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Encyclopedia > Nuclear weapons and Israel
Israel
Nuclear program start date early 1950s
First nuclear weapon test possible September 22, 1979
First fusion weapon test Unknown
Last nuclear test Unknown
Largest yield test Unknown
Total tests Unknown
Peak stockpile Unknown
Current stockpile est. 75-200 warheads[1]
Maximum missile range Unknown
NPT signatory No
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Nuclear weapons

History of nuclear weapons
Nuclear warfare
Nuclear arms race
Weapon design / testing
Effects of nuclear explosions
Delivery systems
Nuclear espionage
Proliferation / Arsenals Image File history File links LocationIsrael. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... This article is about nuclear war as a form of actual warfare, including history. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... An American nuclear test. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... Nuclear espionage is the purposeful giving of state secrets regarding nuclear weapons to other states without authorization (espionage). ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of nuclear weapons ordered by state and then type within the states. ...

Nuclear-armed states

US · Russia · UK · France
PR China · India · Israel
Pakistan · North Korea
(South Africa) Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. ... The United States of America was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ... The Peoples Republic of China is estimated to have an arsenal of about 400 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999, although this number is questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding nuclear weapons other than stating that China possesses the smallest nuclear arsenal amongst the five nuclear...

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Israel is widely believed to be the sixth country in the world to develop nuclear weapons[2] and to be one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the others being India, Pakistan and North Korea.[3] International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Mohamed ElBaradei regards Israel as a state possessing nuclear weapons[4], but Israel maintains a policy known as "nuclear ambiguity" (also known as "nuclear opacity"). Israel has never officially admitted to having nuclear weapons, instead repeating over the years that it would not be the first country to "introduce" nuclear weapons to the Middle East, leaving ambiguous whether it means it will not create or will not use the weapons. Israel began investigating the nuclear field just one year after its 1948 founding and with French support secretly began building a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plant in the late 1950s. Although Israel first built a nuclear weapon in 1967-68 it was not publicly confirmed from the inside until Mordechai Vanunu, a former Israeli nuclear technician, revealed details of the program to the British press in 1986. Israel is currently believed to possess between 75 to 200 nuclear warheads with the ability to deliver them by ground, aircraft, and submarine.[1] Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... This is a list of states with nuclear weapons, sometimes called the nuclear club. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... Many nations may find it to their advantage to maintain a policy of deliberate ambiguity (also known as a policy of strategic ambiguity). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. ...

Contents

Development history

Pre-Dimona 1949-1956

Israel first showed interest in procuring nuclear materials in 1949, when a unit of the IDF Science Corps, known by the Hebrew acronym HEMED GIMMEL, carried out a two year geological survey of the Negev. While a preliminary study was initially prompted by rumors of oil fields, one objective of the longer two year survey was to find sources of uranium; some small recoverable amounts were found in phosphate deposits.[1] That same year, the Science Corps (HEMED) funded six Israeli physics graduate students to study overseas, including one to go to the University of Chicago and study under Enrico Fermi, who had overseen the world's first artificial and self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.[5] Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... :For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... A schematic nuclear fission chain reaction. ...


In early 1952 HEMED was moved from the IDF to the Ministry of Defense and was reorganized as the Division of Research and Infrastructure (EMET). That June, Ernst David Bergmann, the chief of research at the Defense Ministry and Prime Minister David Ben Gurion's scientific advisor, was appointed by Ben-Gurion to be the first chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC).[6] HEMED GIMMEL was renamed Machon 4 during the transfer, and was used by Bergmann as the "chief laboratory" of the IAEC; by 1953, Machon 4, working with the Department of Isotope Research at the Weizmann Institute, developed the capability to extract uranium from the phosphate in the Negev and new technique to produce indigenous heavy water.[1][7] Bergmann, who was interested in increasing nuclear cooperation with the French, sold both patents to the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA) for 60 million francs. Although they were never commercialized, it was a consequential step for future French-Israeli cooperation.[8] At the same time Israeli scientists were also observing France's own nuclear program, and were the only foreign scientists allowed to roam "at will" at the nuclear facility at Marcoule.[9] The Ministry of Defense (or Ministry of Defence) of the government of Israel, is the governmental department responsible for defending the State of Israel from internal and external military threats. ... Ernst David Bergmann (1903–1975) was an Israeli chemist and father of the Israeli nuclear program. ... ... The Koffler accelerator, one of the best-known buildings on campus. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... The Commissariat à l’énergie atomique or CEA, the Atomic Energy Commission, in English, is a French “public establishment of an industrial and commercial character” whose mission is to develop all applications of atomic energy, both civilian and military. ... France was the fourth country to test an independently developed nuclear weapon in 1960, under the government of Charles de Gaulle. ... Marcoule is located in the Chusclan and Codolet French communes, near Bagnols-sur-Cèze in the Gard department, which is in the touristic, wine and agricultural Côtes-du-Rhône region. ...


After US President Dwight Eisenhower announced the Atoms for Peace initiative Israel became the second country to sign on (following Turkey), and signed a peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement with the United States on July 12, 1955.[10] This culminated in a public signing ceremony on March 20, 1957 to construct a "small swimming-pool research reactor in Nachal Soreq," which would be used to shroud the construction of a much larger facility with the French at Dimona.[11] Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The Soreq Nuclear Research Center is a research and development institute located near the localities of Palmachim and Yavne in Israel. ...


