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Encyclopedia > Nuclear weapons and the United States
Nuclear program start date: October 21, 1939
First nuclear weapon test: July 16, 1945
First fusion weapon test: November 1, 1952
Last nuclear test: September 23, 1992
Largest yield test: 15 Mt (October 31, 1954)
Total tests: 1,054 detonations
Peak stockpile: 32,193 warheads (1966)
Current stockpile: 5,163 active, 9,938 total (est.)[1]
Maximum missile range: 13,000 kilometers/8,100 miles (land)
12,000 kilometers/7,500 miles (sub)
NPT signatory: Yes (1968, one of five recognized powers)

The United States of America was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. During the Cold War it conducted over a thousand nuclear tests and developed many long-range weapon delivery systems. It maintains an arsenal of about 10,000 warheads to this day [3], as well as facilities for their construction and design, though many of the Cold War facilities have since been deactivated and are sites for environmental remediation. Image File history File links LocationUSA.svg‎ Permission (Reusing this image) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Generally, remediation means providing a remedy, so environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the general protection of human health and the environment or from a brownfield site intended for redevelopment. ...

Contents

Development history

Manhattan Project

Main article: Manhattan Project
The "Trinity" explosion was the first nuclear weapon ever tested.
The "Trinity" explosion was the first nuclear weapon ever tested.

The United States of America first began developing nuclear weapons during World War II under the order of President Franklin Roosevelt in 1939, motivated by a fear that they were engaged in a potential race with Nazi Germany to develop such a weapon. After a slow start under the direction of the National Bureau of Standards, at the urging of British scientists and American administrators the program was put under the Office of Scientific Research and Development, where in 1942 it was officially transferred under the auspices of the U.S. Army and became known as the Manhattan Project. Under the direction of General Leslie Groves, over thirty different sites were constructed for the research, production, and testing of components related to bomb making. These included the scientific laboratory, Los Alamos (in New Mexico), under the direction of physicist Robert Oppenheimer, a plutonium production facility, Hanford (in Washington), and a uranium enrichment facility, Oak Ridge (in Tennessee). This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Download high resolution version (1180x1474, 162 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1180x1474, 162 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... NIST logo The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards) is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ... In June of 1941, the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) superseded the committee structure [of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC)]. The OSRD projects gave the United States and Allied troops more powerful and more accurate bombs, more reliable detonators, lighter and more accurate weapons, safer and more... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... A General is a high rank in the United States military. ... Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


By investing heavily both in breeding plutonium in early nuclear reactors, and in both the electromagnetic and gaseous diffusion enrichment processes for the production of uranium-235, the United States was able by mid-1945 to develop three usable weapons. A plutonium-implosion design weapon was tested on July 16, 1945 ("Trinity"), with around a 20 kiloton yield. On the orders of President Harry S. Truman, on August 6 of the same year a uranium-gun design bomb ("Little Boy") was used against the city of Hiroshima, Japan, and on August 9 a plutonium-implosion design bomb ("Fat Man") was used against the city of Nagasaki, Japan. The two weapons killed approximately 250,000 Japanese citizens outright, and many more thousands have died over the years from radiation sickness and related cancers. Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nuclear weapon designs are often divided into two classes, based on the dominant source of the nuclear weapons energy. ... Little Boy was the codename of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945 by the 12-man crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets (Tibbets, age 92, died Nov. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Main keep of Hiroshima Castle The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japans islands. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organic tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Cold War

Main article: Nuclear arms race

In the postwar period, the United States was soon engaged in a nuclear arms race against the Soviet Union, who it feared had strong territorial ambitions in postwar Europe and potential ideological ambitions to wage war against the United States. The U.S. invested heavily in a continued program of weapons research, development, and production, under the auspices of the civilian-run Atomic Energy Commission. Research also commenced in delivery systems, including the improvement of bomber aircraft and the development of rocketry for use with nuclear systems. U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. ...

The U.S. tested its first hydrogen bomb, "Ivy Mike", in 1952.
The U.S. tested its first hydrogen bomb, "Ivy Mike", in 1952.

In 1950, in response to the detonation of the USSR's first fission weapon in 1949 ("Joe 1"), Truman ordered a crash research program towards developing thermonuclear weapons. At that point the weapons were still purely theoretical, with no method known for successfully igniting a nuclear fusion reaction. After a theoretical breakthrough by the mathematician Stanislaw Ulam and physicist Edward Teller, however, workable method was developed and tested in the "Ivy Mike" shot in November 1952, with a yield of 10 megatons. A deployable version of the Teller–Ulam design was tested in the "Castle Bravo" shot of February 1954, with a yield of 15 megatons, over twice the projected expectations. Because of this error in calculation and unfortunate changes in weather conditions, the "Bravo" shot resulted in the depositing of large amounts of nuclear fallout onto the Marshall Islands at the test site in the Pacific. An evacuation ensued, but many of the natives exposed suffered from cancers and a high incidence of birth defects. A Japanese fishing boat was additionally exposed and resulted in one death from radiation sickness, which gained considerable international attention. Ivy Mike mushroom cloud. ... Ivy Mike mushroom cloud. ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... External links http://gawain. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... StanisÅ‚aw Ulam in the 1950s. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... The basics of the Teller–Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... Daigo Fukuryu Maru (第五福龍丸, Daigo Fukuryū Maru) was a Japanese tuna fishing boat, which was exposed to and contaminated by radiation caused by the United States hydrogen bomb experiment in Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organic tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ...


Throughout the 1950s and 1960s the United States continued on its path, developing intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), with which to hold a credible deterrence against the USSR. In this period the U.S. stockpile of weapons increased exponentially to its maximum point of over 32,000 warheads in 1966.[2] The generally agreed upon point at which the U.S. came closest to nuclear war with the USSR occurred during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ... Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... Deterrence theory is a defensive strategy developed after World War II and used throughout the Cold War. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 1970s and 1980s, warhead production slowed somewhat though innovation in warhead design allowed for new generations of delivery systems such as multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs) to be produced. Since this advance in the miniaturization of thermonuclear weapons in the mid-1970s, most experts and weapons scientists have said that most nuclear weapons design was focused on small improvements and modifications rather than any radical changes. For the article about the band, see M.I.R.V. The MIRVed U.S. Peacekeeper missile, with the re-entry vehicles highlighted in red. ...


In the 1980s, under President Ronald Reagan, a reinvigoration of the arms race took place, and also introduced the extensive advocacy of the use of nuclear and non-nuclear approaches to missile defense through the Strategic Defense Initiative. For technical and political reasons, however, funding was eventually cut back heavily on this program. Reagan redirects here. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ...


Post-Cold War

A Peacekeeper missile reentry vehicle is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today, as part of the program of stockpile stewardship.
A Peacekeeper missile reentry vehicle is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today, as part of the program of stockpile stewardship.

