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Encyclopedia > Nuclear testing
Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. Visible in the photograph are the test monitoring equipment, as well as the subsidence craters created by previous underground nuclear tests.
Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. Visible in the photograph are the test monitoring equipment, as well as the subsidence craters created by previous underground nuclear tests.
Nuclear weapons
One of the first nuclear bombs.

History of nuclear weapons
Nuclear warfare
Nuclear arms race
Weapon design / testing
Effects of nuclear explosions
Delivery systems
Nuclear espionage
Proliferation / Arsenals Image File history File links Download high resolution version (940x752, 289 KB) Licensing Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (940x752, 289 KB) Licensing Source: http://www. ... Underground nuclear testing refers to experiments with nuclear weapons that are performed underground. ... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... For the 1989 computer game, see Nuclear War (computer game). ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... A 23 kiloton tower shot called BADGER, fired on April 18, 1953 at the Nevada Test Site, as part of the Operation Upshot-Knothole nuclear test series. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... Nuclear espionage is the purposeful giving of state secrets regarding nuclear weapons to other states without authorization (espionage). ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of nuclear weapons ordered by state and then type within the states. ...

Nuclear-armed states

US · Russia · UK · France
China · India · Pakistan
Israel · North Korea
South Africa This is a list of states with nuclear weapons, sometimes called the nuclear club. ... The United States was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ...

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Nuclear tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield and explosive capability of nuclear weapons. Throughout the twentieth century, most nations that have developed nuclear weapons have staged tests of them. Testing nuclear weapons can yield information about how the weapons work, as well as how the weapons behave under various conditions and how structures behave when subjected to nuclear explosions. Additionally, nuclear testing has often been used as an indicator of scientific and military strength, and many tests have been overtly political in their intention; most nuclear weapons states publicly declared their nuclear status by means of a nuclear test. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ...


The first atomic test was detonated by the United States at the Trinity site on July 16, 1945, with a yield approximately equivalent to 20 kilotons. The first hydrogen bomb, codenamed "Mike", was tested at the Enewetak atoll in the Marshall Islands on November 1, 1952, also by the United States. The largest nuclear weapon ever tested was the "Tsar Bomba" of the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya on October 30, 1961, with an estimated yield of around 50 megatons. An early stage in the Trinity fireball. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... Aerial view of Enewetok and Parry. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Site of the detonation. ... Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ...


In 1963, all nuclear and many non-nuclear states signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty, pledging to refrain from testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, underwater, or in outer space. The treaty permitted underground tests. France continued atmospheric testing until 1974, while China continued up until 1980. The last underground test by the United States was in 1992, the Soviet Union in 1990, the United Kingdom in 1991, and both France and China continued testing up until 1996. After adopting the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in 1996, all of these states have pledged to discontinue all nuclear testing. Non-signatories India and Pakistan both last tested nuclear weapons in 1998. The Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty... Underground nuclear testing refers to experiments with nuclear weapons that are performed underground. ... Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina...


The most recent nuclear test was announced by North Korea on October 9, 2006. See 2006 North Korean nuclear test for more information. The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted on October 9, 2006 by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. ...

Contents

Types of nuclear weapons tests

Nuclear weapons tests have been historically broken into categories (by treaties) reflecting in what sort of medium or location the test has been conducted: atmospheric, underwater, and underground.

