FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Nuclear weapon yield
Nuclear weapons
One of the first nuclear bombs.
Nuclear weapons history
Nuclear warfare
Nuclear arms race
Nuclear weapon design
Nuclear explosion
Nuclear testing
Nuclear delivery
Nuclear proliferation
Nuclear countries

Contents

The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... Nuclear explosions have a distinctive mushroom shaped cloud. ... US (blue) and USSR/Russian (red) nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2004. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... There are currently seven states that have successfully exploded nuclear weapons. ...

The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of TNT = 4.184 TJ). Note that the strict definition of one KT is that it is 1012 calories equivalent, this being very roughly equal to the energy yield of one thousand tons of TNT. Yield may mean: In economics, yield is a measure of the amount of income an investment generates over time (related to return on investment). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Trinitrotoluene (TNT, or Trotyl) is a pale yellow crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon compound that melts at 354 K (178 Â°F, 81 °C). ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here energies between 1012 joules (a terajoule, symbol TJ) and 1013 joules. ...


Examples of nuclear weapon yields

In order of increasing yield:

  • Davy Crockett tactical nuclear weapon: variable yield 0.01-1 kt — mass only 23 kg (51 lb), lightest ever deployed by the United States (same warhead as Special Atomic Demolition Munition and GAR-11 Nuclear Falcon missile).
  • Hiroshima's "Little Boy" gravity bomb: 12-15 kt — gun type uranium-235 fission bomb (the first of the two nuclear weapons that have been used in warfare).
  • Nagasaki's "Fat Man" gravity bomb: 20-22 kt — implosion type plutonium-239 fission bomb (the second of the two nuclear weapons used in warfare).
  • W-76 warhead 100 kt (10 of these may be in a MIRVed Trident II missile).
  • B61 nuclear bomb: Mod 7 (up to 350 kt), Mod 10 (4 yield options: 0.3 kt, 1.5 kt, 60 kt, and 170 kt), and Mod 11 (undisclosed yield).
  • W-87 warhead: 300 kt (10 of these were in a MIRVed LG-118A Peacekeeper).
  • W-88 warhead: 475 kt (8 of these may be in a Trident II missile).
  • Ivy King device: 500 kt - most powerful pure fission bomb; 60 kg uranium; implosion type.
  • B83 nuclear bomb: variable, up to 1.2 Mt; most powerful US weapon in active service.
  • B53 nuclear bomb: 9Mt, most powerful US warhead; no longer in active service, but 50 are retained as part of the "Hedge" portion of the Enduring Stockpile; similar to the W-53 warhead that has been used in the Titan II Missile, decommissioned in 1987.
  • Castle Bravo device: 15 Mt — most powerful US test.
  • EC17/Mk-17, the EC24/Mk-24, and the B41 (Mk-41) (most powerful US weapons ever: 25 Mt; the Mk-17 was also the largest by size and mass: ca. 20 tons; the Mk-41 had a mass of 4800 kg; gravity bombs carried by B-36 bomber (retired by 1957).
  • Tsar Bomba device: 50 Mt — USSR, most powerful explosive device ever, mass of 27 short tons (24 metric tons), in its "full" form (i.e. with a depleted uranium tamper instead of one made of lead) it would have been 100 Mt.

As a comparison, the Oklahoma City bombing, using a truck-based fertilizer bomb, was a mere 0.002 kt. Davy Crockett mounted to a recoilless rifle on a tripod The M-388 Davy Crockett was a tactical nuclear recoilless rifle projectile that was deployed by the United States during the Cold War. ... Dial-a-yield, an option available on most modern nuclear bombs, allows the operator to specify a bombs yield, or explosive power, allowing a single design to be used in different situations. ... H-912 transport container for Mk-54 SADM The Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM) was a United States Navy and Marines project that was demonstrated as feasible in the mid-to-late 1960s, but was never used. ... The Hughes AIM-26 Falcon was a larger, more powerful version of the AIM-4 Falcon air-to-air missile. ... Little Boy was the code name of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945 by the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay piloted by Lt. ... B-61 gravity bomb; this nuclear munition has been identified as one that could be modified to hit hardened underground targets. ... A post-war Fat Man model. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ohio-class submarine launches Trident ICBMs (US Navy graphic) The Trident missile is an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) which is armed with nuclear warheads and is launched from submarines (SSBNs), making it a SLBM. The Trident was built in two variants: the I (C4) UGM-93A and II (D5) UGM... B61 bomb in various stages of assembly. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Test launch of a Peacekeeper ICBM by the 576 Flight Test Squadron, Vandenberg AFB, CA (USAF) The LG-118A Peacekeeper was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986. ... In 1999, information came out implying that in some U.S. designs, the primary (top) is oblate, while the secondary (bottom) is spherical. ... Ivy Kings mushroom cloud. ... Image:B83 bomb. ... The B53 was one of the most powerful nuclear weapons built by the United States, and one of the last very high-yield thermonuclear bombs in U.S. service. ... The Enduring Stockpile is the name of the United Statess arsenal of nuclear weapons following the end of the Cold War. ... The casing of a W-53 nuclear warhead. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... A black and white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... The Convair B-36 (officially named the Peacemaker, but the name is rarely used) was an American strategic bomber aircraft, and the largest bomber ever flown by the United States. ... Tsar Bomba casing on display at Arzamas-16 Tsar Bomba (Russian: , literally Emperor of bombs) is the Western name for the largest nuclear explosive ever detonated. ... // Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium which contains a reduced proportion of the fissile isotope U-235. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Damage to the Murrah building before cleanup began. ...