After the end of the Cold War following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the U.S. nuclear program was heavily curtailed, halting its program of nuclear testing, ceasing in the production of new nuclear weapons, and reducing its stockpile by half by the mid-1990s under President Bill Clinton. Many of its former nuclear facilities were shut down, and their sites became targets of extensive environmental remediation. Much of the former efforts towards the production of weapons became involved in the program of stockpile stewardship, attempting to predict the behavior of aging weapons without using full-scale nuclear testing. Increased funding also was put into anti-nuclear proliferation programs, such as helping the states of the former Soviet Union eliminate their former nuclear sites, and assist Russia in their efforts to inventory and secure their inherited nuclear stockpile. As of February 2006, over $1.2 billion were paid under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990 to U.S. citizens exposed to nuclear hazards as a result of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, and by 1998 at least $759 million was paid to the Marshallese Islanders in compensation for their exposure to U.S. nuclear testing, and over $15 million was paid to the Japanese government following the exposure of its citizens and food supply to nuclear fallout from the 1954 "Bravo" test.[3][4] Components of a Peacekeeper missile are subjected to a wall of fire. ... Components of a Peacekeeper missile are subjected to a wall of fire. ... The LGM-118A Peacekeeper, initially known as the MX missile, was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986. ... “Reentry” redirects here. ... A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Soviet Unions collapse into independent nations began in earnest in 1985. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... USD redirects here. ... The United States Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) is a federal statute providing for the monetary compensation of people who contracted cancer and a number of other specified diseases as a direct result of their exposure to atmospheric nuclear testing undertaken by the United States during the Cold War, or... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Motto: Jepilpilin ke ejukaan Anthem: Forever Marshall Islands Capital (and largest city) Majuro Official languages Marshallese, English Government  -  President Kessai Note Independence  -  from the United States October 21, 1986  Area  -  Total 181 km² (213th) 69. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the presidency of George W. Bush, and especially after the September 11 terrorist attacks of 2001, rumors have circulated in major news sources that the U.S. has been considering design of new nuclear weapons ("bunker-busting nukes"), and potentially the resumption of nuclear testing for reasons of stockpile stewardship, and non-nuclear missile defense has received additional funding as well. Statements by the U.S. government in 2004, however, imply that by 2012 the arsenal will drop to around 5,500 total warheads, around half of its size by the 1990s.[5] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Between 1940 and 1996, the U.S. spent at least $5.8 trillion (in 1996 dollars) on nuclear weapons development.[6] Over half of this was spent on building delivery mechanisms for the weapons, around 0.02% of it (the lowest category of expenditure) was spent on Congressional oversight. $365 billion was spent on nuclear waste management and environmental remediation. Between 1945 and 1990, more than 70,000 total warheads were developed, in over 65 different varieties, ranging in yield from around .01 kilotons (such as the man-portable Davy Crockett shell) to the 25 megaton B41 bomb.[7] Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Radioactive wastes are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Davy Crockett mounted to a recoilless rifle on a tripod The M-388 Davy Crockett was a tactical nuclear recoilless rifle projectile that was deployed by the United States during the Cold War. ... The casing of a B41 thermonuclear bomb. ...


Nuclear testing

Main article: Nuclear testing
The U.S. conducted hundreds of nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site.
The U.S. conducted hundreds of nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site.

Between July 16, 1945, and September 23, 1992, the United States maintained a program of vigorous nuclear testing, with the exception of a moratorium between November 1958 and September 1961. A total of (by official count) 1,054 nuclear tests and two nuclear attacks were conducted, with over 100 of them taking place at sites in the Pacific Ocean, over 900 of them at the Nevada Test Site, and ten on miscellaneous sites in the United States (Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, and New Mexico).[8] Until November 1962, the vast majority of the U.S. tests were atmospheric (that is, above-ground); after the acceptance of the Partial Test Ban Treaty all testing was regulated underground, in order to prevent the dispersion of nuclear fallout. Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Public domain photo from http://www. ... Public domain photo from http://www. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Jan. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ...


The U.S. program of atmospheric nuclear testing exposed a number of the population to the hazards of fallout. Estimating exact numbers, and the exact consequences, of people exposed has been medically very difficult, with the exception of the high exposures of Marshallese Islanders and Japanese fisherman in the case of the "Castle Bravo" incident in 1954. A number of groups of U.S. citizens — especially farmers and inhabitants of cities downwind of the Nevada Test Site and U.S. military workers at various tests — have sued for compensation and recognition of their exposure, many successfully. The passing of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990 allowed for a systematic filing of compensation claims in relation to testing as well as those employed at nuclear weapons facilities. As of March 2006 over a billion dollars total has been given in compensation, with over $485 million going to "downwinders". A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... The United States Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) is a federal statute providing for the monetary compensation of people who contracted cancer and a number of other specified diseases as a direct result of their exposure to atmospheric nuclear testing undertaken by the United States during the Cold War, or... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A few notable U.S. nuclear tests include:

Shot "Baker" of Operation Crossroads (1946) was the first underwater nuclear explosion.
Shot "Baker" of Operation Crossroads (1946) was the first underwater nuclear explosion.
  • The "Trinity" test on July 16, 1945, was the first-ever test of a nuclear weapon (yield of around 20 kt).
  • The Operation Crossroads series in July 1946, was the first postwar test series and one of the largest military operations in U.S. history.
  • The Operation Greenhouse shots of May 1951 included the first boosted fission weapon test ("Item") and a scientific test which proved the feasibility of thermonuclear weapons ("George").
  • The "Ivy Mike" shot of November 1, 1952, was the first full test of a Teller-Ulam design "staged" hydrogen bomb, with a yield of 10 megatons. It was not a deployable weapon, however — with its full cryogenic equipment it weighed some 82 tons.
"Frigate Bird" (1962) seen through the periscope of the USS Carbonero.
"Frigate Bird" (1962) seen through the periscope of the USS Carbonero.
  • The aforementioned "Castle Bravo" shot of October 31, 1954, was the first test of a deployable (solid fuel) thermonuclear weapon, and also (accidentally) the largest weapon ever tested by the United States (15 megatons). It was also the single largest U.S. radiological accident in connection with nuclear testing. The unanticipated yield, and a change in the weather, resulted in nuclear fallout spreading eastward onto the inhabited Rongelap and Rongerik atolls, which were soon evacuated. Many of the Marshall Islands natives have since suffered from birth defects and have received some compensation from the federal government. A Japanese fishing boat, the Fifth Lucky Dragon, also came into contact with the fallout, which caused many of the crew to grow ill; one eventually died.
  • Shot "Argus I" of Operation Argus, on August 27, 1958, was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon in outer space when a 1.7-kiloton warhead was detonated at 200 kilometers' altitude during a series of high altitude nuclear explosions.
  • Shot "Frigate Bird" of Operation Dominic I on May 6, 1962, was the first and only U.S. test of an operational ballistic missile with a live nuclear warhead (yield of 600 kilotons), at Christmas Island. In general, missile systems were tested without live warheads and warheads were tested separately for safety concerns. In the early 1960s, however, there mounted technical questions about how the systems would behave under combat conditions (when they were "mated", in military parlance), and this test was meant to dispel these concerns. However, the warhead had to be somewhat modified before its use, and the missile was only a SLBM (and not an ICBM), so by itself it did not satisfy all concerns. (Mackenzie 1990)
  • Shot "Sedan" of Operation Storax on July 6, 1962 (yield of 104 kilotons), was an attempt at showing the feasibility of using nuclear weapons for "civilian" and "peaceful" purposes as part of Operation Plowshare. In this instance, a 1280-feet-in-diameter and 320-feet-deep crater was created at the Nevada Test Site.

