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Encyclopedia > Nuclear programme of Iran
This article documents a current event.
Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.
Nuclear program of Iran

Articles Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power programme. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

The Iranian nuclear programme was launched in the 1950s with the help of the United States. After the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the government temporarily disbanded the programme, and then revived it with less Western assistance than during the pre-revolution era. Iran's current effort includes several research sites, a uranium mine, a nuclear reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include a uranium enrichment plant. The Iranian government asserts that the programme's goal is to develop nuclear power plants, and that it plans to use them to generate 6,000 MW of electricity by 2010.[1] The U.S. and some other nations' officials allege the programme covers an attempt to acquire nuclear weapons. Iran's officials have categorically denied these accusations.[2] As of 2006, nuclear power does not contribute to the Iranian energy grid. 1956: Marion King Hubbert publishes his prediction that world oil production will peak in the year 2000. ... The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power programme. ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1696 was passed by the United Nations Security Council on 31 July 2006. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737 was unanimously passed by the United Nations Security Council on 23 December 2006. ... Flag of the United Nations Flag of Islamic Republic of Iran United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on 24 March 2007. ... Gholam Reza Aghazadeh is the vice president of the Islamic Republic of Iran and also the president of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. ... Hassan Rowhani (حسن روحانی) is an Iranian politician and cleric, and as of March 2007, a member of the Supreme National Security Council. ... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... Operation Merlin is an alleged United States covert operation under the Clinton Administration to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon in order to delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program. ... The Green Salt Project is an alleged secretive Iranian entity focusing on uranium processing, high explosives and a missile warhead design. ... This article is about Iran and weapons of mass destruction. ... This article is about the current international tensions between Iran and other countries, especially the United States and Israel. ... This article is about Iran and weapons of mass destruction. ... Nuclear energy is energy released from the atomic nucleus. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution After Islamic Conquest  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... A nuclear power plant (NPP) is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. ... The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one joule per second. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Power line redirects here. ...


Gawdat Bahgat, the Director of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Indiana University of Pennsylvania states that Iranian's nuclear programme is formed by three forces: one, perception of security threats from Pakistan, Iraq, Israel, and the United States; two, domestic economic and political dynamics; and three, national pride.[2]


Bahgat makes the following four remarks regarding the Iranian nuclear programme:[2]

  • "Iranian officials express little confidence in the international community."[2] Because:
  • Under political pressure from Washington, many signed, commercial deals with the Iranian nuclear authority were either rejected or withdrawn.[2]
  • During the war between Iran and Iraq, the larger and more populous Iran had the upper hand. "To close this geographic and demographic gap, Saddam Hussein used chemical weapons against Iranian troops and civilians. These chemical weapons killed or injured thousands of Iranians and played a major role in turning the war in favour of Iraq. The international community did little to condemn Iraq or to protect Iran and was notably indifferent. This indifference has reinforced the Iranian view that “Iran is fully justified to arm itself with nuclear weapons for defence and deterrence.” The Gulf war (1990–91) has further confirmed Iran’s conviction. As Shahram Chubin asserts, “Iran has learned from its war with Iraq that, for deterrence to operate, the threatening state must be confronted with the certainty of an equivalent response. The threat of in-kind retaliation (or worse) deterred Iraq’s use of chemical weapons in Desert Storm; it appears that the absence of such a retaliatory capability facilitated its decision to use chemical weapons against Iran."[2]
  • Although Iran feels the need to be self-sufficient, "foreign assistance has played a crucial role in building Iran’s nuclear programme."[2]
  • Most of the information regarding Iran's nuclear capability is classified and thus one can not make accurate assessments. "However, based on open sources, most analysts believe that Tehran has developed a significant indigenous nuclear infrastructure. Its programme is more advanced than Libya’s prior to 2003, but less developed than that of North Korea."[2]
  • "Despite long-time accusations that Iran is pursuing nuclear weapons, no one has produced a 'smoking gun.' However, the scope and long secrecy of Iranian nuclear activities have led many observers to conclude that Iran is pursuing such a capability."[2]

Contents

History

The neutrality of this article or section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Iranian newspaper clip from 1968 reads: "A quarter of Iran's Nuclear Energy scientists are women." The photograph shows some female Iranian PhDs posing in front of Tehran's research reactor.

Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Atomic_women_Iran. ... Image File history File links Atomic_women_Iran. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

U.S.-Iran nuclear co-operation in the 1950s and 60s

The foundations for Iran's nuclear programme were laid after a 1953, CIA-supported coup deposed democratically-elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and brought Shah (King) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to power. By 1957, the West judged the regime sufficiently stable and friendly that nuclear proliferation would not become a threat. Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of the Persian Empire to the establishment of modern day Iran. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ...