Yield limits

The yield-to-weight ratio is the amount of weapon yield compared to the mass of the weapon. The theoretical maximum yield-to-weight ratio for fusion weapons is 6 Megatons per metric ton (6 Mt/t). [1] The practical achievable limit is somewhat lower. For current US weapons 600 kt/t (2.5 TJ/kg) to 2.2 Mt/t (9.2 TJ/kg). By comparison, for the Davy Crockett it was 0.4 - 40 kt/t (0.002 - 0.167 TJ/kg), for Little Boy 4 kt/t, and for the Tsar Bomba 2 Mt/t (8 TJ/kg) (deliberately reduced from the possible maximum which was twice as much), and for the Mk-41 5.2 Mt/t. Davy Crockett mounted to a recoilless rifle on a tripod The M-388 Davy Crockett was a tactical nuclear recoilless rifle projectile that was deployed by the United States during the Cold War. ... Little Boy was the code name of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945 by the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay piloted by Lt. ... Tsar Bomba casing on display at Arzamas-16 Tsar Bomba (Russian: , literally Emperor of bombs) is the Western name for the largest nuclear explosive ever detonated. ...


Fission bombs have a maximum yield limit of roughly one megaton: [2]. However there is no known upper yield limit for a fusion (e.g, hydrogen) bomb. In principle a fusion bomb could be many thousand megatons. Because of the maximum theoretical yield-to-weight ratio is about 6Mt/t, and the maximum achievable ratio about 5.2 MT/t, there is a practical limit on air delivery of the weapon.


For example, if the full payload of 250 t of the Antonov An-225 could be used, the limit would be 250 t * 5.2 Mt/t, or 1300 Mt. Likewise the maximum limit of a missile-delivered weapon is determined by the missile payload capacity. The large Russian SS-18 ICBM has a payload capacity of 7,200 kg, so the calculated maximum delivered yield would be 37.4 Mt. In fact the SS-18 mod 1 yield for a single warhead is about 24 Mt. [3] In more recent practice, large single warheads are seldom used, since smaller MIRV warheads are more effective for a given payload capacity. An-225 carrying a Buran shuttle The Antonov An-225 Mriya (Антонов Ан-225 Мрія, NATO reporting name: Cossack) is a strategic airlift transport airplane that was built by Antonov (ASTC) and it is the largest airplane of the world. ... The R-36M/SS-18- DIA designation, (NATO reporting name Satan) is a massive ICBM capable of a +6000 nm (6600 mi, 10,600 km) flight, and the delivery of ten 0. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Milestone nuclear explosions

The following list is of milestone nuclear explosions. In addition to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the first nuclear test of a given weapon type for a country is included, and tests which were otherwise notable (such as the largest test ever). All yields (explosive power) are given in their estimated energy equivalents in kilotons of TNT (see megaton). The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Trinitrotoluene (TNT, or Trotyl) is a pale yellow crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon compound that melts at 354 K (178 Â°F, 81 °C). ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ...