Download high resolution version (800x629, 70 KB)A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation CROSSROADS (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946). ... Download high resolution version (800x629, 70 KB)A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation CROSSROADS (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946). ... A 23 kiloton dropped nuclear weapon, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Able) A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A 23 kiloton dropped nuclear weapon, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Able) A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Greenhouse was the fifth American nuclear test series, the second conducted in 1951 and the first to test thermonuclear weapons (hydrogen bombs). ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Boosted fission weapons are a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction. ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The basics of the Teller–Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ... Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1200, 126 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1200, 126 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Carbonero (SS-337), a Gato-class submarine, was the 1st ship of the United States Navy to be named for the carbonero, a salt-water fish found in the West Indies. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Rongelap Atoll is an island-atoll located in Micronesia. ... Rongerik Atoll - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Map of Rongerik Atoll, taken from the 1893 map Schutzgebiet der Marshall Inseln, published in 1897. ... A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... Daigo FukuryÅ« Maru Lucky Dragon No. ... Operation Argus was secretly conducted during August and September of 1958, in the South Atlantic (see: South Atlantic Anomaly), by the US Atomic Energy Commission, in conjunction with the Explorer IV mission. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Bluegill Triple Prime shot, 1962, altitude 31 miles High altitude nuclear explosions have historically been nuclear explosions which take place outside the Earths atmosphere. ... Pacific Ocean detonation Operation Dominic I and II was a series of 105 nuclear test explosions conducted in 1962 and 1963 by the United States. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ... Storax Sedan explosion Storax Sedan was a shallow underground nuclear test conducted at the Nevada Test Site at by the United States on July 6, 1962 as part of Operation Plowshare program to investigate the use of nuclear weapons for mining, cratering, and other civilian purposes. ... Operation Storax was the series of American nuclear tests of the Operation Dominic I and II series which took place in Fiscal 1963, but excluding the Sedan blast, which was part of the Plowshare program. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1962 Sedan plowshares shot displaced 12 million tons of earth and created a crater 320 feet (97. ... Post-shot subsidence crater and Huron King test chamber, which was less than 20 kilotons (1980) A subsidence crater is a hole or depression left on the surface of an area which has had an underground (usually nuclear) explosion. ...

Delivery systems

Early weapons models, such as the "Fat Man" bomb, were extremely large and difficult to use.
Early weapons models, such as the "Fat Man" bomb, were extremely large and difficult to use.

The original weapons ("Little Boy" and "Fat Man") developed by the United States during the Manhattan Project were relatively large (the latter had a diameter of 5 feet) and heavy (around 5 tons each) weapons which required specially modified bomber planes to be adapted for their bombing missions against Japan, each of which could only carry one such weapon and only within a limited range. After these initial weapons, a considerable amount of money and research was conducted towards the goal of standardizing ("G.I. proofing") nuclear warheads (so that they did not require highly specialized experts to assemble them before use, as in the case with the idiosyncratic wartime devices) and miniaturization of the warheads for use in more variable delivery systems. // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... Little Boy was the codename of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945 by the 12-man crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets (Tibbets, age 92, died Nov. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ...


Through the aid of brainpower acquired through Operation Paperclip at the tail end of the European branch of World War II, the United States was able to embark on an ambitious program in rocketry. One of the first products of this was the development of rockets capable of holding nuclear warheads. The MGR-1 Honest John was the first of such weapons, developed in 1953 as a surface-to-surface missile with a 15 mile/25 kilometer maximum range. Because of their limited range, their potential use was heavily constrained (they could not, for example, threaten Moscow with an immediate strike). Operation Paperclip scientists pose together. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... An Honest John rocket on truck. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...

The MGR-1 Honest John was the first nuclear-tipped rocket developed by the U.S. in 1953.
The MGR-1 Honest John was the first nuclear-tipped rocket developed by the U.S. in 1953.

Development of long-range bombers, such as the B-29 Superfortress, during World War II was continued during the Cold War period. The development of the B-52 Stratofortress in particular was able by the mid-1950s to carry a wide arsenal of nuclear bombs, each with different capabilities and potential use situations. Starting in 1946, the U.S. based its initial deterrence threat around the Strategic Air Command, which maintained a number of nuclear-armed bombers in the sky at all times, prepared to receive orders to attack the USSR whenever needed. This system was, however, tremendously expensive, both in natural resources and human resources, and raised the possibility of accidental or purposeful beginning of nuclear war, parodied famously in the 1964 film by Stanley Kubrick, Dr. Strangelove. MGR-1 Honest John rocket picture, probably taken in the 1960s (judging from the photograph quality). ... MGR-1 Honest John rocket picture, probably taken in the 1960s (judging from the photograph quality). ... An Honest John rocket on truck. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... “B-52” redirects here. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the film of the same name, see Strategic Air Command (film) The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the operational establishment of the United States Air Force in charge of Americas bomber-based and ballistic missile-based strategic nuclear arsenal from 1946 to 1992. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Kubrick redirects here. ... For the hit 1987 single by Depeche Mode, see the album Music for the Masses Film poster for Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 satirical film directed by Stanley Kubrick. ...


During the 1950s and 1960s, elaborate computerized early warning systems were developed to detect incoming Soviet attacks and to coordinate response strategies. During this same period, intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) systems were developed which could deliver a nuclear payload across vast distances, allowing the U.S. to house nuclear forces capable of hitting the Soviet Union in the American Midwest. Shorter-range weapons, including small "tactical" weapons, were fielded in Europe as well, including nuclear artillery and man-portable Special Atomic Demolition Munition. The development of submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM) systems allowed for hidden nuclear submarines to covertly launch missiles at distant targets as well, making it virtually impossible for the Soviet Union to successfully launch a first strike attack against the United States which would not guarantee a deadly response. The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... A warning system is any system of biological or technical nature deployed by an individuum or group to inform of imminent danger. ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A nuclear artillery shell is a limited yield nuclear weapon delivered by artillery. ... H-912 transport container for Mk-54 SADM The Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM) was a United States Navy and Marines project that was demonstrated as feasible in the mid-to-late 1960s, but was never used. ... Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... In nuclear strategy, first strike capability is a countrys ability to defeat another nuclear power by destroying its arsenal to the point where the attacking country can survive the weakened retaliation. ...

Advances in rocket systems allowed MIRVed missiles, such as the Peacekeeper, to carry many nuclear warheads at one time.
Advances in rocket systems allowed MIRVed missiles, such as the Peacekeeper, to carry many nuclear warheads at one time.