That year, a civil nuclear co-operation programme was established under the U.S. Atoms for Peace programme. In 1959, the Tehran Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) was established, run by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI). The TNRC was equipped with a U.S.-supplied, 5-megawatt nuclear research reactor, which became operational in 1967 and was fueled by highly enriched uranium.[3] Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1968 and ratified it in 1970. With the establishment of Iran's atomic agency and the NPT in place, the Shah approved plans to construct, with U.S. help, up to 23 nuclear power stations by the year 2000. Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... Research reactors comprise a wide range of civil and commercial nuclear reactors which are generally not used for power generation. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


Gawdat Bahgat, a professor of Middle Eastern Studies states that "Despite assertions that Iran’s nuclear programme under the Shah was only for peaceful purposes, some sources claim that the Shah intended to build a nuclear weapons capability. In the mid-1970s, the Shah was quoted as saying that Iran would have nuclear weapons 'without a doubt and sooner than one would think.' The Center for Non-proliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies claims that the Western intelligence community 'had long suspected that the Shah’s nuclear scientists conducted research into military applications.'...despite these speculations on the Shah’s intentions, it is important to point out that in 1974, when the AEOI was established, the Shah called for making the entire Middle East a nuclear weapons-free zone (MENWFZ)."[2]


U.S.-Iran nuclear co-operation in the 1970s

Advertisement from the 1970s by American nuclear-energy companies, using Iran's nuclear programme as a marketing ploy

In March 1974, the Shah envisioned a time when the world's oil supply would run out, and declared, "Petroleum is a noble material, much too valuable to burn... We envision producing, as soon as possible, 23 000 megawatts of electricity using nuclear plants."[4] Bushehr would be the first plant, and would supply energy to the inland city of Shiraz. In 1975, the Bonn firm Kraftwerk Union AG, a joint venture of Siemens AG and AEG Telefunken, signed a contract worth $4 to $6 billion to build the pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. Construction of the two 1,196 MWe nuclear generating units was subcontracted to ThyssenKrupp, and was to have been completed in 1981. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (534 × 747 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Advertisement from the 1970s by American nuclear-power companies. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (534 × 747 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Advertisement from the 1970s by American nuclear-power companies. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Siemens AG (ISIN: DE0007236101, FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is one of the worlds largest technology companies. ... Telefunken is a German radio- and television company, founded in 1903. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER if of Russian design) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use ordinary water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... German industrial company ThyssenKrupp AG, with about 200,000 employees, mainly operates in the steel industry, but also in the automotive, industrial construction, and shipbuilding areas, as well as manufacturing lifts and providing other technologies and services. ...


"President Gerald Ford signed a directive in 1976 offering Tehran the chance to buy and operate a U.S.-built reprocessing facility for extracting plutonium from nuclear reactor fuel. The deal was for a complete 'nuclear fuel cycle'."[5] At the time, Richard Cheney was the White House Chief of Staff, and Donald Rumsfeld was the Secretary of Defense. The Ford strategy paper said the "introduction of nuclear power will both provide for the growing needs of Iran's economy and free remaining oil reserves for export or conversion to petrochemicals." this guy is awsome i played him in a school play he also has some pretty funky history Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941), widely known as Dick Cheney, is an American politician and businessman affiliated with the U.S. Republican Party. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975–1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001–2006. ...


Iran, a U.S. ally then, had deep pockets and close ties to Washington. U.S. and European companies scrambled to do business there.[6]


Then-United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger said in 2005, 'I don't think the issue of proliferation came up'.[5] As a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which Iran signed in 1968, their programme would have been under International Atomic Energy Agency inspection. Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ...


After the 1979 Revolution

After the 1979 Revolution, Iran informed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of its plans to restart its nuclear programme using indigenously-made nuclear fuel, and in 1983 the IAEA even planned to provide assistance to Iran under its Technical Assistance Programme to produce enriched uranium. An IAEA report stated clearly that its aim was to “contribute to the formation of local expertise and manpower needed to sustain an ambitious programme in the field of nuclear power reactor technology and fuel cycle technology”. However, the IAEA was forced to terminate the programme under U.S. pressure.[7] The revolution was a turning point in terms of foreign co-operation on nuclear technology. 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution After Islamic Conquest  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ...


Another result of the 1979 Revolution was France's refusal to give any enriched uranium to Iran after 1979. Iran also didn't get back its investment from Eurodif. The joint stock company Eurodif was formed in 1973 by France, Belgium, Spain and Sweden. In 1975 Sweden’s 10% share in Eurodif went to Iran as a result of an arrangement between France and Iran. The French government subsidiary company Cogéma and the Iranian Government established the Sofidif (Société franco–iranienne pour l’enrichissement de l’uranium par diffusion gazeuse) enterprise with 60% and 40% shares, respectively. In turn, Sofidif acquired a 25% share in EURODIF, which gave Iran its 10% share of Eurodif. Reza Shah Pahlavi lent 1 billion dollars (and another 180 million dollars in 1977) for the construction of the Eurodif factory, to have the right of buying 10% of the production of the site. These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Eurodif, which means European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium, is a subsidiary company of French company Cogéma which exploits a uranium enrichment plant established in the nuclear site of Tricastin in Pierrelatte in Drôme. ... A joint stock company is a type of business partnership in which the capital is formed by the individual contributions of a group of shareholders. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Areva NC, formerly Cogema (Compagnie générale des matières nucléaires, name changed in march 2006), a French company created in 1976 as a wholly owned subsidiary of the AREVA group, is an industrial group active in uranium mining, conversion and enrichment through spent fuel reprocessing and recycling. ...