Dimona 1956-1965

Institute 2, Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Dimona, photographed by Mordechai Vanunu The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, near the city of Dimona, at . ...

Negotiation

The French decision to help Israel build a nuclear reactor was not without precedent; in September 1955 Canada publicly announced that it would help the Indian government build a heavy-water research reactor for "peaceful purposes."[12] When Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, France asked Israel to cross the Sinai as part of a tripartite operation with Britain, and Shimon Peres, sensing the opportunity on the nuclear reactor, accepted. On September 17, 1956, Peres and Bergmann reached a tentative agreement in Paris for the CEA to sell Israel a small research reactor. This was reaffirmed by Peres at the Protocol of Sèvres conference in late October for the sale of a reactor to be built near Dimona and for a supply of uranium fuel.[13] After the Suez Crisis led to the threat of Soviet intervention and the British and French were being forced to withdraw under pressure from the US, PM Ben-Gurion sent Peres and Golda Meir to France. During their discussions the groundwork was laid for France to build a larger nuclear reactor and chemical reprocessing plant, and French Prime Minister Guy Mollet, ashamed at having abandoned his commitment to fellow socialists in Israel, supposedly told an aide, "I owe the bomb to them."[14] Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Protocol of Sèvres recorded the agreements reached between the governments of Great Britain, France and Israel during discussions held in Sèvres, France between 22nd and 24th October 1956, on a joint politico-military response to Egypts nationalisation of the Suez Canal. ... Hebrew דימונה Arabic ديمونة Founded in 1955 Government City District South Population 33,900 Jurisdiction 6,000 dunams (6 km²) Mayor Yitzhak Rochberger Dimona (‎) is an Israeli city in the Negev desert, 36 kilometers to the south of Beer-Sheva and 35 kilometers west of the Dead Sea above the Arabah valley... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Soviet redirects here. ... Golda Meir (‎, Arabic: , born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978, known as Golda Meyerson from 1917-1956) was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ... Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975) was a French Socialist politician. ...


This deal was finalized on October 3, 1957 in two agreements: one political that declared the project to be for peaceful purposes and specified other legal obligations, and one technical that described a 24 megawatt EL-102 reactor. The one to actually be built was to be two to three times as large[15] and be able to produce 22 kilograms of plutonium a year.[16] is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...

Image File history File links Kamag. ... Image File history File links Kamag. ... Institute 2, Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Dimona, photographed by Mordechai Vanunu The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, near the city of Dimona, at . ... Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. ...

Excavation

Before construction began it was determined that the scope of the project would be too large for the EMET and IAEC team, so Shimon Peres recruited Colonel Manes Pratt, then Israeli military attaché in Burma, to be the project leader. Building began in late 1957 or early 1958, bringing hundreds of French engineers and technicians to the Beersheba and Dimona area. In addition, thousands of newly immigrated Sephardic Jews were recruited to do digging; to avoid strict labor laws, they were hired in increments of 59 days, separated by one day off.[17] Beersheba (Hebrew: ‎, Beer Sheva, Arabic: , Bir as-Sabi) is the largest city in the Negev desert of Israel. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from...


Rupture with France

When Charles de Gaulle became French President in late 1958 he wanted to end French-Israeli nuclear cooperation, and said that he would not supply Israel with uranium unless the plant was opened to international inspectors, declared peaceful, and no plutonium was reprocessed.[18] Through an extended series of negotiations, Shimon Peres finally reached a compromise with Foreign Minister Maurice Couve de Murville over two years later, in which French companies would be able to continue to fulfill their contract obligations and Israel would declare the project peaceful.[19] In this way, French assistance did not end until 1966.[20] For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Maurice Couve de Murville Maurice Couve de Murville (January 24, 1907 - December 24, 1999) was a French Protestant politician, a supporter of Charles de Gaulle, under whom he served as Foreign Minister (1958-1968), Finance Minister (1968), and Prime Minister (1968-1969). ...


In 1959 Israel bought 20 tons of heavy water from Norway, and the nuclear reactor at Dimona went critical in 1962.[21] By 1965 the Israeli reprocessing plant was completed and ready to convert the reactor's fuel rods into weapons grade plutonium.[22] For other uses of critical mass, see critical mass (disambiguation). ...


Costs

The exact cost for the construction of the Israeli nuclear program are unknown, though Peres later said that the reactor cost $80 million in 1960 dollars,[23] half of which was raised by foreign Jewish donors, including many American Jews. Some of these donors were given a tour of the Dimona complex in 1968.[24] History See main article: History of the Jews in the United States Though Jews arrived in the United States are early as the 17th century, Jewish immigration grew in the 19th century. ...


Weapons production 1967-present

Completed Dimona complex as seen by US Corona satellite on November 11, 1968.

Israel is believed to have begun full scale production of nuclear weapons following the 1967 Six-Day War, although it may have had bomb parts earlier. A CIA report from early 1967 stated that Israel had the materials to construct a bomb in six to eight weeks[25] and some authors suggest that Israel had two crude bombs ready for use during the war.[21] According to American journalist Seymour Hersh, everything was ready for production at this time save an official order to do so. Moshe Dayan, then Defense Minister, convinced the Labor Party's economic boss Pinchas Sapir of the value of commencing the program by giving him a tour of the Dimona site in early 1968, and soon after Dayan decided that he had the authority to order the start of full production of 4 to 5 nuclear warheads a year. Hersh stated that it is widely believed that the words "Never Again" were welded, in English and Hebrew, onto the first warhead.[26] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... KH-4B Corona satellite Recovery of Discoverer 14 return capsule (typical for the Corona series Diagram of J-1 type stereo / panoramic reciprocating Corona reconnaissance satellite camera system used on KH-4A missions from 1963 to 1969. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Seymour Myron Sy Hersh (born April 8, 1937 Chicago) is an American Pulitzer Prize winning investigative journalist and author based in Washington, DC. He is a regular contributor to The New Yorker magazine on military and security matters. ... Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Pinchas Sapir (‎, born Pinchas Kozlowski on 15 October 1906, died 12 August 1975) was an Israeli politician during the first three decades following the countrys founding. ... Never Again is the only album released by the TexAns. ...