Improvements in warhead miniaturization in the 1970s and 1980s allowed for the development of MIRVs — missiles which could carry multiple warheads, each of which could be separately targetable. The question of whether these missiles should be based on constantly rotating train tracks (so as to avoid being easily targeted by opposing Soviet missiles) or based in heavily fortified silos (to possibly withstand a Soviet attack) was a major political controversy in the 1980s (eventually the silos won out). MIRVed systems allowed the U.S. to make the Soviet missile defense economically unfeasible, as each offensive missile would require between three and ten defensive missiles to counter. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2272, 761 KB) LG-118A Peacekeeper missile system being tested at the Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2272, 761 KB) LG-118A Peacekeeper missile system being tested at the Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. ... The LGM-118A Peacekeeper, initially known as the MX missile, was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Additional developments in weapons delivery included cruise missile systems, which allowed a plane to fire a long-distance, low-flying nuclear-tipped missile towards a target from a relatively comfortable distance. This innovation would make missile defense additionally difficult, if not impossible. A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ...

The current delivery systems of the U.S. makes virtually any part of the globe within the reach of its nuclear arsenal. Though its land-based missile systems have a maximum range of 10,000 kilometers (less than worldwide), its submarine-based forces extend its reach from a coastline 12,000 kilometers inland. Additionally, the ability to refuel long-range bombers in flight and the use of aircraft carriers extends the possible range virtually indefinitely. Graphic showing relative sizes of various types of nuclear weapons. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea...


Public reactions

Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have remained highly controversial and contentious objects in the forum of public debate.
Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have remained highly controversial and contentious objects in the forum of public debate.

From the public debut of nuclear weapons during the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, they were a highly controversial technology among the citizens of the United States. While it appears that most Americans in the postwar period believed that they had, as claimed by the government, hastened the end of the war with Japan, even at that early period there were questions about the ethics of their use. In the immediate postwar period, much of the public debate was on the question of whether or not the U.S. should attempt to have a monopoly on the weapons — potentially encouraging a nuclear arms race — or whether or not it should relinquish them to an intergovernmental body (such as the newly created United Nations) or contribute to some other form of international control or information dispersal. According to the historian of science Spencer Weart, it was not until the development of multi-megaton hydrogen bombs in the 1950s that a belief that nuclear weapons could potentially end all life on the planet (especially through means of nuclear fallout, highlighted by the "Castle Bravo" accident) became common in American thought or cultural expression. For the most part, however, the vast majority of American citizens believed during this time that nuclear weapons were necessary in order to ward off the apparent threat from the Soviet Union. Source: http://www. ... Source: http://www. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ...

The now-familiar peace symbol was developed (in the United Kingdom) as the logo for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, and was taken up enthusiastically by anti-nuclear protesters in the U.S. during the 1960s.
The now-familiar peace symbol was developed (in the United Kingdom) as the logo for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, and was taken up enthusiastically by anti-nuclear protesters in the U.S. during the 1960s.

During the 1960s, following the rise of political activism in the civil rights movement, the controversy over the Vietnam War, and the beginnings of the environmentalism movement, public anxiety related to nuclear weapons began to rise to the point of direct protest. While there is little evidence that these sentiments were felt or expressed by any more than a minority of the U.S. population, their expression became increasingly amplified, especially in relation to the health hazards of nuclear testing. After the cessation of American atmospheric nuclear testing, however, the sentiment against nuclear weapons in general lost much of its momentum. During the period of détente in the 1970s, marked by weapons reduction and restriction treaties between the U.S. and the USSR, much of the anxiety over nuclear weapons in the populace and activists was transferred towards protesting civilian nuclear power plants, according to Spencer Weart's analysis. Image File history File links Peace_symbol. ... Image File history File links Peace_symbol. ... Peace sign ------redirects here. ... CND redirects here. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


During the presidency of Ronald Reagan in the 1980s, public anti-nuclear weapons sentiment reached its highest point, spurred by the administration's strong anti-Soviet rhetoric, Strategic Defense Initiative, and apparent reinvigoration of the arms race. Again, however, the majority of the American populace generally felt the weapons were required for U.S. national security, even though they increasingly became the flashpoints of political controversies and concern. Anti-nuclear activists shifted to a strategy of describing in detail the results of a potential nuclear attack on the United States, and a number of prominent anti-nuclear films were developed during this period, typified by the controversial The Day After in 1983. Reagan redirects here. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... This article is about the 1983 TV movie about nuclear war. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


With the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the cessation of the arms race, U.S. public attitudes towards nuclear weapons became less polarized on the whole. Following the 9/11 attacks of 2001, however, concerns over whether the U.S. should develop new weapons have reinvigorated some of the older debates over their practicality, morality, and danger. The debate over the ethical implications of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, begun in private amongst scientists and statesmen during the war, has continued to this day, in the general public as well as amongst historians, military experts, and other scholars. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Accidents

The Castle Bravo fallout plume spread dangerous levels of radioactive material over an area over 100 miles long, including inhabited islands, in the largest single U.S. nuclear accident.
The Castle Bravo fallout plume spread dangerous levels of radioactive material over an area over 100 miles long, including inhabited islands, in the largest single U.S. nuclear accident.

The United States nuclear program has, since its inception, suffered from a number of accidents of varying forms, ranging from single-casualty research experiments (such as that of Louis Slotin during the Manhattan Project), to the nuclear fallout dispersion of the "Castle Bravo" shot in 1954, to the accidental dropping of nuclear weapons from aircraft ("broken arrows"). How close any of these accidents came to being "major" nuclear disasters is a matter of technical and scholarly debate and interpretation. This article is about radiation accidents in general. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (928x422, 23 KB) Image of nuclear fallout dispersal from the Castle Bravo nuclear test, 28 Feb 1954. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (928x422, 23 KB) Image of nuclear fallout dispersal from the Castle Bravo nuclear test, 28 Feb 1954. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... A sketch used by doctors to determine the amount of radiation to which each person in the room had been exposed during the excursion. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... The United States military uses a number of terms to define the magnitude and extent of nuclear incidents. ...


Weapons accidentally dropped by the United States include incidents near Atlantic City, New Jersey (1957), Savannah, Georgia (1958) (see Tybee Bomb), Goldsboro, North Carolina (1961), off the coast of Okinawa (1965), in the sea near Palomares, Spain (1966, see Palomares hydrogen bombs incident), and near Thule, Greenland (1968). In some of these cases (such as Palomares), the explosive system of the fission weapon discharged, but did not trigger a nuclear chain reaction (safety features prevent this from easily happening), but did disperse hazardous nuclear materials across wide areas, necessitating expensive cleanup endeavors. Eleven American nuclear warheads are thought to be lost and unrecovered, primarily in submarine accidents. Atlantic City redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Mark 15 bomb The Tybee Bomb is a 7,600 pound (3,500 kg) Mark 15, Mod 0 hydrogen bomb that was lost in the waters off Savannah, Georgia on February 5, 1958. ... Location in North Carolina Coordinates: , Founded / Incorporated 1787 / 1847 Government  - Mayor Alfonzo Al King Area  - City 64. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... B28RI nuclear bomb was recovered from 2,850 feet (869 m) of water and lifted aboard the USS Petrel. ... Map of Greenland Qaanaaq (roughly pronounced KAH-nahk), formerly Thule, is a town and municipality in northwestern Greenland. ... A schematic nuclear fission chain reaction. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


