blows (British graphic novel 1982, animated film 1986). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (852x359, 68 KB)During their religious service, the mutants worship a nuclear missile, which they claim is their god. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (852x359, 68 KB)During their religious service, the mutants worship a nuclear missile, which they claim is their god. ... Beneath the Planet of the Apes (1970), is the first of four sequels to Planet of the Apes (1968), with James Franciscus, Kim Hunter, and Charlton Heston in a supporting role. ... Herman Kahn, May 1965 Herman Kahn (February 15, 1922 – July 7, 1983) was a military strategist and systems theorist employed at RAND Corporation, USA. // Born in Bayonne, New Jersey, Kahn grew up in the Bronx, then in Los Angeles following his parents divorce. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... This article is about the theoretical world-ending destruction. ... Red Alert is a 1958 novel by Peter George about nuclear war. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... For the hit 1987 single by Depeche Mode, see the album Music for the Masses Film poster for Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 satirical film directed by Stanley Kubrick. ... Red Alert is a 1958 novel by Peter George about nuclear war. ... Peter Bryan George (March 24, 1924 - June 11, 1966) was a British author, most famous for the Cold War thriller novel Red Alert. ... This article is about The Stargate SG-1 episode. ... The War Game is a 1965 television film on nuclear war. ... This article is about the book. ... This article is about the 1977 film. ... Taiyō o Nusunda Otoko (太陽を盗んだ男), also known as The Man Who Stole the Sun, is a 1979 satirical film from Japan, directed by Hasegawa Kazuhiko and written by Leonard Schrader. ... When the Wind Blows For the novel by James Patterson, see When the Wind Blows (James Patterson) When the Wind Blows (1982) is a graphic novel, by British artist Raymond Briggs, that shows a nuclear attack on Britain by the Soviet Union from the viewpoint of a retired couple, Jim...

The Day After became known for its realistic representation of nuclear war and groundbreaking special effects for a television movie.
The Day After became known for its realistic representation of nuclear war and groundbreaking special effects for a television movie.

The Day After (1983) was a "made for TV" movie that became fodder for talk shows and commentary by politicians at the time due to its depiction of explosions on American soil and alleged political content. Testament (1983), another postwar vision; WarGames (1983), features young computer nerds and their mischief; The Terminator (3 films, 1984, 1991, 2003) features a post-apocalyptic future (all James Cameron films from 1986 through 1994 deal with nuclear explosions); Red Dawn (film, directed by John Milius) (1984), Mad Max (3 films, 1979-1985), Manhattan Project (1986, not about the Manhattan Project), Threads (BBC TV production made 1984, shown 1985), based on British government exercise Square Leg, Project X (1986) which deals with animal testing on exposure to nuclear radiation, Miracle Mile (1988), Broken Arrow (1996) ("Broken Arrow" is military jargon for an accidental nuclear event, the event depicted in the film would actually be classified as Empty Quiver). Image File history File links Dayafter1. ... Image File history File links Dayafter1. ... This article is about the 1983 TV movie about nuclear war. ... This article is about the 1983 TV movie about nuclear war. ... Testament is a 1983 film directed by Lynne Littman and starring Jane Alexander. ... This article is about the 1983 US movie. ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ... For other persons named James Cameron, see James Cameron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Red dawn (disambiguation). ... John Milius (born April 11, 1944 in St. ... For other uses, see Mad Max (disambiguation). ... The movie The Manhattan Project was released on June 13, 1986. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Threads is a 1984 BBC television docudrama depicting the effects of a nuclear war on the United Kingdom and its aftermath. ... square leg is also a cricket fielding position. ... Project X was a 1987 film produced by Walter F. Parkes and Lawrence Lasker and directed by Jonathan Kaplan. ... Miracle Mile is a 1988 thriller film directed by Steve de Jarnatt and starring Anthony Edwards and Mare Winningham. ... Broken Arrow is a 1996 American action film directed by John Woo and starring John Travolta and Christian Slater. ...


The James Bond films are also known to have plots surrounding nuclear weapons. Films like Thunderball, The Spy Who Loved Me, Tomorrow Never Dies, and The World Is Not Enough involves a plot of nuclear warfare by the enemy, but in a more lighter point on view. 007 redirects here. ... For other topics with this name, see Thunderball. ... For the Ian Fleming novel, see The Spy Who Loved Me. ... Tomorrow Never Dies, released in 1997, is the eighteenth spy film in the James Bond series, and the second to star Pierce Brosnan as MI6 agent James Bond. ... For other uses, see The World Is Not Enough (disambiguation). ...