  • Atmospheric testing designates explosions which take place in or above the atmosphere. Generally these have occurred as devices detonated on towers, balloons, barges, islands, or dropped from airplanes. A limited number of high-altitude nuclear explosions also conducted, generally fired from rockets. Nuclear explosions which are close enough to the ground to draw dirt and debris into their mushroom cloud can generate large amounts of nuclear fallout due to irradiation of the debris. High-altitude nuclear tests can generate an electromagnetic pulse, and charged particles resulting from the blast can cross hemispheres to create an auroral display.
Four major types of nuclear testing: 1. atmospheric, 2. underground, 3. exoatmospheric, and 4. underwater.
Four major types of nuclear testing: 1. atmospheric, 2. underground, 3. exoatmospheric, and 4. underwater.
  • Underwater testing results from nuclear devices being detonated underwater, usually moored to a ship or a barge (which is subsequently destroyed by the explosion). Tests of this nature have usually been conducted to evaluate the effects of nuclear weapons against naval vessels (such as in Operation Crossroads), or to evaluate potential sea-based nuclear weapons (such as nuclear torpedoes or depth-charges). Underwater tests close to the surface can disperse large amounts of radioactive water and steam, contaminating nearby ships or structures.
  • Underground testing refers to nuclear tests which are conducted under the surface of the earth, at varying depths. Underground nuclear testing made up the majority of nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War, due to other forms of nuclear testing being banned by the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963. When the explosion is fully contained, underground nuclear testing emits a negligible amount of fallout. However, underground nuclear tests can "vent" to the surface, producing considerable amounts of radioactive debris as a consequence. Underground testing can result in seismic activity depending on the yield of the nuclear device, and generally result in the creation of subsidence craters.[1] In 1976, the United States and the USSR agreed to limit the maximum yield of underground tests to 150 kt with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty.

Separately from these designations, nuclear tests are also often categorized by the purpose of the test itself. Tests which are designed to garner information about how (and if) the weapons themselves work are weapons related tests, while tests designed to gain information about the effects of the weapons themselves on structures or organisms are known as weapons effects tests. Additional types of nuclear tests are possible as well (such as nuclear tests which are also part of anti-ballistic missile testing). Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[3] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... Bluegill Triple Prime shot, 1962, altitude 31 miles High altitude nuclear explosions have historically been nuclear explosions which take place outside the Earths atmosphere. ... The atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped cloud of smoke, flame, or debris resulting from a very large explosion. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Example of an electromagnetic pulse, in this case caused by the electrical discharge required to fire the Z machine. ... Image File history File links Types_of_nuclear_testing. ... Image File history File links Types_of_nuclear_testing. ... Underground nuclear testing refers to experiments with nuclear weapons that are performed underground. ... An underwater explosion, also known as an UNDEX, is an explosion beneath the surface of water. ... A 23 kiloton dropped nuclear weapon, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Able) A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946). ... Underground nuclear testing refers to experiments with nuclear weapons that are performed underground. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... Post-shot subsidence crater and Huron King test chamber, which was less than 20 kilotons (1980) A subsidence crater is the crater left on the surface of an area which has had an underground (usually nuclear) explosion. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... The Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, also known as the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), was signed in July 1974. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ...


Nuclear-weapons-related testing which purposely results in no yield is known as subcritical testing, referring to the lack of a creation of a critical mass of fissile material. Additionally, there have been simulations of nuclear tests using conventional explosives (such as the Minor Scale U.S. test in 1985). // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... Over a thousand riders took part in the 10th anniversary ride in Melbourne during November 2005. ... A minor scale in musical theory is a diatonic scale whose third scale degree is an interval of a minor third above the tonic. ...


History

The first nuclear test, "Trinity", took place on July 16, 1945.

The first nuclear test was conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945, during the Manhattan Project, and given the codename "Trinity". The test was originally to confirm that the implosion-type nuclear weapon design was feasible, and to give the scientists and military officers an idea of what the actual size and effects of a nuclear explosion would be before they were used in combat against Japan. While the test gave a good approximation of many of the explosion's effects, it did not give an appreciable understanding of nuclear fallout, which was not well understood by the project scientists until well after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Download high resolution version (1180x1474, 162 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1180x1474, 162 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This page is about the World War II nuclear project. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ...


The United States conducted only six nuclear tests before the Soviet Union developed their first atomic bomb (Joe 1) and tested it on August 29, 1949. Neither country had very many nuclear weapons to spare at first, and so testing was relatively limited (when the U.S. used two weapons for Operation Crossroads in 1946, they were detonating over 20% of their current arsenal). However, by the 1950s the United States had established a dedicated test site on its own territory (Nevada Test Site) and were also using a site in the Marshall Islands (Pacific Proving Grounds) for extensive nuclear testing. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... External links http://gawain. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... A 23 kiloton dropped nuclear weapon, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Able) A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946). ... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... The United States began using the Marshall Islands as a nuclear testing site beginning in 1946. ...