The U.S. was also paid to deliver new fuel and upgrade its power in accordance with a contract signed before the revolution. The U.S. delivered neither the fuel nor returned the billions of dollars payment it had received. Germany was paid in full, totaling billions of dollars, for the two nuclear facilities in Bushehr, but after three decades, Germany has also refused to export any equipment or refund the money.[8] Iran's government suspended its payments and tried refunding the loan by making pressure on France by handling militant groups, including the Hezbollah who took French citizens hostage in the 1980s. In 1982, president François Mitterrand refused to give any uranium to Iran, which also claimed the $1 billion debt. In 1986, Eurodif manager Georges Besse was assassinated; the act was allegedly claimed by left-wing militants from Action Directe. However, they denied any responsibility during their trial.[9] In their investigation La République atomique, France-Iran le pacte nucléaire, David Carr-Brown and Dominique Lorentz pointed out toward the Iranian intelligence services' responsibility. More importantly, they also showed how the French hostage scandal was connected with the Iranian blackmail. Finally an agreement was found in 1991: France refunded more than 1.6 billion dollars. Iran remained shareholder of Eurodif via Sofidif, a Franco-Iranian consortium shareholder to 25% of Eurodif. However, Iran abstained itself from asking for the produced uranium.[10][11] Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... -1...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) was President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Georges Besse (born December 25, 1927 in Clermont-Ferrand, France, died November 17, 1986) was a French businessman who led several large state-controlled French companies during his lifetime. ... Action Directe was a French left-wing urban guerrilla or terror group which committed a series of assassinations and violent attacks in France in the 1980s. ... Dominique Lorentz is a French investigative journalist who has written books on the stakes and reality of nuclear proliferation, as well as a film documentary, La République Atomique (The Atomic Republic), which related terrorist acts in France in the 1980s to the nuclear program of Iran. ... Eurodif, which means European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium, is a subsidiary company of French company Cogéma which exploits a uranium enrichment plant established in the nuclear site of Tricastin in Pierrelatte in Drôme. ...


Kraftwerk Union, the joint venture of Siemens AG and AEG Telefunken who had signed a contract with Iran in 1975, fully withdrew from the Bushehr nuclear project in July 1979, after work stopped in January 1979, with one reactor 50% complete, and the other reactor 85% complete. They said they based their action on Iran's non-payment of $450 million in overdue payments. The company had received $2.5 billion of the total contract. Their cancellation came after certainty that the Iranian government would unilaterally terminate the contract themselves, following the revolution, which paralyzed Iran's economy and led to a crisis in Iran's relations with the West. The French company Framatome, a subsidiary of Areva, also withdrew itself. Siemens AG (ISIN: DE0007236101, FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is one of the worlds largest technology companies. ... Telefunken is a German radio- and television company, founded in 1903. ... AREVA (Euronext: CEI) is a France-based multinational industrial conglomerate that deals in energy, especially in nuclear power. ...


In 1984, Kraftwerk Union did a preliminary assessment to see if it could resume work on the project, but declined to do so while the Iran-Iraq War continued. In April of that year, the U.S. State Department said, "We believe it would take at least two to three years to complete construction of the reactors at Bushehr." The spokesperson also said that the light water power reactors at Bushehr "are not particularly well-suited for a weapons programme." The spokesman went on to say, "In addition, we have no evidence of Iranian construction of other facilities that would be necessary to separate plutonium from spent reactor fuel." Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4...


The Bushehr reactors were then damaged by multiple Iraqi air strikes between March 24, 1984 to 1988 and work on the nuclear programme came to a standstill. In 1990, Iran began to look outwards towards new partners for its nuclear programme; however, due to a radically different political climate and punitive U.S. economic sanctions, few candidates existed. March 24 is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ...


According to a report by the Argentine justice, Iran signed three agreements with Argentina in 1987-88. Argentina has had a National Atomic Energy Commission since 1950, and completed its first nuclear reactor, Atucha I in 1974 and Embalse in 1984, a year after the return to democracy. The first Iranian-Argentine agreement involved help in converting a nuclear reactor in Tehran so that it could use 20%-enriched uranium (ie, low-grade uranium that cannot be used for weapons production) and indicates that it included the shipment of the 20%-enriched uranium to Iran. The second and third agreements were for technical assistance, including components, for the building of pilot plants for uranium-dioxide conversion and fuel fabrication. Under US pressure, assistance was reduced, but not completely terminated, and negotiations with the aim of re-establishing the three agreements took pace from early 1992 to 1994.[12] Seal of the CNEA The National Atomic Energy Commission (Spanish: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA) is the Argentine government agency in charge of nuclear energy research and development. ... Atucha I is one of two operational nuclear power plants of Argentina. ... Embalse (in full, Central Nuclear Embalse) is one of the two operational nuclear power plants in Argentina. ...


According to IAEA spokesperson Melissa Fleming, IAEA inspectors visited Iran's uranium mines in 1992.


In 1995, Iran signed a contract with Russia to resume work on the partially-complete Bushehr plant,[13] installing into the existing Bushehr I building a 915MWe VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor, with completion expected in 2007. There are no current plans to complete the Bushehr II reactor. The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one joule per second. ... WWER-10ff (also VVER-1000 as a direct translitteration from Russian ВВЭР-1000). ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER if of Russian design) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use ordinary water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


In 1996, the U.S. tried, without success, to block the People's Republic of China from selling to Tehran a conversion plant. The PRC also provided Iran with gas needed to test the uranium enrichment process.