In order to produce plutonium the Israelis needed a large supply of uranium ore, some of which was procured by the Mossad on the pretense of buying it for an Italian chemical company in Milan. Once the uranium was shipped from Antwerp it was transferred to an Israeli freighter at sea and brought to Israel. The orchestrated disappearance of the uranium, named Operation Plumbat, became the subject of the 1978 book The Plumbat Affair.[27] For the band, see Pitchblende (band). ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... The Plumbat Operation (1968) was an alleged operation by Lekem-Mossad that was undertaken in support of the Israeli nuclear weapons effort. ...

Mordechai Vanunu's photograph of a Negev Nuclear Research Center glove box containing nuclear materials in a model bomb assembly, one of about 60 photographs he later gave to the British press.

Estimates as to how many warheads Israel has built since the late 1960s have varied, mainly based on the amount of fissile material that could have been produced and on the revelations of Israeli nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu. The CIA believed that the number of Israeli nuclear weapons stayed from 10 to 20 from 1974 through the early 1980s.[1] Vanunu's information in October 1986 said that based on a reactor operating at 150 megawatts and a production of 40 kg of plutonium per year, Israel had 100 to 200 nuclear devices. Furthermore, Vanunu revealed that between 1980-1986 Israel attained the ability to build thermonuclear weapons.[28] By the mid 2000s estimates of Israel's arsenal ranged from 75 to 200 nuclear warheads.[1] Image File history File links Vanunu-glove-box-bomb-components. ... Image File history File links Vanunu-glove-box-bomb-components. ... Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. ... Institute 2, Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Dimona, photographed by Mordechai Vanunu The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, near the city of Dimona, at . ... Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


Several reports have surfaced claiming that Israel has some uranium enrichment capability at Dimona. Vanunu asserted that gas centrifuges were operating in Machon 8, and that a laser enrichment plant was being operated in Machon 9 (Israel holds a 1973 patent on laser isotope separation). According to Vanunu, the production-scale plant has been operating since 1979-80. The scale of a centrifuge operation would necessarily be limited due to space constraints[specify]. Laser isotope separation, however, if developed to operational status, could be quite compact. If highly enriched uranium is being produced in substantial quantities, then Israel's nuclear arsenal could be much larger than estimated solely from plutonium production.[29] Uranium enrichment could also be used to re-enrich reprocessed uranium into reactor fuel to more efficiently use Israel's uranium supply. Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... A cascade of gas centrifuges at a United States enrichment plant. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... Reprocessed uranium (RepU) is the uranium recovered from nuclear fuel reprocessing. ...


In 1991 alone, nearly 20 top Soviet scientists reportedly emigrated to Israel, some of whom were involved in operating nuclear power plants and planning for the next generation of Russian reactors. In September 1992, German intelligence was quoted in the press as estimating that 40 Soviet nuclear scientists had emigrated to Israel since 1989.[30]


Nuclear testing

On November 2, 1966 Israel may have carried out a non-nuclear test, speculated to be zero yield or implosion in nature.[1] The only suspected nuclear test conducted by Israel has become known as the Vela Incident. On September 22, 1979, a US Vela satellite, built in the 1960s to detect nuclear tests, reported a flash resembling a nuclear detonation in the southern Indian Ocean. In response the Carter administration set up a panel led by MIT professor Jack Ruina to analyze the reliability of the Vela detection; they concluded in July 1980 that the flash "was probably not from a nuclear explosion," although the original intelligence community estimate was that it was 90% likely to be a nuclear test and a secret study by the Nuclear Intelligence Panel agreed with that initial finding.[31] According to journalist Seymour Hersh, the detection was actually the third joint Israeli-South African nuclear test in the Indian Ocean, and the Israelis had sent two IDF ships and "a contingent of Israeli military men and nuclear experts" for the test.[32] is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Orthographic projection centered on the Prince Edward Islands, the location of the Vela incident The Vela Incident (sometimes known as the South Atlantic Flash) was an as-yet unidentified flash of light detected by a United States Vela satellite on September 22, 1979. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Vela was the name of a group of satellites developed as the Vela Hotel element of Project Vela by the United States to monitor compliance with the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty by the Soviet Union, and other nuclear-capable states. ... A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James Earl... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ...