The nuclear testing program resulted in a number of cases of fallout dispersion onto populated areas. The most significant of these was the aforementioned Castle Bravo test, which spread radioactive ash over an area of over one hundred miles, including a number of populated islands. The populations of the islands were evacuated but not before suffering radiation burns. They would later suffer long-term effects, such as birth defects and increased cancer risk. There were also instances during the nuclear testing program in which soldiers were exposed to overly high levels of radiation, which grew into a major scandal in the 1970s and 1980s, as many soldiers later suffered from what were claimed to be diseases caused by their exposures. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Many of the former nuclear facilities (see next section) produced significant environmental damages during their years of activity, and since the 1990s have been Superfund sites of cleanup and environmental remediation. The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990 allows for U.S. citizens exposed to radiation or other health risks through the U.S. nuclear program to file for compensation and damages. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... The United States Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) is a federal statute providing for the monetary compensation of people who contracted cancer and a number of other specified diseases as a direct result of their exposure to atmospheric nuclear testing undertaken by the United States during the Cold War, or... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Development agencies

The United States Atomic Energy Commission (1946-1974) managed the U.S. nuclear program after the Manhattan Project.
The United States Atomic Energy Commission (1946-1974) managed the U.S. nuclear program after the Manhattan Project.

The initial U.S. nuclear program was run by the National Bureau of Standards starting in 1939 under the edict of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Its primary purpose was to delegate research and dispense of funds. In 1940 the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was established, coordinating work under the Committee on Uranium among its other wartime efforts. In June 1941, the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was established, with the NDRC as one of its subordinate agencies, which enlarged and renamed the Uranium Committee as the Section on Uranium. In 1941, NDRC research was placed under direct control of Vannevar Bush as the OSRD S-1 Section, which attempted to increase the pace of weapons research. In June 1942, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers took over the project to develop atomic weapons, while the OSRD retained responsibility for scientific research.[4] Image File history File links Logo of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (1946-1974). ... Image File history File links Logo of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (1946-1974). ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... NIST logo The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards) is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In June of 1940, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... In June of 1941, the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) superseded the committee structure [of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC)]. The OSRD projects gave the United States and Allied troops more powerful and more accurate bombs, more reliable detonators, lighter and more accurate weapons, safer and more... The S-1 Uranium Committee was a Committee of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) that superceded the Briggs Advisory Committee on Uranium and later grew into the Manhattan Project. ... Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is a federal agency made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...


This was the beginning of the Manhattan Project, run as the Manhattan Engineering District (MED), an agency under military control which was in charge of developing the first atomic weapons. After World War II, the MED maintained control over the U.S. arsenal and production facilities and coordinated the Operation Crossroads tests. In 1946, after a long and protracted debate, the Atomic Energy Act was passed, creating the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) as a civilian agency which would be in charge of the production of nuclear weapons and research facilities, funded through Congress, with oversight provided by the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. The AEC was given vast powers of control over secrecy, research, and money, and could seize lands with suspected uranium deposits. Along with its duties towards the production and regulation of nuclear weapons, it additionally was in charge of stimulating development in civilian nuclear power while also regulating its safety uses. The full transference of activities was finalized in January 1947.[5] This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A 23 kiloton dropped nuclear weapon, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Able) A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Truman signs the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1975, following the "energy crisis" of the early 1970s and public and congressional discontent with the AEC (in part because of the impossibility to be both a producer and a regulator), it was disassembled into component parts as the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), which assumed most of the AEC's former production, coordination, and research roles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which assumed its civilian regulation activities.[6] Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... NRC headquarters in Rockville, MD. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or NRC) is a United States government agency that was established by the Energy Reorganization Act in 1974, and was first opened January 19, 1975. ...

The Department of Energy is currently responsible for weapons development and maintenance.
The Department of Energy is currently responsible for weapons development and maintenance.

ERDA was short-lived, however, and in 1977 the U.S. nuclear weapons activities were reorganized under the Department of Energy [7], which currently maintains such responsibilities through the semi-autonamous National Nuclear Security Administration today.[8] Some functions have also been taken over or shared by the Department of Homeland Security in 2002. The already-built weapons themselves are in the control of the Strategic Command, which is part of the Department of Defense. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is part of the United States Department of Energy. ... DHS redirects here. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) is one of the nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Department of Defense. ... Department of Defense redirects here. ...


In general, these agencies served to coordinate research and build sites. They generally operated their sites through contractors, however, both private and public (for example, Union Carbide, a private company, ran Oak Ridge National Laboratory for many decades; the University of California, a public educational institution, has run the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore laboratories since their inception, and will joint-manage Los Alamos with the private company Bechtel as of its next contract). Funding was received both through these agencies directly, but also from additional outside agencies, such as the Department of Defense. Each branch of the military also maintained its own nuclear-related research agencies (generally related to delivery systems). Union Carbide Corporation (Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, and currently has more than 3,800 employees. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 9th-largest privately owned company in the U.S. With headquarters in San Francisco, Bechtel had 40,000 employees as of 2006 working on projects in nearly 50 countries with $20. ...


Weapons production complex

This table is not comprehensive, as numerous facilities throughout the United States have contributed to its nuclear weapons program. It includes the major sites related primarily to the U.S. weapons program (past and present), their basic site functions, and their current status of activity. Not listed are the many bases and facilities at which nuclear weapons have been deployed. In addition to deploying weapons on its own soil, during the Cold War the United States also stationed nuclear weapons in 27 foreign countries and territories, including Japan, Greenland, Germany, Taiwan, and Morocco.[9] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Site name Location Function Status
Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico Research and design Active
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California Research and design Active
Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico Research and design Active
Hanford Site Richland, Washington Material production (Plutonium) Not active, environmental remediation
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee Material production (Uranium-235, fusion fuel), research Active to some extent
Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee Component fabrication, stockpile stewardship, uranium storage Active
Nevada Test Site Near Las Vegas, Nevada Nuclear testing and nuclear waste disposal No nuclear tests since 1992, engaged in waste disposal
Yucca Mountain Nevada Test Site Waste disposal Active/pending
Pacific Proving Grounds Marshall Islands Nuclear testing Not active, last test in 1962
Rocky Flats Plant Near Denver, Colorado Components fabrication Not active, environmental remediation
Pantex Amarillo, Texas Weapons assembly, disassembly, pit storage Active, esp. disassembly
Paducah Plant Paducah, Kentucky Material production (Uranium-235) Active (commercial use)
Fernald Site Near Cincinnati, Ohio Material fabrication (Uranium-235) Not active, environmental remediation
Kansas City Plant Kansas City, Missouri Component production Active
Mound Plant Miamisburg, Ohio Research, component production, Tritium purification Not active, environmental remediation
Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Near Portsmouth, Ohio Material fabrication (Uranium-235) Active, but not for weapons production
Pinellas Plant Largo, Florida Manufacture of electrical components Active, but not for weapons production
Savannah River Site Near Aiken, South Carolina Material production (Plutonium, Tritium) Active (limited operation), environmental remediation
Map of major nuclear sites in the contiguous U.S. Grayed-out sites are not currently active.

Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Los Alamos is an unincorporated townsite in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... Livermore is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ... Livermore is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... “Albuquerque” redirects here. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... Richland Police Station in foreground. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... Y-12 National Security Complex Operated by BWX Technologies Y‑12 for the National Nuclear Security Administration, Y‑12 plays a vital role in the U.S. Department of Energys Nuclear Weapons Complex. ... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... Yucca Mountain Yucca Mountain is a ridge line in Nye County, in the south-central part of the U.S. state of Nevada. ... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... The United States began using the Marshall Islands as a nuclear testing site beginning in 1946. ... The Rocky Flats Plant was a weapons production facility of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) that operated from 1952 to 1988. ... Denver redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... The Pantex plant, located 17 miles northeast of Amarillo, Texas, in Carson County, Texas, is charged with maintaining the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons stockpile. ... Amarillo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Paducah is a city in McCracken County, Kentucky at the confluence of the Tennessee River and the Ohio River. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center (commonly referred to simply as Fernald) was a uranium processing facility located near the rural town of Fernald, in Hamilton County, Ohio, about 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati, which fabricated uranium fuel cores for the U.S. nuclear weapons production complex from 1951 to... Cincinnati redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... The Kansas City Plant is National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) facility managed and operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Nickname: Motto: Ohios Star City Country United States State Ohio County Montgomery Founded 1797 Incorporated 1818 Government  - Mayor Dick Church, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Tritium (symbol T or ³H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... -1... Portsmouth is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Scioto County. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... Largo is the third largest city in Pinellas County, Florida, USA and is part of the Tampa Bay Area. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The Savannah River Site is a nuclear materials processing center in the US state of South Carolina, located on land adjacent to the Savannah River near Augusta, Georgia. ... Aiken is a city in Aiken County, South Carolina and is part of the CSRA. The population was 25,337 at the 2000 census. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the radioactive element. ... Tritium (symbol T or ³H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... Image File history File links US_nuclear_sites_map. ...

Proliferation

Main article: Nuclear proliferation

Early on in the development of its nuclear weapons, the United States relied in part on information-sharing with both the United Kingdom and Canada, as codified in the Quebec Agreement of 1943. These three parties agreed not to share nuclear weapons information with other countries without the consent of the others, an early attempt at nonproliferation. After the development of the first nuclear weapons during World War II, though, there was much debate within the political circles and public sphere of the United States about whether or not the country should attempt to maintain a monopoly on nuclear technology, or whether it should undertake a program of information sharing with other nations (especially its former ally and likely competitor, the Soviet Union), or submit control of its weapons to some sort of international organization (such as the United Nations) who would use them to attempt to maintain world peace. Though fear of a nuclear arms race spurred many politicians and scientists to advocate some degree of international control or sharing of nuclear weapons and information, many politicians and members of the military believed that it was better in the short term to maintain high standards of nuclear secrecy and to forestall a Soviet bomb as long as possible (and they did not believe the USSR would actually submit to international controls in good faith). World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... The Quebec Agreement was an Anglo-Canadian-American document which outlined the terms of nuclear nonproliferation between the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the economic term. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... World peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... Secrecy is the practice of sharing information among a group of people, which can be as small as one person, while hiding it from others. ...

The Atoms for Peace program distributed nuclear technology, materials, and know-how to many less technologically advanced countries.
The Atoms for Peace program distributed nuclear technology, materials, and know-how to many less technologically advanced countries.

Since this path was chosen, the United States was, in its early days, essentially an advocate for the prevention of nuclear proliferation, though primarily for the reason originally of self-preservation. A few years after the USSR detonated its first weapon in 1949, though, the U.S. under President Dwight D. Eisenhower sought to encourage a program of sharing nuclear information related to civilian nuclear power and nuclear physics in general. The Atoms for Peace program, begun in 1953, was also in part political: the U.S. was better poised to commit various scarce resources, such as enriched uranium, towards this peaceful effort, and to request a similar contribution from the Soviet Union, who had far fewer resources along these lines; thus the program had a strategic justification as well, as was later revealed by internal memos. This overall goal of promoting civilian use of nuclear energy in other countries, while also preventing weapons dissemination, has been labeled by many critics as contradictory and having led to lax standards for a number of decades which allowed a number of other nations, such as India, to profit from dual-use technology (purchased from other nations other than the U.S.). Image File history File links Atoms for Peace U.S. postage stamp, from 1955. ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Dual-use is a term often used in politics and diplomacy to refer to technology which can be used for both peaceful and military aims, usually in regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. ...


The United States is one of the five "nuclear weapons states" permitted to maintain a nuclear arsenal under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, of which it was an original signatory on July 1, 1968 (ratified March 5, 1970). Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Ukrainian workers use U.S. provided equipment to dismantle a Soviet-era nuclear missile silo.
Ukrainian workers use U.S. provided equipment to dismantle a Soviet-era nuclear missile silo.

The Cooperative Threat Reduction program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency was established after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 to aid former Soviet bloc countries in the inventory and destruction of their sites for developing nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, and their methods of delivering them (ICBM silos, long range bombers, etc.). Over $4.4 billion has been spent on this endeavor to prevent purposeful or accidental proliferation of weapons from the former Soviet arsenal.[9] Image File history File links Original caption: Ukrainian workers use a U.S. provided equipment to eliminate a portion of a SS-24 silo at Pervomaysk, Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Original caption: Ukrainian workers use a U.S. provided equipment to eliminate a portion of a SS-24 silo at Pervomaysk, Ukraine. ... The Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program is a 1991 U.S. law sponsored by Senators Richard Lugar and Sam Nunn. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


After India and Pakistan tested nuclear weapons in 1998, President Bill Clinton imposed economic sanctions on the countries. In 1999, however, the sanctions against India were lifted; those against Pakistan were kept in place as a result of the military government which had taken over. Shortly after the September 11 attacks in 2001, President George W. Bush lifted the sanctions against Pakistan as well. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... This article is about the year. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


The U.S. government has officially taken a silent policy towards the nuclear weapons ambitions of the state of Israel, while being exceedingly vocal against proliferation of such weapons in the countries of Iran and North Korea, something which has been called hypocritical by many critics. The same critics point out the fact that not only is the United States sitting on the largest nuclear weapons stockpile in the world, but it is also violating its own non-proliferation treaties in the pursuit of so-called "nuclear bunker busters". The 2003 invasion of Iraq by the U.S. was done, in part, on accusations of weapons development, and the Bush administration has said that its policies on proliferation were responsible for the Libyan government's agreement to abandon its nuclear ambitions.[10] Subsidence craters left over after underground nuclear (test) explosions Bunker-busting nuclear weapons, also known as earth-penetrating weapons (EPW), are a type of nuclear weapon designed to penetrate into soil, rock, or concrete to deliver a nuclear warhead to a target. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The Presidency of George W. Bush, also known as the George W. Bush Administration, began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America. ...