2000 - August 2006

Seen here in this ISNA footage is Gholam Reza Aghazadeh and AEOI officials with a sample of Yellowcake during a public announcement on the April 11, 2006, in Mashad that Iran had managed to successfully complete the fuel cycle by itself.

On August 14, 2002, Alireza Jafarzadeh, a prominent Iranian dissident, revealed the existence of two unknown (these were NOT "UNKNOWN" - see ArmsControlWonk: http://www.armscontrolwonk.com/517/exiles-and-iran-intel) nuclear sites: a uranium enrichment facility in Natanz (part of which is underground), and a heavy water facility in Arak. Image File history File links Hastehi. ... Image File history File links Hastehi. ... ISNA – The First Students News Agency STUDENT NEWS AGENCY can be introduced in the category of STUDENT MEDIA. Iranian Student News Agency (ISNA,http://isna. ... Gholam Reza Aghazadeh is the vice president of the Islamic Republic of Iran and also the president of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. ... The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Imam Reza Shrine Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Alireza Jafarzadeh Alireza Jafarzadeh (born 1957) is an expert on the Middle East, an author, a media commentator, and and an active dissident figure to the Iranian government who is best known for revealing the existence of clandestine nuclear facilities in Iran in 2002. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Arak, (in Persian: اراک) previously known as Soltan-abad, is the center of Markazi province, Iran. ...


The IAEA immediately sought access to these facilities and further information and co-operation from Iran regarding its nuclear programme.[14] According to arrangements in force at the time for implementation of Iran's safeguards agreement with the IAEA,[15] Iran was not required to allow IAEA inspections of a new nuclear facility until six months before nuclear material is introduced into that facility. At the time, Iran was not even required to inform the IAEA of the existence of the facility. This 'six months' clause was standard for implementation of all IAEA safeguards agreements until 1992, when the Board of Governors decided that facilities should be reported during the planning phase, even before construction began. Iran was the last country to accept that decision, and only did so February 26, 2003, after the IAEA investigation began.[16] February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


France, Germany and the United Kingdom (the "EU-3") undertook a diplomatic initiative with Iran to resolve questions about its nuclear programme. On October 21, 2003, in Tehran, the Iranian government and EU-3 Foreign Ministers issued a statement[17] in which Iran agreed to co-operate with the IAEA, to sign and implement an Additional Protocol as a voluntary, confidence-building measure, and to suspend its enrichment and reprocessing activities during the course of the negotiations. The EU-3 in return explicitly agreed to recognise Iran's nuclear rights and to discuss ways Iran could provide "satisfactory assurances" regarding its nuclear power programme, after which Iran would gain easier access to modern technology. Iran signed an Additional Protocol on December 18, 2003, and agreed to act as if the protocol were in force, making the required reports to the IAEA and allowing the required access by IAEA inspectors, pending Iran's ratification of the Additional Protocol. October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The IAEA reported November 10, 2003,[18] that "it is clear that Iran has failed in a number of instances over an extended period of time to meet its obligations under its Safeguards Agreement with respect to the reporting of nuclear material and its processing and use, as well as the declaration of facilities where such material has been processed and stored." Iran was obligated to inform the IAEA of its importation of uranium from China and subsequent use of that material in uranium conversion and enrichment activities. It was also obligated to report to the IAEA experiments with the separation of plutonium. A comprehensive list of Iran's specific "breaches" of its IAEA safeguards agreement, which the IAEA described as part of a "pattern of concealment," can be found in the November 15, 2004 report of the IAEA on Iran's nuclear programme.[19] Iran attributes is failure to report certain acquisitions and activities on US obstructionism, which reportedly included pressuring the IAEA to cease providing technical assistance to Iran's uranium conversion programme in 1983.[20] November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On the question of whether Iran had a hidden nuclear weapons programme, the IAEA reported in November 2003 that it found "no evidence" that the previously undeclared activities were related to a nuclear weapons programme, but also that it was unable to conclude that Iran's nuclear programme was exclusively peaceful. The IAEA remains unable to draw such a conclusion. Iran has argued that this puts Iran in the same category as many other states for which the IAEA is unable to conclude that there are no undeclared nuclear activities, particularly since the IAEA certified in Jan 31, 2006 that "Iran has continued to facilitate access under its Safeguards Agreement as requested by the Agency, and to act as if the Additional Protocol is in force, including by providing in a timely manner the requisite declarations and access to locations."[21] However, the IAEA continues to report that Iran has failed to provide information to resolve specific questions, including documents on casting uranium metal into hemispheres and requested information on its P1 and P2 centrifuge programmes and its plutonium separation experiments. Iran states that the information requested exceeds the boundaries of the existing safeguards agreement. Since terminating its second agreement to suspend its enrichment-related and reprocessing activities under the Paris Agrement, Iran has steadily reduced its co-operation with the IAEA to only the strict requirements of the existing safeguards agreement, suspending the voluntary implementation of the Additional Protocol and reversing its decision to provide early design information on new facilities.