Revelations

Dimona

The Israeli nuclear program was first revealed publicly on December 13, 1960 in a small Time article,[33] which said that a non-Communist non-NATO country had made an "atomic development." On December 16 the Daily Express revealed this country to be Israel, and on December 18 US Atomic Energy Commission chairman John McCone appeared on Meet the Press to officially confirm the Israeli construction of a nuclear reactor and announce his resignation.[34] The following day The New York Times, with the help of McCone, revealed that France was assisting Israel.[35] is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Daily Express (disambiguation). ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... John Alexander McCone (January 4, 1902 - February 14, 1991) was an American businessman and politician who served as Director of Central Intelligence during the height of the Cold War. ... Meet the Press (MTP) is a weekly television news show produced by NBC. It started as a radio show in 1945 as American Mercury Presents: Meet the Press, originating from WRC-AM in Washington. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


This flurry of media reporting led Ben-Gurion to make the only statement ever by an Israeli Prime Minister about Dimona. On December 21 he announced in front of the Knesset that they were building a 24 megawatt reactor "which will serve the needs of industry, agriculture, health, and science," and that it "is designed exclusively for peaceful purposes."[36] is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ...


Weapons production

The first public revelation of Israel's nuclear capability (as opposed to development program) came from NBC News, which reported in January 1969 that Israel decided "to embark on a crash course program to produce a nuclear weapon" two years previously, and that they possessed or would soon be in possession of such a device.[37] This was initially dismissed by Israeli and US officials, as well as in an article in The New York Times. Just one year later on July 18, The New York Times made public for the first time that the US government believed Israel to possess nuclear weapons or to have the "capacity to assemble atomic bombs on short notice."[38] NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first extensive details of the weapons program came in the London based Sunday Times on October 5, 1986, which printed information provided by Mordechai Vanunu, a technician formerly employed at the Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona. For publication of state secrets Vanunu was captured by the Mossad in Rome, brought back to Israel, and sentenced to 18 years in prison for treason and espionage. Although there had been much speculation prior to Vanunu's revelations that the Dimona site was creating nuclear weapons, Vanunu's information indicated that Israel had also built thermonuclear weapons.[28] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. ... Institute 2, Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Dimona, photographed by Mordechai Vanunu The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, near the city of Dimona, at . ... Hebrew דימונה Arabic ديمونة Founded in 1955 Government City District South Population 33,900 Jurisdiction 6,000 dunams (6 km²) Mayor Yitzhak Rochberger Dimona (‎) is an Israeli city in the Negev desert, 36 kilometers to the south of Beer-Sheva and 35 kilometers west of the Dead Sea above the Arabah valley... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


Stockpile

The State of Israel has never made public any details of its nuclear capability or arsenal. The following is a history of estimates by many different reputable sources on the size and strength of Israel's nuclear arsenal.

  • 1969- 5-6 bombs of 19 kilotons yield each[41]
  • 1974- 3 capable artillery battalions each with 12 175 mm tubes and a total of 108 warheads;[44] 10 bombs[45]
  • 1976- 10-20 nuclear weapons[46]
  • 1980- 200 bombs[47]
  • 1984- 12-31 atomic bombs;[48] 31 plutonium bombs and 10 uranium bombs[49]
  • 1985- at least 100 nuclear bombs[50]
  • 1986- 100 to 200 fission bombs and a number of fusion bombs[51]
  • 1991- 50-60 to 200-300[52]
  • 1992- more than 200 bombs[53]
  • 1994- 64-112 bombs (5 kg/warhead);[54] 50 nuclear tipped Jericho missiles, 200 total[55]
  • 1995- 66-116 bombs (at 5 kg/warhead)[56]; 70-80 bombs[57]; "A complete Repertoire" (neutron bombs, nuclear mines, suitcase bombs, submarine-bourne)[58]
  • 1996- 60-80 plutonium weapons, maybe more than 100 assembled, ER variants, varitable yields[59]
  • 1997- More than 400 deliverable thermonuclear and nuclear weapons (an intentionally high estimate)[60]
  • 2002– Between 75 and 200 weapons[61]

The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... A suitcase bomb is a bomb which uses a suitcase as its delivery method. ... A neutron bomb is a type of tactical nuclear weapon developed specifically to release a relatively large portion of its energy as energetic neutron radiation. ...

Delivery systems

Israeli military forces possess land, air, and sea based methods for deploying their nuclear weapons, thus forming a rudimentary nuclear triad, although it should be noted that the Israeli triad is mainly short to medium ranged, the backbone of which is submarine launched cruise missiles and medium ranged ballistic missiles, with Israeli Air Force tactical aircraft fulfilling the role normally played by strategic bombers in the Russian and American strategic deterrent. [62] In nuclear strategy, the nuclear triad refers to the three tiers of a countrys nuclear arsenal, comprising strategic bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), and ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). ... A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... Polish missile wz. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ...


Missiles

Main article: Jericho missile

Ernst David Bergmann was the first to seriously began thinking about a ballistic missile capability and Israel test-fired its first Shavit II missile in July 1961.[63] It was not until 1963 when Israel actually put a large-scale project into motion, spending $100 million to jointly develop and build 25 medium-range missiles with the French aerospace company Dassault. The Israeli project, codenamed Project 700, also included the construction of a missile field at Hirbat Zacharia, a site west of Jerusalem.[64] The missiles that were first developed with France became the Jericho I system, first operational in 1971; they were updated to Jericho II in the mid 1980s and Jericho III in the mid 2000s. Jericho is a general designation given to the Israeli medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBM). ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... Shavit (Hebrew: comet) is a launch vehicle produced by Israel. ... A Medium Range Ballistic Missile, commonly abreviated to MRBM, is a type of ballistic missile with a range between 1500 and 2000 km. ... Dassault-Breguet/Dornier Alpha Jet of the UK defence technology organisation QinetiQ Dassault Aviation is a French aircraft manufacturer of military, regional and business jets. ... Sedot Mikha Airbase is an airfield of the Israeli Air Force located near Zekharyah, south of Tel-Aviv. ...