Current status

The LGM-118A Peacekeeper missile was phased out of the U.S. arsenal in 2005.
The LGM-118A Peacekeeper missile was phased out of the U.S. arsenal in 2005.
U.S. nuclear warhead stockpile, 1945-2002. Under the 2002 SORT treaty, the U.S. will reduce its stockpile to 2,220 operationally deployed warheads by 2012.
U.S. nuclear warhead stockpile, 1945-2002. Under the 2002 SORT treaty, the U.S. will reduce its stockpile to 2,220 operationally deployed warheads by 2012.

The United States is one of the five recognized nuclear powers under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. It maintains a current arsenal of around 9,960 intact warheads, of which 5,735 are considered active or operational, and of these only a certain number are deployed at any given time. These break down into 5,021 "strategic" warheads, 1,050 of which are deployed on land-based missile systems (all on Minuteman ICBMs), 1,955 on bombers (B-52 and B-2), and 2,016 on submarines (Ohio class), according to a 2006 report by the Natural Resources Defense Council.[10] Of 500 "tactical""nonstrategic" weapons, around 100 are Tomahawk cruise missiles and 400 are B61 bombs. A few hundred of the B61 bombs are located at seven bases in six European NATO countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey and the United Kingdom), the only such weapons in forward deployment.[11][12] Download high resolution version (800x1183, 236 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (800x1183, 236 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The LGM-118A Peacekeeper, initially known as the MX missile, was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links US_nuclear_warheads_1945-2002_graph. ... Image File history File links US_nuclear_warheads_1945-2002_graph. ... The Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), better known as the Moscow Treaty, is a 2002 treaty between Russia and the United States limiting their nuclear arsenal to 1700-2200 operationally deployed warheads each. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) (the other type is the LG-118A Peacekeeper, which is to be phased out by 2005). ... “B-52” redirects here. ... The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a multi-role stealth heavy bomber, capable of deploying both conventional and nuclear weapons. ... The United States has 18 Ohio class submarines: 14 nuclear-powered SSBNs, each armed with 24 Trident II SLBMs; they are also known as Trident submarines, and provide the sea-based leg of the nuclear triad of the United States strategic deterrent forces 4 nuclear-powered SSGNs, each armed with... The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) [1] is a leftist, New York City-based, non-profit, non-partisan environmental advocacy group, with offices in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, and Los Angeles. ... American scientists examine a mockup of a W48 155-millimeter nuclear shell, a very small tactical nuclear weapon. ... The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. ... B61 bomb in various stages of assembly. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Around 4,225 warheads have been removed from deployment but have remained stockpiled as a "responsible reserve force" on inactive status. Under the May 2002 Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions, the U.S. pledged to reduce its stockpile to 2,200 operationally deployed warheads by 2012, and in June 2004 the Department of Energy announced that "almost half" of these warheads would be retired or dismantlement by then.[13] Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), better known as the Moscow Treaty, is a 2002 treaty between Russia and the United States limiting their nuclear arsenal to 1700-2200 operationally deployed warheads each. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ...


The future nuclear stockpile under SORT will be based on: The Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), better known as the Moscow Treaty, is a 2002 treaty between Russia and the United States limiting their nuclear arsenal to 1700-2200 operationally deployed warheads each. ...

  • 450 Minuteman III ICBM with 500 warheads. 400 with a single warhead and 50 with 2 MIRVs. There will be 200 W78 warheads and 300 W87 warheads.
  • 12 operational Ohio class Submarines with another 2 in overhaul. Each have 24 Trident II missiles with 4 MIRV warheads of the W76 and W88 warheads, that will be a total of 1152 warheads. There will be 384 W88 and 768 W76 warheads for submarines.
  • 94 B-52 and 21 B-2 strategic bombers with 540 warheads of the AGM-86 and B61 and B83. There will be 528 nuclear AGM-86B cruise Missiles with 300 active and 228 in reserve. Along with the 528 ALCM there will be 120 B61-7, 20 B61-11 and 100 B83 nuclear bombs for the bomber fleet.

The SORT treaty does not make the U.S. reduce its tactical nuclear arsenal so there will be 500-800 active tactical nuclear weapons. Also the weapons taken from active states do not have to be destroyed so there will be at least 2400 responsive reserve warheads. The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) (the other type is the LG-118A Peacekeeper, which is to be phased out by 2005). ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... W78 warheads are contained inside the MK12-A reentry vehicles of the LGM-30G Minuteman III. The W-78 thermonuclear warhead is the warhead used on most of the US LGM-30G Minuteman III ICBM, along with the Mk-12A reentry vehicle which carried the warhead. ... The Mk21 Re-entry Vehicles shown here for the LGM-118A Peacekeeper contain W87 warheads. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Trident missile is an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) which is armed with nuclear warheads and is launched from submarines (SSBNs), making it an SLBM. There are 14 active US Ohio class submarines and 4 UK Vanguard class submarines equipped with the two variants of Trident: the initial Trident-I... The W76 warhead and Mk-4 reentry vehicle (cutaway diagram) - Los Alamos National Labs image The W76 is a United States thermonuclear warhead. ... In 1999, information came out implying that in some U.S. designs, the primary (top) is prolate, while the secondary (bottom) is spherical. ... B-52 can refer to the following: The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber aircraft A hairstyle popular in the 1950s and 1960s, named after the aircraft A rock band, The B-52s, named after the hairstyle A cocktail This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a multi-role stealth heavy bomber, capable of deploying both conventional and nuclear weapons. ... The Boeing AGM-86B and AGM-86C ALCM are sub-sonic air-launched cruise missiles (ALCMs) operated by the United States Air Force. ... The B61 nuclear bomb is the the primary thermonuclear weapon in the U.S. Enduring Stockpile following the end of the Cold War. ... Missing image The B83 nuclear gravity bomb The B83 nuclear weapon is variable_yield gravity bomb developed by the United States. ... The Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), better known as the Moscow Treaty, is a 2002 treaty between Russia and the United States limiting their nuclear arsenal to 1700-2200 operationally deployed warheads each. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


A 2001 nuclear posture review published by the Bush administration called for a reduction in the amount of time needed to test a nuclear weapon, and for discussion on possible development in new nuclear weapons of a low-yield, "bunker-busting" design (the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator). Work on such a design had been banned by Congress in 1994, but the banning law was repealed in 2003 at the request of the Department of Defense. The Air Force Research Laboratory researched the concept, but the United States Congress canceled funding for the project in October 2005 at the National Nuclear Security Administration's request. According to Fred T. Jane's Information Group, the program may still continue under a new name. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Nuclear Posture Review 2002 Second review of US Nuclear Forces undertaken by the US Department of Defence. ... The Presidency of George W. Bush, also known as the George W. Bush Administration, began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America. ... Subsidence craters left over after underground nuclear (test) explosions Bunker-busting nuclear weapons, also known as earth-penetrating weapons (EPW), are a type of nuclear weapon designed to penetrate into soil, rock, or concrete to deliver a nuclear warhead to a target. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Department of Defense redirects here. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... The United States Air Force Research Laboratory with headquarters at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, was created in October 1997. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is part of the United States Department of Energy. ... John Fredrick Thomas Jane, usually known as Fred T. Jane (August 6, 1865–March 8, 1916) was the founder editor of reference books on warships (All the Worlds Fighting Ships) and aircraft (All the Worlds Air-ships). ... Janes Information Group (often referred to as Janes) was founded by John F.T. Jane in 1898. ...