There have been a few fictionalized accounts of historical events relating to nuclear weapons as well. The Manhattan Project itself, for example, was depicted in the 1989 movie Fat Man and Little Boy. Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Fat Man and Little Boy (aka Shadow Makers in the UK) is a 1989 film that reenacts the Manhattan Project, the secret Allied endeavor to develop the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It is named after the nuclear weapons known as Fat Man and Little Boy, and also...

In the 2003 miniseries Battlestar Galactica, Caprica(pictured) and the Twelve Colonies of Kobol suffered a massive nuclear attack from the Cylons.
In the 2003 miniseries Battlestar Galactica, Caprica(pictured) and the Twelve Colonies of Kobol suffered a massive nuclear attack from the Cylons.

The second season of the television series 24 involves Arab terrorists smuggling a nuclear bomb across the Mexican border and planning to detonate it in Los Angeles. The sixth season also involves nuclear weapons as a major theme, with a group of terrorists having access to a series of five nuclear suitcase bombs. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1920x1080, 445 KB) Summary http://scifi. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1920x1080, 445 KB) Summary http://scifi. ... This article is specifically about the 2003 Battlestar Galactica miniseries only; for other uses, see the main Battlestar Galactica page or Battlestar Galactica (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 24 (disambiguation). ... A suitcase bomb is a bomb which uses a suitcase as its delivery method. ...


Jericho, which premiered on September 20, 2006 depicts a fictional town in Kansas that has to survive on its own after multiple US cities are destroyed by nuclear devices. This article is about the CBS television drama. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Tom Clancy novel and movie The Sum of All Fears depicts a nuclear explosion caused by Arab terrorists in Denver(novel) or by neo-Nazis in Baltimore (film). For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ... For the movie of the same name, see The Sum of All Fears (film). ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United...


In the comic "The Invisibles", writer Grant Morrison references Oppenheimer using the "Destroyer of Worlds" quote as a mystic phrase and using the moment of detonation as part of a magical ritual. The roleplaying game GURPS Technomancer repeats this theme, depicting an alternate history where Oppenheimer unwittingly complete a necromantic ritual that releases magic back into the world at Trinity. The CBS Television Drama Jericho (2006) focuses on a small town that is left without communications and basic necessities after a nuclear attack on major US cities. The film The Hills Have Eyes (2006) features a group of miner's descendants in the New Mexico desert, who have become genetically mutated due to the radiation caused by the atomic tests, and terrorize travelers in the area, who are lured to their mines in the hills by a gas station owner who profits from the victim's jewelry. The Generic Universal RolePlaying System, commonly known as GURPS, is a role-playing game system designed to adapt to any imaginary gaming environment. ... This article is about the CBS television drama. ... A remake of the 1977 film done by Alexandre Aja. ...


There have also been a number of plays set around the theme of nuclear weapons development. Michael Frayn's Tony Award-winning Copenhagen (1998), for example, contemplates the ethics and early history of nuclear weapons development through the eyes of the physicist Niels Bohr, his wife Margarethe, and his former pupil Werner Heisenberg. Swiss playwright Friedrich Dürrenmatt addressed the question of the responsibility of scientists in a post-Hiroshima world explicitly in his 1961 satire, Die Physiker. The rise-and-fall of American physicist and "father of the atomic bomb" J. Robert Oppenheimer has been the subject and inspiration of a number of plays—Heinar Kipphardt's In the Matter J. Robert Oppenheimer (1964), Berthold Brecht's Life of Galileo (1955 version)—and even an opera, Doctor Atomic (2005). Michael Frayn (born 8 September 1933) is an English playwright and novelist. ... A Tony Award for Best Play has been awarded since 1947. ... Copenhagen is a play by Michael Frayn, based around an event that occurred in Copenhagen in 1941, a meeting between the physicists Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. ... Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Friedrich Dürrenmatt (January 5, 1921 – December 14, 1990) was a Swiss author and dramatist. ... Die Physiker (The Physicists) (1962) is a satiric drama often recognized to be the most impressive, yet easiest to understand work by Swiss writer Dürrenmatt. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer, father of the atomic bomb, served as the first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory, beginning in 1943. ... Bertolt Brecht (born Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht February 10, 1898 – August 14, 1956) was an influential German socialist dramatist, stage director, and poet of the 20th century. ... Life of Galileo, also known simply as Galileo, is a play by the German playwright Bertolt Brecht which was first published in 1940. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Doctor Atomic is an opera by the contemporary minimalist American composer John Adams, with libretto by Peter Sellars. ...


