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Encyclopedia > Nuclear safety
 This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. 1st layer of defense is the inert, ceramic quality of the uranium oxide itself. 2nd layer is the air tight zirconium alloy of the fuel rod. 3rd layer is the reactor pressure vessel made of steel more than a dozen centimeters thick. 4th layer is the pressure resistant, air tight containment building. 5th layer is the reactor building or in newer powerplants a second outer containment building.
This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants.
1st layer of defense is the inert, ceramic quality of the uranium oxide itself.
2nd layer is the air tight zirconium alloy of the fuel rod.
3rd layer is the reactor pressure vessel made of steel more than a dozen centimeters thick.
4th layer is the pressure resistant, air tight containment building.
5th layer is the reactor building or in newer powerplants a second outer containment building.

Nuclear safety covers the actions taken to prevent nuclear and radiation accidents or to limit their consequences. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (560x705, 31 KB) This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (560x705, 31 KB) This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... Defence in depth is a military stategy sometimes also called elastic defence. ... A nuclear power station. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 91. ... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure different from the ambient pressure. ... A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pathways from airborne radioactive contamination to man // This article covers notable accidents involving nuclear devices and radioactive materials. ...


Many nations utilizing nuclear power have special institutions overseeing and regulating nuclear safety. A nuclear power station. ...


Internationally the International Atomic Energy Agency "works for the safe, secure and peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology." The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ...


A book by Michael Mehta (2004) entitled Risky Business: Nuclear Power and Public Protest in Canada (Lexington Book), chronicles and analyzes how a small, under-funded public interest group--Durham Nuclear Awareness of Oshawa, Ontario--mobilized opposition to the December 1994 re-licensing of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. Mehta explores the struggle between Durham Nuclear Awareness and Canada's nuclear establishment to illustrate how the concept of risk can be used to understand contemporary political conflicts. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is a Canadian nuclear power station located in Pickering, Ontario. ...

Contents

Key concepts

This article belongs in one or more categories. ... In engineering, the duplication of critical components of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the case of a backup or fail-safe, is called redundancy. ... Passive nuclear safety describes a safety feature of a nuclear reactor that does not require operator action or electronic feedback in order to shut down safely in the event of a particular type of emergency (usually overheating resulting from a loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow). ... The term Active Safety can be used in two distinct ways. ... Defence in depth is a military strategy sometimes also called elastic defence. ... A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. ... Lead bricks being used to shield a radioactive sample in a lab French sign: Zone contrôlée - Accès réglementé Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is the science of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of both particle radiation and ionizing radiation. ...

Concerns

The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... An illustration showing the various sources of nuclear waste Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... A Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is a mode of failure for a nuclear reactor; in a nuclear reactor, the results of a LOCA could be catastrophic to the reactor, the facility that houses it, and the immediate vicinity around the reactor. ... A nuclear meltdown occurs when the core of a nuclear reactor ceases to be properly controlled and cooled due to failure of control or safety systems, and fuel assemblies (containing the uranium or plutonium reactor fuel and highly radioactive fission products) inside the reactor begin to overheat and melt. ...

Risk assessment

  • International Nuclear Events Scale
  • Probabilistic risk assessment
    • Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five U.S. Nuclear Power Plants NUREG-1150 1991
    • Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences CRAC-II 1982
    • Rasmussen Report: Reactor Safety Study WASH-1400 1975
    • The Brookhaven Report: Theoretical Possibilities and Consequences of Major Accidents in Large Nuclear Power Plants WASH-740 1957

The IAEA INES Scale The INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) was introduced by IAEA in order to enable prompt communication of safety significance information in case of nuclear accidents. ... Risk is the potential harm that may arise from some present process or from some future event. ... NUREG-1150 (Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, 1991, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC]) is an improvement on WASH-1400 and CRAC-II using the results of plant-specific Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs). ... CRAC-II is both the computer code and the 1982 report of the simulation results (entitled Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ... WASH-1400, Reactor Safety Study was produced by a committee of specialists under Professor Norman Rasmussen in 1975 for the USNRC. It is thus often referred to as the Rasmussen Report. ... WASH-740, Theoretical Possibilities and Consequences of Major Accidents in Large Nuclear Power Plants (also known as The Brookhaven Report) estimated maximum possible damage from a meltdown with no containment building at a large nuclear reactor. ...

Enforcement organisations

The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... NRC headquarters in Rockville, MD. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or NRC) is a United States government agency that was established by the Energy Reorganization Act in 1974, and was first opened January 19, 1975. ... The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is best described as the nuclear energy and materials watchdog in Canada. ... The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) is the national institute in the Republic of Ireland responsible for ionising radiation and radioactive contamination matters since its establishment in 1991 by the Radiological Protection Act, 1991. ... The Federal Atomic Energy Agency (FAEA) (Russian: ), often abbreviated as RosAtom () or MinAtom (), is the federal agency of Russia, the regulatory body of the Russian nuclear complex. ...

Lists of nuclear accidents

v  d  e
Nuclear technology
Nuclear engineering Nuclear physics | Nuclear fission | Nuclear fusion | Radiation | Ionizing radiation | Atomic nucleus | Nuclear reactor | Nuclear safety  | Nuclear chemistry
Nuclear material Nuclear fuel | Fertile material | Thorium | Uranium | Enriched uranium | Depleted uranium | Plutonium
Nuclear power Nuclear power plant | Radioactive waste | Fusion power | Future energy development | Inertial fusion power plant | Pressurized water reactor | Boiling water reactor | Generation IV reactor | Fast breeder reactor | Fast neutron reactor | Magnox reactor | Advanced gas-cooled reactor | Gas-cooled fast reactor | Molten salt reactor | Liquid-metal-cooled reactor | Lead-cooled fast reactor | Sodium-cooled fast reactor | Supercritical water reactor | Very high temperature reactor | Pebble bed reactor | Integral Fast Reactor | Nuclear propulsion | Nuclear thermal rocket | Radioisotope thermoelectric generator
Nuclear medicine PET | Radiation therapy | Tomotherapy | Proton therapy | Brachytherapy
Nuclear weapons History of nuclear weapons | Nuclear warfare | Nuclear arms race | Nuclear weapon design | Effects of nuclear explosions | Nuclear testing | Nuclear delivery | Nuclear proliferation | List of states with nuclear weapons | List of nuclear tests

 
 

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