The early tests were used primarily to discern the military effects of nuclear weapons (Crossroads had involved the effect of nuclear weapons on a navy, and how they functioned underwater) and to test new weapon designs. During the 1950s these included new hydrogen bomb designs, which were tested in the Pacific, and also new and improved fission weapon designs. The Soviet Union also began testing on a limited scale, primarily in Kazakhstan. During the later phases of the Cold War, though, both countries developed accelerated testing programs, testing many hundreds of bombs over the last half of the twentieth century. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

The Castle Bravo explosion spread nuclear fallout for over a hundred miles of ocean, including inhabited islands, in 1954.
The Castle Bravo explosion spread nuclear fallout for over a hundred miles of ocean, including inhabited islands, in 1954.

Nuclear tests can involve many hazards. A number of these were best illustrated in the U.S. Castle Bravo test in 1954. The weapon design tested was a new form of hydrogen bomb, and the scientists underestimated how vigorously some of the weapon materials would react. As a result, the explosion — with a yield of 15 Mt — was over twice what was predicted. Aside from this problem, the weapon also generated a large amount of radioactive nuclear fallout, more than had been anticipated, and a change in the weather pattern caused the fallout to be spread in a direction which had not been cleared ahead of time. The fallout plume spread high levels of radiation for over a hundred miles, contaminating a number of populated islands in nearby atoll formations (though they were soon evacuated, many of the islands' inhabitants suffered from radiation burns and later from other effects such as increased cancer rate and birth defects), as well as a Japanese fishing boat (Daigo Fukuryū Maru). One member of the boat's crew died from radiation sickness after returning to port, and it was feared that the radioactive fish they had been carrying had made it into the Japanese food supply. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (928x422, 23 KB) Image of nuclear fallout dispersal from the Castle Bravo nuclear test, 28 Feb 1954. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (928x422, 23 KB) Image of nuclear fallout dispersal from the Castle Bravo nuclear test, 28 Feb 1954. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Daigo FukuryÅ« Maru Lucky Dragon No. ...

Because of concerns about worldwide fallout levels, the Partial Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963. Above are the per capita thyroid doses (in rads) in the continental United States resulting from all exposure routes from all atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951-1962.
Because of concerns about worldwide fallout levels, the Partial Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963. Above are the per capita thyroid doses (in rads) in the continental United States resulting from all exposure routes from all atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951-1962.

Bravo was the worst U.S. nuclear accident, but many of its component problems — unpredictably large yields, changing weather patterns, unexpected fallout contamination of populations and the food supply — occurred during other atmospheric nuclear weapons tests by other countries as well. Concerns over worldwide fallout rates eventually lead to the Partial Test Ban Treaty in 1963, which limited signatories to only underground testing. Not all atmospheric tests stopped, however, but because the United States and the Soviet Union in particular stopped testing aboveground it cut the number of atmospheric tests down substantially, since around 86% of all nuclear tests were conducted by those two countries. France continued atmospheric testing until 1974, and People's Republic of China until 1980. Image File history File links US_fallout_exposure. ... Image File history File links US_fallout_exposure. ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... The rad is a unit of radiation dose, with symbol rad. ... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement...


Almost all new nuclear powers have announced their possession of nuclear weapons with a nuclear test. The only acknowledged nuclear power which claims to have never conducted a test was South Africa (see Vela Incident), which has since claimed to have dismantled all of its weapons. The state of Israel is widely thought by intelligence agencies to possess a sizeable nuclear arsenal, though it has never tested. Experts disagree on whether states can have reliable nuclear arsenals — especially ones using advanced warhead designs, such as hydrogen bombs and miniaturized weapons — without testing, though all agree that it is very unlikely to develop significant nuclear innovations without testing. One other approach is to use supercomputers to conduct "virtual" testing, but the value of these simulations without actual test result data is thought to be slim. Orthographic projection centered on the Prince Edward Islands, the location of the Vela incident The Vela Incident (sometimes known as the South Atlantic Flash) was an as-yet unidentified flash of light detected by a United States Vela satellite on September 22, 1979. ... A supercomputer is a computer that led the world in terms of processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation, at the time of its introduction. ...