In 2006, the Bush administration also proposed the Reliable Replacement Warhead program, which is now in the process of design and development, to develop an entirely-new family of nuclear ICBMs. The program, intend to produce a simple, reliable, long-lasting, and low-maintenance future nuclear force for the United States, has encountered opposition due to the obligations of the United States under Article VI of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (or NPT), which the United States has signed, ratified, and is bound by, and which obligates the five nuclear weapons states who are bound by it (of which the United States is such a state) to work in good faith towards nuclear disarmament. The Reliable Replacement Warhead is designed to replace the aging W76 warhead currently in a life-extension program. It will incorporate a well-tested and verified primary SKUA9 and a new fusion secondary. The device will be built much much more robustly than its predecessors and should require longer periods between service and replacement. It will use insensitive high explosives, which are virtually impossible to detonate without the right mechanism. The new insensitive explosives can hit a concrete wall at Mach 4 and still not detonate. The device will also use a heavy radiation case for reliability. Since this weapon will supposedly never be tested via detonation, as has every weapon presently in the US arsenal, some fear that either the weapon will not be reliable, or will require testing to confirm its reliability, breaking the moratorium that has been observed by the recognized nuclear powers (the recognized nuclear powers include the US, Russia, the UK, the PRC, and France; they do not include the generally-recognized but undeclared Israel, nor the declared but unrecognized India, Pakistan, and North Korea) and is disliked by several elements of the Bush Administration, who believe nuclear tests ought to be conducted routinely; indeed, the Reliable Replacement Warhead is seen as the first step in the implementation of the US nuclear weapons laboratories' plan, called "Complex 2030", to rebuild dismantled nuclear weapons infrastructure so as to ensure that nuclear weapon design continues to be a field of research in the US through the mid-point of the 21st century. The Reliable Replacement Warhead also known as RRW is a controversial new design American nuclear warhead and bomb family that its supporters claim will be simple and reliable and provide a long lasting, low maintenance future nuclear force for the United States. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


In 2005 the U.S. revised its declared nuclear political strategy, the Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations, to emphasize the possibility of the use of nuclear weapons preemptively against an adversary possessing WMDs or overwhelming conventional forces. Whether the SIOP has been revised accordingly is uncertain, but possible. The 2005 Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations is the current US doctrine on when and under which circumstances to use nuclear weapons. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Single Integrated Operational Plan (or SIOP) is a blueprint that tells how American nuclear weapons would be used in the event of war. ...


See also

Nuclear weapons
One of the first nuclear bombs.

History of nuclear weapons
Nuclear warfare
Nuclear arms race
Weapon design / testing
Effects of nuclear explosions
Delivery systems
Nuclear espionage
Proliferation / Arsenals The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... This article is about nuclear war as a form of actual warfare, including history. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... An American nuclear test. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... Nuclear espionage is the purposeful giving of state secrets regarding nuclear weapons to other states without authorization (espionage). ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of nuclear weapons ordered by state and then type within the states. ...

Nuclear-armed states

US · Russia · UK · France
PR China · India · Israel
Pakistan · North Korea
(South Africa) Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. ... The Peoples Republic of China is estimated to have an arsenal of about 400 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999, although this number is questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding nuclear weapons other than stating that China possesses the smallest nuclear arsenal amongst the five nuclear...

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The federal government of the United States is known to possess three types of weapons of mass destruction: nuclear weapons, chemical weapons and biological weapons. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... It has been suggested that national security strategy be merged into this article or section. ... United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) is one of the nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Department of Defense. ... Main article: Nuclear testing The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ... A nuclear-free zone is an area where nuclear weapons and/or nuclear power are banned. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Norris, Robert S., and Hans M. Kristensen, "The U.S. stockpile, today and tomorrow", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 63:5 (September/October 2007): 60-63, [1].
  2. ^ Natural Resources Defense Council, "Figure of US Nuclear Stockpile, 1945-2002", at http://www.nrdc.org/nuclear/nudb/dafig9.asp
  3. ^ "Radiation Exposure Compensation System Claims to Date Summary of Claims Received", updated regularly at http://www.usdoj.gov/civil/omp/omi/Tre_SysClaimsToDateSum.pdf
  4. ^ Brookings Institution, "50 Facts About Nuclear Weapons", at http://www.brook.edu/FP/PROJECTS/NUCWCOST/50.HTM
  5. ^ Norris, Robert S., and Hans M. Kristensen, "The U.S. stockpile, today and tomorrow", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 63:5 (September/October 2007): 60-63, [2].
  6. ^ Brookings Institution, "Estimated Minimum Incurred Costs of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Programs, 1940-1996", at http://www.brook.edu/fp/projects/nucwcost/figure1.htm
  7. ^ Brookings Institution, "50 Facts About Nuclear Weapons", at http://www.brook.edu/FP/PROJECTS/NUCWCOST/50.HTM
  8. ^ Carey Sublette, "Gallery of U.S. Nuclear Tests", online at http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Tests/
  9. ^ United States Secretly Deployed Nuclear Bombs In 27 Countries and Territories During Cold War. National Security Archive (1999-10-20). Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  10. ^ Robert S. Norris and Hans M. Kristensen (Jan/Feb 2006). "U.S. nuclear forces, 2006". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 62 (1): 68-71. Retrieved on 2006-08-09. 
  11. ^ United States Still Deploys Some 480 nuclear weapon in Europe, report finds. Natural Resources Defense Council (February 9, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  12. ^ United States Removes Nuclear Weapons From German Base, Documents Indicate. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  13. ^ Country Overview: United States: Profile. Nuclear Threat Initiative (May 2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-06.

This article is about the year. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Hacker, Barton C. Elements of Controversy: The Atomic Energy Commission and Radiation Safety in Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1947-1974. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1994. ISBN 0-520-08323-7
  • Hansen, Chuck. U.S. Nuclear Weapons: The Secret History. Arlington, TX: Aerofax, 1988. ISBN 0-517-56740-7
  • MacKenzie, Donald A. Inventing Accuracy: A Historical Sociology of Nuclear Missile Guidance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990. ISBN 0-262-13258-3
  • Schwartz, Stephen I. Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998. [11] ISBN 0-8157-7773-6
  • Weart, Spencer R. Nuclear Fear: A History of Images. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-674-62835-7
  • Biello,David."A Need for New Warheads?" Scientific American, November 2007

Donald A. MacKenzie is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. ...

External links


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