Date Name Yield (kt) Country Significance
Jul 16 1945 Trinity 19 United States USA First fission weapon test
Aug 6 1945 Little Boy 15 United States USA Bombing of Hiroshima, Japan
Aug 9 1945 Fat Man 21 United States USA Bombing of Nagasaki, Japan
Aug 29 1949 Joe 1 22 Soviet Union USSR First fission weapon test by the USSR
Oct 3 1952 Hurricane 25 United Kingdom UK First fission weapon test by the UK
Nov 1 1952 Ivy Mike 10,200 United States USA First "staged" thermonuclear weapon test (not deployable)
Aug 12 1953 Joe 4 400 Soviet Union USSR First fusion weapon test by the USSR (not "staged", but deployable)
Mar 1 1954 Castle Bravo 15,000 United States USA First deployable "staged" thermonuclear weapon; fallout accident
Nov 22 1955 RDS-37 1,600 Soviet Union USSR First "staged" thermonuclear weapon test by the USSR (deployable)
Nov 8 1957 Grapple X 1,800 United Kingdom UK First (successful) "staged" thermonuclear weapon test by the UK
Feb 13 1960 Gerboise Blue 60 France France First fission weapon test by France
Oct 31 1961 Tsar Bomba 50,000 Soviet Union USSR Largest thermonuclear weapon ever tested
Oct 16 1964 596 22 China First fission weapon test by China
Jun 17 1967 Test No. 6 3,300 China First "staged" thermonuclear weapon test by China
Aug 24 1968 Canopus 2,600 France France First "staged" thermonuclear test by France
May 18 1974 Smiling Buddha 12 India India First fission "peaceful nuclear explosive" test by India
May 11 1998 Shakti I 43 India India First potential fusion/boosted weapon test by India
(exact yields disputed, between 25kt to 45kt)
May 13 1998 Shakti II 12 India India First fission "weapon" test by India
May 28 1998 Chagai-I 9 Pakistan Pakistan First fission weapon test by Pakistan

"Deployable" refers to whether the device tested could be hypothetically used in actual combat (in contrast with a proof-of-concept device). "Staging" refers to whether it was a "true" hydrogen bomb of the so-called Teller-Ulam configuration or simply a form of a boosted fission weapon. For a more complete list of nuclear test series, see List of nuclear tests. Some exact yield estimates, such as that of the Tsar Bomba and the tests by India and Pakistan in 1998, are somewhat contested among specialists. July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... An early stage in the Trinity fireball. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Little Boy was the code name of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945 by the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay piloted by Lt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Main keep of Hiroshima Castle The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japans islands. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A post-war Fat Man model. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Megane-bashi, the Eyeglasses Bridge Nagasaki (長崎市; -shi) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... External links http://gawain. ... Download high resolution version (1600x800, 6 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet Union Space Shuttle Challenger Space Shuttle Enterprise Space Shuttle Columbia Space Shuttle Discovery Space Shuttle Atlantis Space Shuttle Endeavour Space exploration Shuttle Buran Modern pentathlon Football World Cup 1958 Football World Cup 1962... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in Leap years). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Operation Hurricane was the test of the first British atomic bomb. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The first (not true) Soviet Hydrogen (Super) Test, dubbed Joe 4 Joe 4 was an American nickname for the first Soviet test of a hydrogen bomb and was on August 12, 1953. ... Download high resolution version (1600x800, 6 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet Union Space Shuttle Challenger Space Shuttle Enterprise Space Shuttle Columbia Space Shuttle Discovery Space Shuttle Atlantis Space Shuttle Endeavour Space exploration Shuttle Buran Modern pentathlon Football World Cup 1958 Football World Cup 1962... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A black and white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion and is named from the fact that it falls out of the atmosphere in to which it is spread during the explosion. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV in Roman) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... RDS-37 was a Soviet name for their first nuclear test of a true hydrogen bomb. ... Download high resolution version (1600x800, 6 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet Union Space Shuttle Challenger Space Shuttle Enterprise Space Shuttle Columbia Space Shuttle Discovery Space Shuttle Atlantis Space Shuttle Endeavour Space exploration Shuttle Buran Modern pentathlon Football World Cup 1958 Football World Cup 1962... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Grapple: Grapple X Valiant XD824 being bombed-up behind canvas screens Operation Grapple was a United Kingdom tri-service exercise leading to the detonation of the first British hydrogen bomb on May 15, 1957. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... France is said to have an arsenal of 350 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 2002 [1]. The weapons are part of the national Force de frappe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tsar Bomba casing on display at Arzamas-16 Tsar Bomba (Russian: , literally Emperor of bombs) is the Western name for the largest nuclear explosive ever detonated. ... Download high resolution version (1600x800, 6 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet Union Space Shuttle Challenger Space Shuttle Enterprise Space Shuttle Columbia Space Shuttle Discovery Space Shuttle Atlantis Space Shuttle Endeavour Space exploration Shuttle Buran Modern pentathlon Football World Cup 1958 Football World Cup 1962... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ... The Peoples Republic of China is said to have an arsenal of about 400 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999, although this number is questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding nuclear weapons. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Peoples Republic of China is said to have an arsenal of about 400 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999, although this number is questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding nuclear weapons. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... France is said to have an arsenal of 350 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 2002 [1]. The weapons are part of the national Force de frappe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... The Smiling Buddha was the first test fission explosion by India on May 18, 1974. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Television screenshot of the first known nuclear test conducted by Pakistan, 28 May 1998. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The basics of the Teller-Ulam configuration: a fission bomb suspended above fusion fuel. ... Boosted fission weapons are a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction. ... The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ... Tsar Bomba casing on display at Arzamas-16 Tsar Bomba (Russian: , literally Emperor of bombs) is the Western name for the largest nuclear explosive ever detonated. ...