The IAEA Board of Governors eventually concluded that Iran's safeguards "breaches" and "failures" constituted "non-compliance" with its Safeguards Agreement[22] even though the IAEA had certified that there was no diversion of fissile material to military use, the basis for a referral to the UN Security Counsel as specified in Article 19 of Iran's safeguards agreement. The Board deferred a formal decision on this for nearly two years, until September 24, 2005,[23] in order to encourage Iran to co-operate with the EU-3 diplomatic initiative. The Board deferred the formal report to the UN Security Council, required by Article XII.C of the IAEA Statute,[24] for another five months, until February 27, 2006.[25] September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Under the terms of the Paris Agreement, on November 14, 2004, Iran's chief nuclear negotiator announced a voluntary and temporary suspension of its uranium enrichment programme (enrichment is not a violation of the NPT) and the voluntary implementation of the Additional Protocol, after pressure from the United Kingdom, France, and Germany acting on behalf of the European Union (EU) (known in this context as the EU-3). The measure was said at the time to be a voluntary, confidence-building measure, to continue for some reasonable period of time (six months being mentioned as a reference) as negotiations with the EU-3 continued. On November 24, Iran sought to amend the terms of its agreement with the EU to exclude a handful of the equipment from this deal for research work. This request was dropped four days later. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... EU three or EU 3 refers to the United Kingdom, France and Germany, with relation to the status, power and influence of these three nations within the European Union in their attempts to end Irans nuclear program. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In early August 2005, Iran removed seals on its uranium enrichment equipment in Isfahan[15], which UK officials termed a "breach of the Paris Agreement"[16] though a case can be made that the EU violated the terms of the Paris Agreement by demanding that Iran abandon nuclear enrichment [17]. Several days later, the EU-3 offered Iran a package in return for permanent cessation of enrichment. Reportedly, it included benefits in the political, trade and nuclear fields, as well as long-term supplies of nuclear materials and assurances of non-aggression by the EU (and not the US),[18]. Mohammad Saeedi, the deputy head of Iran's atomic energy organisation rejected the offer, terming it "very insulting and humiliating"[19] and other independent analysts characterised the EU offer as an "empty box". These developments coincided with the election of President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad, and the appointment of Ali Larijani as the chief Iranian nuclear negotiator [20]. Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ...


In September 2005, IAEA Director General Mohammad ElBaradei reported that “most” highly-enriched uranium traces found in Iran by agency inspectors came from imported centrifuge components, validating Iran's claim that the traces were due to contamination. Sources in Vienna and the State Department reportedly stated that, for all practical purposes, the HEU issue has been resolved. Look up September in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In January 2006, James Risen, a New York Times reporter, alleged in his book State of War that in February 2000, a U.S. covert operation - code-named Operation Merlin - had backfired. It originally aimed to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon, in order to delay the alleged Iranian nuclear weapons programme. Instead, the plan may have accelerated Iran's nuclear programme by providing useful information, once the flaws were identified [21]. January 2006 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad accuses European nations of trying to complete the Holocaust by creating a Jewish camp Israel in the Middle East. ... James Risen is a reporter for the New York Times and previously the Los Angeles Times, and author/co-author of two books about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... A Female Reporter A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... Operation Merlin is an alleged United States covert operation under the Clinton Administration to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon in order to delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program. ...


On February 4, 2006, the 35 member Board of Governors of the IAEA voted 27-3 (with five abstentions: Algeria, Belarus, Indonesia, Libya and South Africa) to report Iran to the UN Security Council. The measure was sponsored by the United Kingdom, France and Germany, and it was backed by the United States. Two permanent council members, Russia and China, agreed to referral only on condition that the council take no action before March. The three members who voted against referral were Venezuela, Syria and Cuba.[26][27] February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


In late February, 2006, IAEA Director Mohammad El-Baradei raised the suggestion of a deal, whereby Iran would give up industrial-scale enrichment and instead limit its programme to a small-scale pilot facility, and agree to import its nuclear fuel from Russia. The Iranians indicated that while they would not be willing to give up their right to enrichment in principle, they were willing to consider the compromise solution. However in March 2006, the Bush Administration made it clear that they would not accept any enrichment at all in Iran. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


On April 11, 2006, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that Iran had successfully enriched uranium. President Ahmadinejad made the announcement in a televised address from the northeastern city of Mashhad, where he said "I am officially announcing that Iran joined the group of those countries which have nuclear technology." The uranium was enriched to 3.5% using over a hundred centrifuges. At this level, it could be used in a nuclear reactor if enough of it was made; uranium for a nuclear bomb would require around 90% enrichment and many thousands of centrifuges to be built and operated. April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Mashhad (also spelt Mashhad ar-Reza, Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


On April 13, 2006, After US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said (on Wednesday, April 12 2006) the Security Council must consider "strong steps" to induce Tehran to change course in its nuclear ambition; President Ahmadinejad vowed that Iran won't back away from uranium enrichment and that the world must treat Iran as a nuclear power, saying "Our answer to those who are angry about Iran achieving the full nuclear fuel cycle is just one phrase. We say: Be angry at us and die of this anger," because "We won't hold talks with anyone about the right of the Iranian nation to enrich uranium." April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ...