The Sedan test of 1962 was an experiment by the United States in using nuclear weapons to excavate large amounts of earth.
The Sedan test of 1962 was an experiment by the United States in using nuclear weapons to excavate large amounts of earth.

Some nuclear testing has been for "peaceful" purposes. These so-called peaceful nuclear explosions were used to evaluate whether nuclear explosions could be used for non-military purposes such as digging canals and artificial harbors, or to stimulate oil and gas fields. In most cases the results were too radioactive for use, and the programs proved neither economically sound or politically favorable. Crater from the 1962 Sedan nuclear test as part of Operation Plowshare. ... Crater from the 1962 Sedan nuclear test as part of Operation Plowshare. ... Storax Sedan explosion The Sedan crater. ... Chagan (nuclear test) in Soviet Union 1965 was used to create a dam on Semipalatinsk river Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) are nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes, such as activities related to economic development including the creation of canals. ...


Nuclear testing has also been used for clearly political purposes. The most explicit example of this was the detonation of the largest nuclear bomb ever created, the 50 megaton Tsar Bomba (with a maximum yield of 100 Mt), by the Soviet Union in 1961. This weapon was too large to be practically used against an enemy target, and it is not thought that any were actually manufactured except the one which was detonated in the test. The weapon was used by the USSR as a show of Soviet strength and force, rather than to be developed as an actual weapon or for specifically scientific purposes. Site of the detonation. ...


There have been many attempts to limit the number and size of nuclear testing; the most far-reaching was the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty of 1996, which was not ratified by the United States. Nuclear testing has since become a controversial issue in the United States, with a number of politicians saying that future testing might be necessary to maintain the aging warheads from the Cold War. Because nuclear testing is seen as furthering nuclear arms development, many are also opposed to future testing as an acceleration of the arms race. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Nuclear testing by country

Main article: List of nuclear tests

The nuclear powers have conducted at least 2,000 nuclear test explosions (numbers are approximated, as some test results have been disputed): Main article: Nuclear testing The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ...

Over 2,000 nuclear tests have been staged by the eight or so nuclear powers in over a dozen different sites around the world.
Over 2,000 nuclear tests have been staged by the eight or so nuclear powers in over a dozen different sites around the world.

Additionally, there may have been at least three alleged/disputed/unacknowledged nuclear explosions (see list of alleged nuclear tests). Of these, the only one taken seriously as a possible nuclear test is the Vela Incident, a possible detection of a nuclear explosion in the Indian Ocean in 1979 hypothesized to be a joint Israeli/South African test. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) Summary Map of locations of Nuclear tests and use of nuclear weapons. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) Summary Map of locations of Nuclear tests and use of nuclear weapons. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... The United States began using the Marshall Islands as a nuclear testing site beginning in 1946. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... The United States was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Unions nuclear weapons. ... Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zaouiet Reggane. ... Fangataufa (Fangatafoa) (22°15S., 138°45W.) is a small, low, narrow, barrier reef. ... Moruroa Moruroa Moruroa (Mururura, Mururoa) (21°50′S 138°55′W.) is an atoll which forms part of the Tuamoto archipelago in French Polynesia in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Hammaguir is a town in Algeria, south-west of Coulomb-Bechar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... The Maralinga atomic weapons test site was set up on the Nullarbor Plain in South Australia during the early 1950s, as a joint test facility between the British and Australian governments. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Lop Nur (ear-shaped) from space, September 1992 Lop Nur (Lake Lop; alternately Lop Nor, Lo-pu po or Taitema Lake) is a group of small, now seasonal salt lakes and marshes between the Taklamakan and Kuruktag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China... Malan can mean: Malan (Xinjiang) Adolph Malan, famed World War II RAF fighter pilot who led No. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Pokhran (also spelt Pokaran) is a city and a municipality in Jaisalmer district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Chagai Hills are in the north of the Pakistani Province Baluchistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted on October 9, 2006 by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. ... Main article: Nuclear testing The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ... Orthographic projection centered on the Prince Edward Islands, the location of the Vela incident The Vela Incident (sometimes known as the South Atlantic Flash) was an as-yet unidentified flash of light detected by a United States Vela satellite on September 22, 1979. ...