Special Bulletin (1983)


In art

The power and the visual effects of atomic weapons have inspired many artists. Some notable examples include:

Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... James Rosenquist (born November 29, 1933) is an acclaimed American artist. ... Since the mid 80’s, Gregory Green has exhibited homemade bombs, illustrating societies negligence towards terrorism. ... James Sanborn (born 1945 in Washington, D.C.) is an American sculptor. ... Tony Price (1937-2000) was a self-styled Atomic Artist and outspoken antinuclear activist. ... Eugene Von Bruenchenhein (1910-1983) was an American outsider artist from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... Chesley Bonestell (1888-1986) was a painter, designer, and illustrator. ...

In music

Along with other forms of culture, there have been many songs related to the topic of nuclear weapons and warfare. Many of them have been protest songs or warning songs, while others use the motif as an allusion to great destruction in general.


Some of the more famous nuclear war songs include: 99 Luftballons (1983) by the German group Nena, which depicts accidental nuclear war begun by an early-warning system identifying a group of balloons with enemy bombers or missiles; and Bob Dylan's A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall (1963), which premiered shortly before the Cuban Missile Crisis. In many cases the allusions to nuclear war are not explicit, however. 99 Luftballons is a Cold War-era protest song by the German band Nena. ... Nena (born March 24, 1960 in Hagen, North Rhine-Westphalia) is a German singer who became famous with the New German Wave song 99 Luftballons (99 Red Balloons in the English version). ... This article is about nuclear war as a form of actual warfare, including history. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... A Hard Rains a-Gonna Fall is a song written by Bob Dylan in 1962 in Chip Moncks apartment in the basement of the Village Gate (now The Village Theater) on the corner of Bleecker and Thompson Streets in Greenwich Village. ...


Among the many songs alluding to nuclear weapons and nuclear war in the 1980s was the song Manhattan Project (1985) by the band Rush, one of the only songs with copious literal references to historical events leading to first nuclear weapons. Manhattan Project is a 1985 song by Canadian progressive rock band Rush named for the WWII project that created the first Atomic Bomb. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band comprising bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ...


Satirical artists such as Tom Lehrer and "Weird Al" Yankovic have drawn upon the motif of nuclear war for humor in their songs (as discussed below). Thomas Andrew Tom Lehrer (born April 9, 1928) is an American singer-songwriter, satirist, pianist, and mathematician. ... This article is about the musician himself. ...


The album cover for the single Teenagers by My Chemical Romance is a mushroom cloud. The image also appears in the video for the song. Additional cover Promotional cover Teenagers is the third/fourth single from The Black Parade and eleventh track from My Chemical Romances third studio album, The Black Parade. ... My Chemical Romance are an American rock band formed in 2001. ...


In humor

The mushroom cloud is familiar enough to be treated with humor in a Les Paul advertising campaign.
The mushroom cloud is familiar enough to be treated with humor in a Les Paul advertising campaign.

The comedian/lyricist Tom Lehrer penned a number of humorous and well known songs relating to nuclear weapons. His song Who's Next? took up the issue of nuclear proliferation, chronicling the acquisition of nuclear weapons by various nations, then theorizing on "Who's Next," ending with Luxembourg, Monaco, and Alabama becoming nuclear powers, while We Will All Go Together When We Go looked at the brighter side of nuclear holocaust (not having to mourn over the death of others, since "When the air becomes uranious/ We will all go simultaneous"). It assumes that the entire planet will be instantaiously wiped clean by nuclear fire, and bypasses the much grimmer idea of radiation poisoning. A third song by Lehrer, "So Long Mom (A Song From World War III)", was introduced as existing because, "If any songs are going to come out of World War III, we had better start writing them now," and tells the tale of a young soldier marching off to nuclear war, promising his mother that "Although I may roam, I'll come back to my home/ Although it may be a pile of debris" and also satirizing the likely extremely short duration of a major nuclear war ("And I'll look for you when the war is over/ An hour and a half from now!"). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x683, 97 KB)Ad, featuring mushroom cloud vs. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x683, 97 KB)Ad, featuring mushroom cloud vs. ... The Gibson Les Paul is a popular solidbody electric guitar originally developed in the early 1950s. ... Thomas Andrew Tom Lehrer (born April 9, 1928) is an American singer-songwriter, satirist, pianist, and mathematician. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... We Will All Go Together When We Go is a blackly humorous song by Tom Lehrer about the possible annihilation of the entire human race due to a nuclear exchange. ... Nuclear Holocaust is the concept of the eradication of the human race through the means of Nuclear warfare. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... A nuclear holocaust is often associated with World War III For other uses, see World War III (disambiguation). ...