On April 14, 2006, The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) published a series of analysed satellite images of Iran's nuclear facilities at Natanz and Esfahan.[28] Featured in these images is a new tunnel entrance near the Uranium Conversion Facility (UCF) at Esfahan and continued construction at the Natanz uranium enrichment site. In addition, a series of images dating back to 2002 shows the underground enrichment buildings and its subsequent covering by soil, concrete, and other materials. Both facilities were already subject to IAEA inspections and safeguards. April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Iran responded to the demand to stop enrichment of uranium August 24, 2006, offering to return to the negotiation table but refusing to end enrichment.[29] August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Qolam Ali Hadad-adel, speaker of Iran's parliament, said on August 30, 2006, that Iran had the right to "peaceful application of nuclear technology and all other officials agree with this decision," according to the semi-official Iranian Students News Agency. "Iran opened the door to negotiations for Europe and hopes that the answer which was given to the nuclear package would bring them to the table.""[29] August 30 is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


August 31, 2006 and later

United States
  • President George W. Bush insisted on August 31, 2006 that "there must be consequences" for Iran's defiance of demands that it stop enriching uranium. He said "the world now faces a grave threat from the radical regime in Iran. The Iranian regime arms, funds, and advises Hezbollah."[30] The U.N.'s nuclear watchdog agency issued a report saying Iran has not suspended its uranium enrichment activities, a United Nations official said. The report by the International Atomic Energy Agency opens the way for U.N. Security Council sanctions against Tehran. Facing a Security Council deadline to stop its uranium enrichment activities, Iran has left little doubt it will defy the West and continue its nuclear programme.[29]
  • A congressional report released on August 23rd made many allegations that have been strongly disputed by the IAEA calling it "erroneous" and "misleading".""[31]
  • John Bolton, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, said on August 31, 2006 that he expected action to impose sanctions to begin immediately after the deadline passes, with meetings of high-level officials in the coming days, followed by negotiations on the language of the sanctions resolution. Bolton said that when the deadline passes "a little flag will go up." "In terms of what happens afterward, at that point, if they have not suspended all uranium enrichment activities, they will not be in compliance with the resolution," he said. "And at that point, the steps that the foreign ministers have agreed upon previously ... we would begin to talk about how to implement those steps." The five permanent members of the Security Council, plus Germany, previously offered Iran a package of incentives aimed at getting the country to restart negotiations, but Iran refused to halt its nuclear activities first. Incentives included offers to improve Iran's access to the international economy through participation in groups such as the World Trade Organization and to modernise its telecommunications industry. The incentives also mentioned the possibility of lifting restrictions on U.S. and European manufacturers wanting to export civil aircraft to Iran. And a proposed long-term agreement accompanying the incentives offered a "fresh start in negotiations."[29]

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... There are several people named John Bolton, including: John Gatenby Bolton – British-Australian astronomer (1922–1993) John R. Bolton – U.S. politician and diplomat U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. (2005-current) (b. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Iran
  • "They should know that the Iranian nation will not yield to pressure and will not let its rights be trampled on," Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad told a crowd August 31, 2006 in a televised speech in the northwestern Iranian city of Orumiyeh. In front of his strongest supporters in one of his provincial power bases, the Iranian leader attacked what he called "intimidation" by the United Nations, which he said was led by the United States. Ahmadinejad criticised a White House rebuff of his offer for a televised debate with President Bush. "They say they support dialogue and the free flow of information," he said. "But when debate was proposed, they avoided and opposed it." Ahmadinejad said that sanctions "cannot dissuade Iranians from their decision to make progress," according to Iran's state-run IRNA news agency. "On the contrary, many of our successes, including access to the nuclear fuel cycle and producing of heavy water, have been achieved under sanctions." Iran has been under IAEA investigation since 2003, with inspectors turning up evidence of clandestine plutonium experiments, black-market centrifuge purchases and military links to what Iran says is a civilian nuclear programme.[29]
  • Iran insists enrichment activities are intended for peaceful purposes, but much of the West, including the United States, allege that Iran is pursuing nuclear weapons. The August 31, 2006 deadline calls for Iran to comply with U.N. Resolution 1696 and end its nuclear activities or face the possibility of economic sanctions. The United States believes the council will agree to implement sanctions when high-level ministers reconvene in mid-September, U.S. Undersecretary of State Nicholas Burns said. "We're sure going to work toward that [sanctions] with a great deal of energy and determination because this cannot go unanswered," Burns said. "The Iranians are obviously proceeding with their nuclear research; they are doing things that the International Atomic Energy Agency does not want them to do, the Security Council doesn't want them to do. There has to be an international answer, and we believe there will be one."[29]
  • Iran points out that there is no legal basis for Iran's referral to the United Nations Security Council since the IAEA has certified that previously undeclared activities had no relationship to a weapons programme, and that all fissile material in Iran had been accounted for and had not been diverted to military purposes. Article 19 of Iran's safeguards agreement and Article XII.C of the IAEA Statutes require a referral to the UN Security Council only if there is diversion of fissile material for non-peaceful uses. Iran also points out that while the IAEA has stated that it is not able to verify the peacefulness of Iran's nuclear programme, the IAEA only verifies this for states that have implemented the Additional Protocol, and that according to the IAEA, 40 other states are in the same category as Iran. Iran also points out that the UN Security Council resolutions demanding a suspension of enrichment constitute a violation of Article IV of the Non-Proliferation Treaty which recognises the inalienable right of signatory nations to nuclear technology "without discrimination."
  • On October 23, 2006, he told a crowd on the outside of Tehran that "The enemies, resorting to propaganda, want to block us from achieving (nuclear technology)," "But they should know that today, the capability of our nation has multiplied tenfold over the same period last year."[32]
  • On April 9, 2007, Iran announced that it has begun enriching uranium with 3 000 centrifuges, presumably at Natanz enrichment site. "With great honour, I declare that as of today our dear country has joined the nuclear club of nations and can produce nuclear fuel on an industrial scale", said Ahmadinejad.[33]
  • On April 22, 2007, Iranians foreign ministry spokesman Mohammad Ali Hosseini announced that his country rules out enrichment suspension ahead of talks with EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana on April 25, 2007.[34]