From the first nuclear test in 1945 until tests by Pakistan in 1998, there was never a period of more than 22 months with no nuclear testing. June 1998 to October 2006, when North Korea reported a successful underground nuclear test, was the longest period since 1945 with no acknowledged nuclear tests.

Worldwide nuclear testing totals, 1945-1998. ...

Milestone nuclear explosions

The following list is of milestone nuclear explosions. In addition to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the first nuclear test of a given weapon type for a country is included, and tests which were otherwise notable (such as the largest test ever). All yields (explosive power) are given in their estimated energy equivalents in kilotons of TNT (see megaton). The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ...

Date Name Yield (kT) Country Significance
Jul 16 1945 Trinity 19 Flag of United States USA First fission weapon test
Aug 6 1945 Little Boy 15 Flag of United States USA Bombing of Hiroshima, Japan
Aug 9 1945 Fat Man 21 Flag of United States USA Bombing of Nagasaki, Japan
Aug 29 1949 Joe 1 22 Flag of Soviet Union USSR First fission weapon test by the USSR
Oct 3 1952 Hurricane 25 Flag of United Kingdom UK First fission weapon test by the UK
Nov 1 1952 Ivy Mike 10,400 Flag of United States USA First "staged" thermonuclear weapon test (not deployable)
Aug 12 1953 Joe 4 400 Flag of Soviet Union USSR First fusion weapon test by the USSR (not "staged", but deployable)
Mar 1 1954 Castle Bravo 15,000 Flag of United States USA First deployable "staged" thermonuclear weapon; fallout accident
Nov 22 1955 RDS-37 1,600 Flag of Soviet Union USSR First "staged" thermonuclear weapon test by the USSR (deployable)
Nov 8 1957 Grapple X 1,800 Flag of United Kingdom UK First (successful) "staged" thermonuclear weapon test by the UK
Feb 13 1960 Gerboise Bleue 70 Flag of France France First fission weapon test by France
Oct 31 1961 Tsar Bomba 50,000 Flag of Soviet Union USSR Largest thermonuclear weapon ever tested
Oct 16 1964 596 22 Flag of People's Republic of China China First fission weapon test by China
Jun 17 1967 Test No. 6 3,300 Flag of People's Republic of China China First "staged" thermonuclear weapon test by China
Aug 24 1968 Canopus 2,600 Flag of France France First "staged" thermonuclear test by France
May 18 1974 Smiling Buddha 12 Flag of India India First fission nuclear explosive test by India
May 11 1998 Shakti I 43 Flag of India India First potential fusion/boosted weapon test by India
(exact yields disputed, between 25kt and 45kt)
May 11 1998 Shakti II 12 Flag of India India First deployable fission weapon test by India
May 28 1998 Chagai-I 9-12? Flag of Pakistan Pakistan First fission weapon test by Pakistan
Oct 9 2006 Hwadae-ri <1 Flag of North Korea North Korea First fission device tested by North Korea

"Deployable" refers to whether the device tested could be hypothetically used in actual combat (in contrast with a proof-of-concept device). "Staging" refers to whether it was a "true" hydrogen bomb of the so-called Teller-Ulam configuration or simply a form of a boosted fission weapon. For a more complete list of nuclear test series, see List of nuclear tests. Some exact yield estimates, such as that of the Tsar Bomba and the tests by India and Pakistan in 1998, are somewhat contested among specialists. // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A post-war Little Boy casing mockup. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western HonshÅ«, the largest of Japans islands. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Fat Man is the codename of the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... External links http://gawain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The explosion cloud resulting from the Operation Hurricane detonation Operation Hurricane was the test of the first British atomic bomb. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The first (not true) Soviet Hydrogen (Super) Test, dubbed Joe 4 Joe 4 was an American nickname for the first Soviet test of a hydrogen bomb and was on August 12, 1953. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... RDS-37 was a Soviet name for their first nuclear test of a true hydrogen bomb. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Operation Grapple: Grapple X Valiant XD824 being bombed-up behind canvas screens Operation Grapple was a United Kingdom tri-service exercise leading to the detonation of the first British hydrogen bomb on May 15, 1957. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Gerboise Bleue (blue jerboa) was the first French nuclear weapon. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Site of the detonation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 596 is the codename of the Peoples Republic of Chinas first nuclear weapons test. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... The Peoples Republic of China is estimated by the U.S. Government to have an arsenal of about 150 nuclear weapons as of 1999. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... Mushroom Cloud from the Canopus explosion rises above Fangataufa Canopus was the code name for Frances first two-stage thermonuclear test, conducted on August 24, 1968 at Fangataufa atoll. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The then Indian Prime minister Indira Gandhi at the Indian nuclear test site (Pokhran) The Smiling Buddha was the first nuclear test explosion by India on May 18, 1974 at Pokhran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Chagai-I refers to the nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan in 1998. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted on October 9, 2006 by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The basics of the Teller-Ulam configuration: a fission bomb suspended above fusion fuel. ... Boosted fission weapons are a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction. ... Main article: Nuclear testing The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ... Site of the detonation. ...