"Weird Al" Yankovic also made a light hearted spin on nuclear annihilation in his song "Christmas at Ground Zero", which describes "A Jolly Holiday underneath a Mushroom cloud". This article is about the musician himself. ... Nuclear fireball World War III is the name given to a hypothetical world war that would be fought after World War II. Most usages of the term include the use of weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons. ...


The card game Nuclear War and its expansion sets are rife with atomic weapons. Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ...


In video games

  • In the game Missile Command the player must defend a city against a never ending series of incoming nuclear missiles.
  • Guerre Nucléaire ( translate : Nuclear War ): an interactiv fiction. This text game is a simulation of a war beetwen the USSR and USA.
  • Several RTS games have the possibility to use nuclear devices as "superweapons", Command & Conquer series being a typical example.
  • The 2006 game DEFCON by UK-based independent developer Introversion Software puts the player in charge of one of six world territories in a situation which inevitably deteriorates to global thermonuclear war. The game uses a graphical and audio style which deliberately evokes images from films such as WarGames, cited by the developers as a major inspiration. With the sense that nuclear war is being commanded by distant generals in deep underground bunkers using abstract images, the game gives an unsettling impression of how popular culture imagined nuclear war would look to the people responsible for starting it. Under the tagline 'Everybody Dies', DEFCON is extremely difficult to win, as all sides will inevitably suffer nuclear attack. In the game's terminology, the victor is the player who 'loses the least'.
  • The Civilization series features nuclear weapons as a possible area of research in their extensive "tech trees." A player must construct their own version of the Manhattan Project to unlock the construction of nuclear weapons; afterward all players with sufficient technology can build nuclear weapons. In all versions of Civilization the use of nuclear weapons destroys all units in the area that was attacked, pollutes the surrounding area, and contributes to global warming. If hits on or near a city, rather than annihilating the city, it just decreases the population of the city.
  • The Fallout series of computer games contains numerous direct and indirect allusions to nuclear wars and potential nuclear holocaust, with a distinct 1950s cold war style. The game itself is set in a post-nuclear-war wasteland, and the main character of the first game is a 'Vault Dweller', a survivor from a self-contained nuclear shelter.
  • The game Balance of Power, written by Chris Crawford and published in 1985 puts the player in the position of the President of the United States or the General Secretary of the Soviet Union, with the goal of increasing "prestige", balanced out by the need to avoid a nuclear war, which ends the game.
  • Trinity was a text adventure game that featured a plotline involving time travel to various sites related to nuclear weapons. The title refers to the Trinity test site.
  • In Starcraft, the Terran can call down nuclear strikes to attack their foes. It seems this ability will make a comeback in Starcraft II
  • In the Microsoft Windows strategy game World in Conflict, the United States uses tactical nuclear weaponry to halt the advance of the Soviet Union in America. The weapons are also available in multiplayer games.
  • The Metal Gear Solid Series by Konami, revolves around Metal Gear, a weapon descrbed as a giant solo-operating tank capable of firing nuclear missiles at any target on the planet's surface.
  • Several games feature a tactical nuclear missile launcher (For example the Rachet and Clank series and Fallout 3) that the player can find (or upgrade to) and use.
  • The Soviets in both Command & Conquer: Red Alert and Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 can launch small tactical missles to destroy key units and buildings. However, in Red Alert one mission requires the player prevent a strategic nuclear strike on Paris, and in Red Alert 2, the Soviets successfully destroy Chicago with a large nuclear bomb.