  (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Map of Iran showing location of Urmia Urmia (Persian: ارومیه, Turkish: Urumiah, Kurdish: Wurmê, Syriac: ܘܪܡܝܐ), previously called Rezaiyeh (رضائیه), is a city in northwestern Iran, and the capital of the West Azarbaijan province, situated on the western side of Lake Urmia near the Turkish border. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Ambassador R. Nicholas Burns For other people named Burns, see Burns (disambiguation). ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Mohammad Ali Hosseini (In Persian: محمد علی حسینی) is the vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran. ... Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

United Nations
  • The IAEA has condemned the US over a report written by a congressional committee on the nuclear situation in Iran. The leaked report was called erroneous and misleading in a letter sent to Peter Hoekstra. Allegations in the report of why an inspector was dismissed were branded outrageous and dishonest. One unnamed western diplomat called it deja vu of the false reports made by the US administration to justify the invasion of Iraq.[35]
  • IAEA officials complain that most U.S. intelligence shared with the U.N. nuclear watchdog agency about Iran's nuclear programme proved to be inaccurate, and none has led to significant discoveries inside Iran.[36]
  • On 10 May 2007, Agence France-Presse, quoting un-named diplomats, reported that Iran had blocked IAEA inspectors when they sought access to the Iran's enrichment facility.[37] Both Iran and the IAEA vehemently denied the report. On 11 March, 2007, Reuters quoted International Atomic Energy Agency spokesman Marc Vidricaire, "We have not been denied access at any time, including in the past few weeks. Normally we do not comment on such reports but this time we felt we had to clarify the matter...If we had a problem like that we would have to report to the (35-nation IAEA governing) board ... That has not happened because this alleged event did not take place."[38]

The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...

European Union

Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Mohammad Ali Hosseini said on May 6, 2007 that no new schedule for renewed talks between Iran and the European Union over the country’s nuclear programme has yet been set.[39] Mohammad Ali Hosseini (In Persian: محمد علی حسینی) is the vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (127th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


United Nations sanctions

World powers have sought to impose sanctions on Iran for its non-compliance with IAEA Board resolutions requiring a "voluntary" suspension of enrichment. On 23 December 2006, the United Nations Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1737, banning the supply of specific nuclear materials and technology to Iran, and freezing the assets of individuals and companies linked to Iran's nuclear programme. The resolution also specifies that if Iran fails to suspend nuclear enrichment, further nonmilitary sanctions may follow. The language of the resolution is lighter than that sought by the United States, and was changed in response to Chinese and Russian concerns.[40] On 24 March 2007, further to Resolution 1737, the UNSC adopted Resolution 1747. December 23 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... “UNSC” redirects here. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737 was unanimously passed by the United Nations Security Council on 23 December 2006. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Flag of the United Nations Flag of Islamic Republic of Iran United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on 24 March 2007. ...


Nuclear power as a political issue

Iran's nuclear programme has become political in two ways: local and international. Iranian politicians use it as part of their populist platform, and there is international speculation about Iran's possible use of nuclear technology. Iran is a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which it ratified in 1970 — however, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) believes that recent Iranian non co-operation makes it impossible to conduct adequate inspections to ensure that the technology is not being diverted for weapons use.[citation needed] Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ...


Iran's nuclear programme and the NPT

Main article: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
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Former Iranian president Rafsanjani states Iran is enriching uranium

The Iranian nuclear programme has been controversial although the development of a civilian nuclear power programme is explicitly allowed under the terms of the NPT, there have been allegations that Iran has been illicitly pursuing a nuclear weapons programme, in violation of the NPT. (See Iran and weapons of mass destruction) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This article is about Iran and weapons of mass destruction. ...


The Iranian government says it sees nuclear power as a way to modernise and diversify its energy-sources, other than its large oil and gas reserves. The Iranian public, nearly all political candidates, and the current government are unified on this point: Iran should be developing its peaceful nuclear industry.[41][42] In addition, it states that Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has issued a fatwa saying that the production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons was forbidden under Islam.[43] Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Iran. ...


Any use outside peaceful energy production would be a violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which Iran ratified in 1970. Some of Iran's leaders before the revolution have also expressed their support in this regard. Ardeshir Zahedi for example, who signed Iran into the NPT during the Pahlavi dynasty, in an interview in May 2006, voiced his support for Iran's Nuclear Programme stating it as an "inalienable right of Iran".[44] Ardeshir Zahedi Ardeshir Zahedi (born October 16, 1928) was an important Iranian diplomat during the 1960s and 1970s, serving as the countrys foreign minister and its ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ...