See also

Weapons of mass destruction
WMD world map
By type

Biological warfare
Chemical warfare
Nuclear weapons
Radiological weapons For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Image File history File links WMD_world_map. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. ...

By country
Algeria Argentina
Australia Brazil
Canada P.R. China
France Germany
India Iran
Iraq Israel
Japan Netherlands
North Korea Pakistan
Poland Russia
South Africa R.O. China
United Kingdom United States
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The Peoples Republic of China is estimated by the U.S. Government to have an arsenal of about 150 nuclear weapons as of 1999. ... The Republic of China on Taiwan denies having chemical or nuclear weapons. ... This is a list of states with nuclear weapons, sometimes called the nuclear club. ... Main article: Nuclear testing The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ... A 23 kiloton tower shot called BADGER, fired on April 18, 1953 at the Nevada Test Site, as part of the Operation Upshot-Knothole nuclear test series. ... This article lists notable military accidents involving nuclear material. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... Nuclear weapon designs are often divided into two classes, based on the dominant source of the nuclear weapons energy. ... A M4 Carbine is in the forground and the M16A2 in the background in the hands of these two Marines during a live fire exercise in 2003 A live fire exercise is any exercise in which a realistic scenario for the use of specific equipment is simulated. ... Bluegill Triple Prime shot, 1962, altitude 31 miles High altitude nuclear explosions have historically been nuclear explosions which take place outside the Earths atmosphere. ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... An underwater explosion, also known as an UNDEX, is an explosion beneath the surface of water. ... National Technical Means (NTM) is a euphemism for intelligence collection by reconnaissance satellites. ... The Test Readiness Program was a United States Government program established in 1963 to maintain the necessary techonologies and infrastructure for the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, should the treaty which prohibited such testing be abrogated. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ For an overview of the preparations and considerations used in underground nuclear testing, see "Underground Nuclear Weapons Testing" (Globalsecurity.org). For a longer and more technical discussion, see U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (October 1989). The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 

References

History
  • Gusterson, Hugh. Nuclear Rites: A Weapons Laboratory at the End of the Cold War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1996.
  • Hacker, Barton C. Elements of Controversy: The Atomic Energy Commission and Radiation Safety in Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1947-1974. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1994.
  • Schwartz, Stephen I. Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.
  • Weart, Spencer R. Nuclear Fear: A History of Images. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Nuclear tests

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nuclear Issues - Nuclear Testing (135 words)
While stopping short of overturning his father's moratorium on nuclear testing, U.S. President George W. Bush has catapulted the testing issue back into the political foreground with the Pentagon's new Nuclear Posture Review (NPR).
Following the NPR's release, White House spokesman Ari Fleischer was at pains to point out that Bush "has not ruled out testing in the future."
Current information from numerous print and on-line sourecs relating to nuclear testing.
Shell Nuclear Waste (2232 words)
The nuclear materials/waste was dumped, or otherwise disposed of, in some of the most densely populated sectors of the United Kingdom.
That the nuclear materials/waste was disposed of in some of the most densely populated sectors of the United Kingdom.
To achieve this, a contractor with a history of illegal disposal of nuclear material, was specifically sought and engaged to decommission Shell's nuclear reactor/testing cell, and, dump the remainder of the nuclear materials/waste.
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