Aircraft

Lockheed/BAE/Northrop F-35 Lockheed Trident missile C-130 Hercules; in production since the 1950s, now as the C-130J Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is an aerospace manufacturer formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... DC-10, retired from American Airlines fleet at gate McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... F-15 redirects here. ...

Marine

In 2003 it was reported that Israel's three Dolphin class submarines were armed with US Harpoon missiles and tipped with nuclear warheads,[65] giving Israel a secure second strike capability.[66] The Dolphin class is a non-nuclear (SSK) type of submarine developed and constructed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW), Germany for the Israeli Navy. ... The Harpoon is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system, originally developed by McDonnell Douglas of the United States, with development and manufacturing now taken over by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. ... In nuclear strategy, second strike capability is a countrys assured ability to respond to a nuclear attack with powerful nuclear retalliation against the attacker. ...


Other

Seymour Hersh reports that Israel developed the ability to miniaturize warheads small enough to fit in a suitcase by the year 1973.[67] A suitcase bomb is a bomb which uses a suitcase as its delivery method. ...


Policy

Israel’s refusal to admit it has nuclear weapons or to state its policy on use of them make it necessary to gather details from other sources, including unauthorized statements by its political and military leaders.


Possession

Although Israel has officially acknowledged the existence of Dimona since Ben-Gurion's speech to the Knesset in December 1960, Israel has never officially acknowledged its construction or possession of nuclear weapons.[68] In addition to this policy, on May 18, 1966 Prime Minister Levi Eshkol told the Knesset that "Israel has no atomic weapons and will not be the first to introduce them into our region," a policy first articulated by Shimon Peres to US President John F. Kennedy in April 1963.[69] In the late 1960s, Israeli Ambassador to the US Yitzhak Rabin informed the United States State Department, that its understanding of "introducing" such weapons meant that they would be tested and publicly declared, while merely possessing the weapons did not constitute "introducing" them.[70][71] Avner Cohen defines this initial posture as "nuclear ambiguity," but he defines the stage after it became clear by 1970 that Israel possessed nuclear weapons as a policy of "nuclear opacity."[72] is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... ▶(?) (Hebrew לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל ) (Born Levi Skolnick) (Hebrew לֵוִי שְׁקוֹלְנִיק) (October 25, 1895 - February 26, 1969), was the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death of a heart attack in 1969. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


In a December 2006 interview, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert came close to breaking with Israel's policy of nuclear opacity, saying that Iran aspires "to have a nuclear weapon as America, France, Israel and Russia."[73] Olmert's office later said that the quote was taken out of context; in other parts of the interview, Olmert refused to confirm or deny Israel's nuclear weapon status.[74] The Prime Minister of Israel is the elected head of the Israeli government. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ...


Doctrine

Israel's nuclear doctrine is shaped by its lack of strategic depth: a subsonic fighter jet could cross in four minutes the 40 nautical miles (74 km) from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea. It additionally relies on a reservist-based military which magnifies civilian and military losses in its small population. Israel tries to compensate for these weaknesses by emphasising intelligence, manoeuverability and firepower.[75] The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ...


As a result, its strategy is based on the premise that it cannot afford to lose a single war, and thus must prevent them by maintaining deterrence, including the option of preemption. If these steps are insufficient, it seeks to prevent escalation and determine a quick and decisive war outside of its borders.[75] Preemptive war (or preemptive attack) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war. ...


Strategically, Israel's long-range missiles, nuclear capable aircraft, and possibly its submarines present an effective second strike deterrence against unconventional and conventional attack, and if Israel's defences fail and its population centres be threatened, the Samson Option, an all out attack against an adversary, would be employed. Its nuclear arsenal can also be used tactically.[75] In nuclear strategy, second strike capability is a countrys assured ability to respond to a nuclear attack with powerful nuclear retalliation against the attacker. ... The Samson Option is a term used to describe the strategies alleged to underlie Israels development of a nuclear arsenal. ...


Although nuclear weapons are viewed as the ultimate guarantor of Israeli security, as early as the 1960s the country has avoided building its military around them, instead pursuing absolute conventional superiority so as to forestall a last resort nuclear engagement.[75]


According to historian Avner Cohen, Israel first articulated an official policy on the use of nuclear weapons in 1966, which revolved around four "red lines" that could lead to a nuclear response:[76] Avner Cohen is writer, historian, and professor, and is well known for his works on nuclear weapons. ...

1. A successful Arab military penetration into populated areas within Israel's post-1949 (pre-1967) borders.
2. The destruction of the Israeli Air Force.
3. The exposure of Israeli cities to massive and devastating air attacks or to possible chemical or biological attacks.
4. The use of nuclear weapons against Israeli territory. Israels 1949 Green Line (dark green) and demilitarized zones (light green). ...