Missile Command is a 1980 arcade game by Atari. ... The most recent version of the series logo, which appears in Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars Command & Conquer (often abbreviated as C&C or CnC) is a series of video games, mostly of the real-time strategy style as well as a single first-person shooter game based on the... DEFCON is a real-time strategy game created by independent British game developer Introversion Software. ... Introversion Software is a UK based company that labels itself The last of the bedroom programmers. It was founded by three friends, Chris Delay, Mark Morris and Thomas Arundel. ... This article is about the 1983 US movie. ... Civilization is a series of turn-based strategy games produced by Sid Meier. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Fallout is a series of computer role-playing games produced and published by Interplay. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Nuclear Holocaust is the concept of the eradication of the human race through the means of Nuclear warfare. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... For other uses, see Balance of power. ... Chris Crawford is a noted computer game designer and writer, responsible for a number of important games in the 1980s, for founding The Journal of Computer Game Design and for organizing the Computer Game Developers Conference. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Trinity is an interactive fiction computer game written by Brian Moriarty and published in 1986 by Infocom. ... Zork, an early work of interactive fiction, running on a modern interpreter Interactive fiction, often abbreviated as IF, is a simulated environment in which players use text commands to control characters. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... “Starcraft” redirects here. ... Terran means of Terra, i. ... StarCraft II is a computer game currently under development by Blizzard Entertainment as a sequel to the popular real-time strategy game StarCraft. ... Windows redirects here. ... World in Conflict (also known as WiC or WIC) is a real-time tactical video game developed by Massive Entertainment and published by Sierra Entertainment for Windows and the Xbox 360. ... This article is about the original Metal Gear Solid released for the PlayStation. ... Konami Corporation ) (TYO: 9766 NYSE: KNM SGX: K20) is a leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys, trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines and video games. ... A strategic nuclear weapon refers to a nuclear weapon which is designed to be used on targets as part of a strategic plan, such as nuclear missile locations, military command centers and large cities. ...

Others

  • Bikini swimsuit, when introduced in 1946, was named after Bikini Atoll, the site of nuclear weapon tests a few days earlier in the Marshall Islands, on the reasoning that the burst of excitement it would cause would be like the nuclear device.

This article is about the womens bathing suit. ... The Flag of Bikini Atoll Bikini Atoll (also known as Pikinni Atoll) is an uninhabited 6. ...

See also

This list of nuclear holocaust fiction lists the many works of speculative fiction that attempt to describe a world during or after a massive nuclear war, or nuclear holocaust. ... Nuclear Holocaust is the concept of the eradication of the human race through the means of Nuclear warfare. ... World War III is a common theme in popular culture. ... For other uses, see Survivalism (disambiguation). ...

References

  • Paul S. Boyer. By the Bomb's Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age (New York: Pantheon, 1985).
  • Margot A. Henriksen, Dr. Strangelove's America: society and culture in the atomic age (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), ISBN 0-520-08310-5, LoC E169.12.H49 1997.
  • Louis Menand, "Fat Man: Herman Kahn and the Nuclear Age," The New Yorker, June 27, 2005 online
  • Stephen Petersen, "Explosive Propositions: Artists React to the Atomic Age" in Science in Context v.14 no.4 (2004), p.579-609.
  • Nuclear Paranoia a book by Chas Newkey-Burden
  • Jerome F. Shapiro, Atomic Bomb Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2002). [2]
  • "Reflections: The Cleve Cartmill Affair" by Robert Silverberg
  • Spencer R. Weart, Nuclear fear: a history of images (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988).
  • Allan M. Winkler, Life Under a Cloud: American Anxiety About the Atom (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).

External links

  • "The Bomb Project", includes section relating to nuclear imagery in art
  • "Conelrad", a sardonic look at the Cold War culture of the fifties and sixties
  • "Nuke Pop", page on nuclear weapons in popular culture by Paul Brians, a professor of English at Washington State University
  • Nuclear Holocausts: Atomic War in Fiction, By Paul Brians, Professor of English, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nuclear weapon at AllExperts (2702 words)
The detonation of a nuclear weapon is accompanied by a blast of neutron radiation.
Nuclear weapons were symbols of military and national power, and nuclear testing was often used both to test new designs as well as to send political messages.
Nuclear weapons have been at the heart of many national and international political disputes and have played a major part in popular culture since their dramatic public debut in the 1940s and have usually symbolized the ultimate ability of mankind to utilize the strength of nature for destruction.
nuclear weapon: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (7827 words)
Fission weapons, commonly known as atomic bombs, release energy by splitting the nuclei of uranium or plutonium atoms; fusion weapons, known as hydrogen bombs or thermonuclear bombs, fuse nuclei of the hydrogen isotopes tritium or deuterium.
Nuclear weapons produce two important effects that are also produced by conventional, chemical explosives: they release heat and generate shock waves, or pressure fronts of compressed air that smash objects in their paths.
Some weapons are designed for special purposes; a neutron bomb is a nuclear weapon that yields a relatively small explosion but a relatively large amount of prompt radiation; these could theoretically be used to cause massive casualties while leaving infrastructure mostly intact.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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