Calculating yields and controversy

Yields of nuclear explosions can be very hard to calculate, even using numbers as rough as in the kiloton or megaton range (much less down to the resolution of individual terajoules). Even under very controlled conditions, precise yields can be very hard to determine, and for less controlled conditions the margins of error can be quite large. Yields can be calculated in a number of ways, including calculations based on blast size, blast brightness, seismographic data, and the strength of the shock wave. Enrico Fermi famously made a (very) rough calculation of the yield of the Trinity test by dropping small pieces of paper in the air and measuring at how far they were moved by the shock wave of the explosion. It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here energies between 1012 joules (a terajoule, symbol TJ) and 1013 joules. ... Enrico Fermi in the 1940s. ... An early stage in the Trinity fireball. ...


As a consequence, in a number of cases, precise yields have been in dispute, especially when they are tied to questions of politics. The weapons used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for example, were highly-individual and very idiosyncratic designs, and gauging their yield restropectively has been quite difficult. The Hiroshima bomb, "Little Boy", is estimated to have been between 12 and 18 kt (a 20% margin of error), while the Nagasaki bomb, "Fat Man", is estimated to be between 18 and 23 kt (a 10% margin of error). Such apparently small changes in values can be important when trying to use the data from these bombings as reflective of how other bombs would behave in combat, and also result in differing assessments of how many "Hiroshima bombs" other weapons are equivalent to (for example, the Ivy Mike hydrogen bomb was equivalent to either 867 or 578 Hiroshima weapons — a rhetorically quite substantial difference — depending on whether one uses the high or low figure for the calculation). Other disputed yields have included the massive Tsar Bomba, whose yield was claimed between being "only" 50 Mt or at a maximum of 57 Mt by differing political figures, either as a way for hyping the power of the bomb or as an attempt to undercut it. The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Little Boy was the code name of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945 by the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay piloted by Lt. ... A post-war Fat Man model. ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... Tsar Bomba casing on display at Arzamas-16 Tsar Bomba (Russian: , literally Emperor of bombs) is the Western name for the largest nuclear explosive ever detonated. ...


Nuclear testing yields, as in the Tsar Bomba example, can also be used as a way of reflecting upon technical expertise, and claiming higher yields or accusations of lower yields can be used as a way of promoting or disparaging the technical abilities of a nuclear program. When India claimed to have successfully detonated a hydrogen bomb in their 1998 Operation Shakti tests, many Western observers relied on analysis of seismographic data to determine whether the Indian tests reflected a successful hydrogen bomb detonation. Some have alleged that India's reported yields have been higher than their actual test yields, a move which would apparently be for political purposes (to claim more nuclear ability than their rival Pakistan, for example, or to demonstrate their military might to other potential rivals such as nearby China) if true. Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. ... Seismographs (in Greek seismos = earthquake and graphein = write) are used by seismologists to record seismic waves. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nuclear weapon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2862 words)
The detonation of a nuclear weapon is accompanied by a blast of neutron radiation.
Nuclear weapons were symbols of military and national power, and nuclear testing was often used both to test new designs as well as to send political messages.
Nuclear weapons have been at the heart of many national and international political disputes, and have played a major part in popular culture since their dramatic public debut in the 1940s, and have usually symbolized the ultimate ability of mankind to utilize the strength of nature for destruction.
Nuclear weapon yield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1369 words)
The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of TNT = 4.184 TJ).
Yields of nuclear explosions can be very hard to calculate, even using numbers as rough as in the kiloton or megaton range (much less down to the resolution of individual terajoules).
Other disputed yields have included the massive Tsar Bomba, whose yield was claimed between being "only" 50 Mt or at a maximum of 57 Mt by differing political figures, either as a way for hyping the power of the bomb or as an attempt to undercut it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m