Use

On October 8, 1973 just after the start of the Yom Kippur War, Golda Meir and her closest aides decided to put eight nuclear armed F-4s at Tel Nof Airbase on 24 hour alert and as many nuclear missile launchers at Sedot Mikha Airbase operational as possible. Seymour Hersh adds that the initial target list that night "included the Egyptian and Syrian military headquarters near Cairo and Damascus."[77] This nuclear alert was meant not only as a means of precaution, but to push the Soviets to restrain the Arab offensive and to convince the Americans to begin sending supplies. One later report said that a Soviet intelligence officer did warn the Egyptian chief of staff, and colleagues of US National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger said that the threat of a nuclear exchange caused him to urge for a massive Israeli resupply.[78] Hersh points out that before Israel obtained its own satellite capability, it engaged in espionage against the United States to obtain nuclear targeting information on Soviet targets.[79] is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... Golda Meir (‎, Arabic: , born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978, known as Golda Meyerson from 1917-1956) was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ... “F-4” redirects here. ... Tel Nof Israeli Air Force Base (ICAO: LLEK) is one of three principle airbases of the Israeli Air Force and is located near Rekhovot, Israel. ... Sedot Mikha Airbase is an airfield of the Israeli Air Force located near Zekharyah, south of Tel-Aviv. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


Israeli military and nuclear doctrine increasingly focused on preemptive war against any possible attack with conventional, chemical, biological or nuclear weapons, or even a potential conventional attack on Israel's weapons of mass destruction.[21][80] Preemptive war (or preemptive attack) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war. ...


Louis René Beres, who contributed to Project Daniel, urges that Israel continue and improve these policies, in concert with the increasingly preemptive nuclear policies of the United States, as revealed in the Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations.[81] Louis René Beres is a professor of Political Science at Purdue University in West Lafayette, IN. He was born on August 31, 1945 in Zurich, Switzerland and earned a B.A. from Queens College and an M.A. and Ph. ... Project Daniel was a 2003 Israeli project, commissioned to assess the threat to the nation of Israel from other states in the Middle East, drawing particular attention to Iran, with Irans nuclear program in mind. ... The 2005 Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations is the current US doctrine on when and under which circumstances to use nuclear weapons. ...


After Iraq attacked Israel with Scud missiles during the 1991 First Gulf War, Israel went on full-scale nuclear alert and mobile nuclear missile launchers were deployed.[82] In the build up to the United States 2003 invasion of Iraq, there were concerns that an Iraq would launch an unconventional weapons attack on Israel. After discussions with President George W. Bush then Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon warned "If our citizens are attacked seriously - by a weapon of mass destruction, chemical, biological or by some mega-terror attack act - and suffer casualties, then Israel will respond." Israeli officials interpreted President Bush's stance as allowing a nuclear Israeli retaliation on Iraq, but only if Iraq struck before the American military invasion.[83] For other uses, see Scud (disambiguation). ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...


Maintaining a Nuclear Monopoly

Alone or with other nations, Israel has used diplomatic and military efforts as well as covert action to prevent other Middle Eastern countries from acquiring nuclear capabilities.[84]


On June 7, 1981, Israel launched a preemptive air strike against Saddam Hussein's breeder reactor in Osirak, Iraq, in Operation Opera. The Mossad is also said to have assassinated professor Gerald Bull, an artillery expert, who was allegedly building a massive cannon or "super gun" for Saddam Hussein in the 1980's, which was capable of delivering a tactical nuclear payload.[85] is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... The reactor after the Israeli raid. ... Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) was an Israeli air strike against the Iraqi Osirak nuclear... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... Gerald Vincent Bull (March 9, 1928 - March 22, 1990) was a Canadian engineer who developed long range artillery. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


On September 6, 2007, Israel launched an air strike dubbed Operation Orchard against a target in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria. While Israel refused to comment, unnamed U.S. officials said Israel had shared intelligence with them that North Korea was cooperating with Syria on some sort of nuclear facility.[86] Both Syria and North Korea denied the allegation and Syria filed a formal complaint with the United Nations.[87] Journalist Seymour Hersh speculates that this air strike may have been intended as a trial run for striking alleged Iranian nuclear weapons facilities.[88] On January 7, 2007 The Sunday Times reported that Israel had drawn up plans to destroy three Iranian nuclear facilities with low-yield nuclear "bunker-busters" that would be launched by aircraft through "tunnels" created by conventional laser-guided bombs. These tactical nuclear weapons would then explode underground to reduce radioactive fallout.[89] Israel denied the specific allegation. However, its military leaders admit that it rules out no option.[90] The death of the Iranian physicist Ardeshir Hassanpour, who may have been involved in the nuclear program, has been reported by the intelligence group Stratfor to have been a Mossad assassination.[91] Iran is currently conducting atomic research that Israel fears is aimed at building a nuclear weapon. Israel has pressed for United Nations economic sanctions against Iran,[92] and has repeatedly threatened to launch a military strike on Iran if the United States does not do so first.[93] is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Combatants Israeli Air Force Syria Strength F-15I fighters F-16 fighters 1 ELINT aircraft Total: As many as 8 aircraft Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery of the Syrian Air Defence Forces Casualties None Reported Operation Orchard[1][2] was an Israeli airstrike on a target in... Deir ez-Zor Governorate (Arabic: مُحافظة دير الزور) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see The Sunday Times (disambiguation). ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ... Dr. Ardeshir Hosseinpour [1](Persian: , b. ... Strategic Forecasting, Inc. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ...


Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and United Nations’ Resolutions

Israel was originally expected to sign the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and on June 12, 1968 Israel voted in favor of the treaty in the UN General Assembly. But when the invasion of Czechoslovakia in August by the Soviet Union delayed ratification around the world, Israel's internal division and hesitation over the treaty became public.[94] The Johnson administration attempted to use the sale of 50 F-4 Phantoms to pressure Israel to sign the treaty that fall, culminating in a personal letter from Lyndon Johnson to Israeli PM Levi Eshkol. But by November Johnson had backed away from tying the F-4 sale with the NPT after a stalemate in negotiations, and Israel would neither sign nor ratify the treaty.[95] After the series of negotiations, US assistant secretary of defense for international security Paul Warnke was convinced that Israel already possessed nuclear weapons.[96] In 2007 Israel sought an exemption to non-proliferation rules in order to import atomic material legally.[97] Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... LBJ redirects here. ... “F-4” redirects here. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... â–¶(?) (Hebrew לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל ) (Born Levi Skolnick) (Hebrew לֵוִי שְׁקוֹלְנִיק) (October 25, 1895 - February 26, 1969), was the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death of a heart attack in 1969. ... Paul Warnke(January 31, 1920- October 31, 2001). ...


In 1996 the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 51/41 calling for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East.[98] Arab nations and annual conferences of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) repeatedly have called for application of IAEA safeguards and the creation of a nuclear-free Middle East. Arab nations have expressed their belief the United States practices a double standard in demanding Iran and Arab states refrain from having nuclear weapons programs, while ignoring Israel's program, as well as its failure to sign on to the NPT.[99] According to a statement by the Arab League, Arab states will withdraw from the NPT if Israel acknowledges having nuclear weapons and then does not open its facilities to international inspection and destroy its arsenal.[100] The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041...


See also

Israel is widely believed to possess a substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons,[1] and maintains intercontinental-range ballistic missiles to deliver them. ... Project Daniel was a 2003 Israeli project, commissioned to assess the threat to the nation of Israel from other states in the Middle East, drawing particular attention to Iran, with Irans nuclear program in mind. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Israel - Nuclear Weapons, Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved July 1, 2007.
  2. ^ NTI Israel Profile Retrieved July 12, 2007.
  3. ^ Background Information, 2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. United Nations. Retrieved on 2006-07-02.
  4. ^ Mohamed ElBaradei (27 July 2004). Transcript of the Director General's Interview with Al-Ahram News. International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  5. ^ Cohen, Avner. Israel and the Bomb. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-231-10483-9, p. 26
  6. ^ Cohen, 30-1.
  7. ^ Hersh, Seymour M. The Samson Option. New York: Random House, 1991. ISBN 0-394-57006-5 p.19
  8. ^ Cohen, 33-4.
  9. ^ Hersh, 30.
  10. ^ Cohen, 44.
  11. ^ Cohen, 65.
  12. ^ Hersh, 37.
  13. ^ Cohen, 53-54.
  14. ^ Hersh, 42-43.
  15. ^ Cohen, 59.
  16. ^ Hersh, 45-46.
  17. ^ Hersh, 60-61.
  18. ^ Cohen, 73-74.
  19. ^ Cohen, 75.
  20. ^ Hersh, 70.
  21. ^ a b c Farr, Warner D. The Third Temple's Holy of Holies: Israel's Nuclear Weapons, USAF Counterproliferation Center, September 1999. Retrieved July 3, 2007.
  22. ^ Hersh, 130.
  23. ^ Cohen, 70.
  24. ^ Hersh, 66-67.
  25. ^ Cohen, 298.
  26. ^ Hersh, 179-180.
  27. ^ Hersh, 181.
  28. ^ a b "Mordechai Vanunu: The Sunday Times articles", The Times, 2004-04-21. Retrieved on 2006-07-02. 
  29. ^ Israel's Nuclear Weapons Program. Nuclear Weapon Archive (10 December 1997). Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  30. ^ Israel's Nuclear Shopping List, The Risk Report, Volume 2 Number 4, July-August 1996.
  31. ^ Hersh, 272-273, 280.
  32. ^ Hersh, 271.
  33. ^ "The Nth Power", Time Magazine, December 19, 1960. Retrieved July 2, 2007.
  34. ^ Hersh, 72.
  35. ^ Cohen, 88-89.
  36. ^ Cohen, 91.
  37. ^ Cohen, 327
  38. ^ Cohen, 338.
  39. ^ 150. Burrows and Windrem, op. cit., 280 and Cohen, Israel and the Bomb, op. cit., 273-274.
  40. ^ Data from Time, 12 April 1976, quoted in Weissman and Krosney, op. cit., 107.
  41. ^ Tahtinen, Dale R., The Arab-Israel Military Balance Today (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1973), 34.
  42. ^ How Israel Got the Bomb.” Time, 12 April 1976, 39.
  43. ^ Burrows and Windrem, op. cit., 302.
  44. ^ Kaku, op. cit., 66 and Hersh, op. cit., 216.
  45. ^ Valéry, op. cit., 807-09.
  46. ^ Data from CIA, quoted in Weissman and Krosney, op. cit., 109.
  47. ^ Ottenberg, Michael, “Estimating Israel's Nuclear Capabilities,” Command, 30 (October 1994), 6-8.
  48. ^ Pry, op. cit., 75.
  49. ^ Ibid., 111.
  50. ^ Data from NBC Nightly News, quoted in Milhollin, op. cit., 104 and Burrows and Windrem, op. cit., 308.
  51. ^ Data from Vanunu quoted in Milhollin, op. cit., 104.
  52. ^ Harkavy, Robert E. “After the Gulf War: The Future of the Israeli Nuclear Strategy,” The Washington Quarterly (Summer 1991), 164.
  53. ^ Burrows and Windrem, op. cit., 308.
  54. ^ Albright, David, Berkhout, Frans and Walker, William, Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium 1996. World Inventories, Capabilities, and Policies (New York: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute And Oxford University Press, 1997), 262-263.
  55. ^ Hough, Harold, “Israel's Nuclear Infrastructure,” Jane's Intelligence Review 6, no. 11 (November 1994),508.
  56. ^ Ibid., 262-263.
  57. ^ Spector, and McDonough, with Medeiros, op. cit., 135.
  58. ^ Burrows and Windrem, op. cit., 283-284.
  59. ^ Cordesman, op. cit., 1996, 234.
  60. ^ Brower, Kenneth S., “A Propensity for Conflict: Potential Scenarios and Outcomes of War in the Middle East,” Jane's Intelligence Review, Special Report no. 14, (February 1997), 14-15. Brower notes that he is making a high estimate of the number of weapons.
  61. ^ Norris, Robert S., William Arkin, Hans M. Kristensen, and Joshua Handler. "Israeli nuclear forces, 2002," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 58:5 (September/October 2002): 73-75. Excerpt online.
  62. ^ Douglas Frantz, Israel Adds Fuel to Nuclear Dispute, Officials confirm that the nation can now launch atomic weapons from land, sea and air, Los Angeles Times, Sunday, October 12, 2003.
  63. ^ Hersh, 104.
  64. ^ Hersh, 120, 173-174.
  65. ^ Beaumont, Peter and Urquhart, Conal. "Israel deploys nuclear arms in submarines", The Observer, October 12, 2003. Retrieved July 4, 2007.
  66. ^ Plushnick-Masti, Ramit. "Israel Buys 2 Nuclear-Capable Submarines", The Washington Post, August 25, 2006. Retrieved July 4, 2007.
  67. ^ Hersh, 220.
  68. ^ Cohen, 343.
  69. ^ Cohen, 233-234.
  70. ^ Avner Cohen and William Burr, The Untold Story of Israel's Bomb," Washington Post, April 30, 2006; B01.
  71. ^ Memo from Henry Kissinger to Richard M. Nixon, "Subject: Israeli Nuclear Program" (16 July 1969), Nixon Archives. Available online.
  72. ^ Cohen, 277, 291.
  73. ^ Olmert: Iran wants nuclear weapons like Israel. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  74. ^ Olmert Says Israel Among Nuclear Nations. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  75. ^ a b c d Strategic Doctrine. GlobalSecurity.org (28 April 2005).
  76. ^ Cohen, 237.
  77. ^ Hersh, 225
  78. ^ Hersh, 227, 230.
  79. ^ Hersh, 17, 216, 220, 286, 291-296.
  80. ^ Louis René Beres, Israel's Bomb in the Basement: Reconsidering a Vital Element of Israeli Nuclear Deterrence, 2003.
  81. ^ Louis Rene Beres, Israel’s Uncertain Strategic Future Parameters, Spring 2007, 37-54.
  82. ^ Hersh, 318.
  83. ^ Ross Dunn, Sharon eyes 'Samson option' against Iraq, November 3, 2002.
  84. ^ Ze'ev Schiff, Israel Urges U.S. Diplomacy on Iran, CarnegieEndowment.Org, May 30, 2006.
  85. ^ The Israeli Intelligence Services: Deception and Covert Action Operations, HistoryofWar.Org
  86. ^ Glenn Kessler, N. Korea, Syria May Be at Work on Nuclear Facility, Washington Post, September 13, 2007, A12.
  87. ^ Syria Complains to U.N.; Leonard Doyle, Syria says U.S. nuclear claims are 'false,' biased toward Israel, Associated Press, September 18, 2007.
  88. ^ "A Strike in the Dark", The New Yorker, 2008-02-11. Retrieved on 2008-02-23. 
  89. ^ Mahnaimi, Uzi and Baxter, Sarah. Revealed: Israel plans nuclear strike on Iran, The Sunday Times, January 7, 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2007.
  90. ^ Israel denies planning Iran nuclear attack, U.K. newspaper reports Israel intends to strike up to three targets in Iran, The Associated Press, January 7, 2007; Israel Takes Issue With Iran Weapons, The Associated press, September 29, 2004.
  91. ^ Geopolitical Diary: Israeli Covert Operations in Iran
  92. ^ Associated press, Foreign Minister urges tougher UN sanctions against Iran, September 13, 2007.
  93. ^ Rowan Scarborough, Israel pushes U.S. on Iran nuke solution, The Washington Times, February 21, 2005; Con Coughlin in Tel Aviv, Israel seeks all clear for Iran air strike, UK Telegraph, February 24, 2007.
  94. ^ Cohen, 300-301.
  95. ^ Cohen, 315.
  96. ^ Cohen, 318-319.
  97. ^ George Jahn, Israel Seeks Exemption From Atomic Rules, The Associated Press, September 25, 2007.
  98. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 51/41, December 10, 1996.
  99. ^ Walter Pincus, Push for Nuclear-Free Middle East Resurfaces; Arab Nations Seek Answers About Israel, Washington Post, Sunday, March 6, 2005, page A24; Israel-Arab spat at nuclear talks, BBC, September 28, 2005;IAEA conference urges efforts for nuclear-free Mideast
  100. ^ "Arab League vows to drop out of NPT if Israel admits it has nuclear weapons", Haaretz, 2008-03-05. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... GlobalSecurity. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis René Beres is a professor of Political Science at Purdue University in West Lafayette, IN. He was born on August 31, 1945 in Zurich, Switzerland and earned a B.A. from Queens College and an M.A. and Ph. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

 
 

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