The current US administration, France, Germany, and Great Britain have stated that Iran's nuclear programme has been suspicious.[45]


These allegations prompted an investigation last year by the IAEA which found no evidence of a nuclear weapons programme, although the level of co-operation by the Iranians was strongly criticised.[46][47] Traces of enriched uranium and plutonium have been found recently in Iran – although a senior UN official cautioned against reading too much into the new finds, as they could be produced by peaceful nuclear activities.[48] IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


Views on Iran's Nuclear Power Programme

The Iranian viewpoint

Iran says that nuclear power is necessary for a booming population and rapidly-industrialising nation

Iran says [22] that nuclear power is necessary for a booming population and rapidly-industrialising nation. It points to the fact that Iran's population has more than doubled in 20 years, the country regularly imports gasoline and electricity, and that burning fossil fuel in large amounts severely harms Iran's environment. Additionally, Iran wishes to diversify its sources of energy. Iran's oil reserves are currently estimated at 133 billion barrels, at a current pumping rate of 1.5-1.8 billion barrels per year. This is only enough oil to last the next 74-89 years assuming pumping rates are steady and additional reserves are not found. In taking a stance that the Shah expressed decades ago, Iranians feel its valuable oil should be used for high-value products, not simple electricity generation. "Petroleum is a noble material, much too valuable to burn... We envision producing, as soon as possible, 23 000 megawatts of electricity using nuclear plants."[citation needed] Iran also faces financial constraints, and claims that developing the excess capacity in its oil industry would cost it $40 billion, let alone pay for the power plants.[citation needed] Roger Stern from Johns Hopkins University partially concurred with this view, projecting that due to "energy subsidies, hostility to foreign investment, and inefficiencies of its [Iranian] state-planned economy", Iranian oil exports would vanish by 2014–2015, although he notes that this outcome has "no relation to 'peak oil.'"[23] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Peak Oil Depletion Scenarios Graph which depicts cumulative published depletion studies by ASPO and other depletion analysts. ...


Dr. William O. Beeman, Brown University's Middle East Studies program professor, who spent years in Iran, says that the Iranian nuclear issue is a unified point of their political discussion: William Orman Beeman is an actor, author, singer, and professor of anthropology at Brown University. ...

"The Iranian side of the discourse is that they want to be known and seen as a modern, developing state with a modern, developing industrial base. The history of relations between Iran and the West for the last hundred years has included Iran's developing various kinds of industrial and technological advances to prove to themselves--and to attempt to prove to the world--that they are, in fact, that kind of country."

After the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran informed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of its plans to restart its nuclear programme using indigenously-made nuclear fuel, and in 1983 the IAEA even planned to provide assistance to Iran under its Technical Assistance Programme to produce enriched uranium. An IAEA report stated clearly that its aim was to “contribute to the formation of local expertise and manpower needed to sustain an ambitious programme in the field of nuclear power reactor technology and fuel cycle technology”. However, the IAEA was forced to terminate the programme under U.S. pressure.


Iran also believes it has a legal right to enrich uranium for peaceful purposes under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, a right which in 2005 the U.S. and the EU-3 began to assert had been forfeited by a clandestine nuclear programme that came to light in 2002. In fact, Iran's enrichment programme was openly discussed on national radio, and IAEA inspectors had even visited Iran's uranium mines [16]. ([24]) Iranian politicians compare its treatment as a signatory to the NPT with three nuclear-armed nations that have not signed the NPT: Israel, India, and Pakistan. Each of these nations developed an indigenous nuclear weapons capability: Israel by 1968 [25], India by 1974 [26] and Pakistan by 1990 [27]. There is no provision in the Non-Proliferation Treaty or anywhere else that allows Non-Proliferation Treaty rights to be declared as forefeited, and indeed other US-allied nations which where caught conducting secret nuclear experiments have not been declared as having forfeited their NPT rights.


The Iranian authorities assert that they cannot simply trust the United States or Europe to provide Iran with nuclear energy fuel, and point to a long series of agreements, contracts and treaty obligations which were not fulfilled. [24] Developing nations say they don’t want to give up their rights to uranium enrichment and don’t trust the United States or other nuclear countries to be consistent suppliers of the nuclear material they would need to run their power plants. [25]


Middle Eastern responses

The New York Times newspaper reports Iran's nuclear programme has spured interest in establishing nuclear power programmes by a number of neighbouring countries, including Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Egypt. According to the report, "roughly a dozen states in the region have recently turned to the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna for help in starting" nuclear programmes. [49] The article also described neighbouring states as very hostile to any nuclear weapons programme Iran might embark on, stated "many diplomats and analysts say that the Sunni Arab governments are so anxious about Iran’s nuclear progress that they would even, grudgingly, support a United States military strike against Iran." The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ...


US and Western European viewpoints

The views of the US government and several major European nations is that Iran's primary goal is not nuclear power but rather nuclear weapons. They cite Iran's concealment of many nuclear activities for nearly two decades in violation of its NPT safeguards obligations, including an enrichment programme that would enable Iran to produce highly-enriched uranium for nuclear weapons and is not needed for Iran's current nuclear power programme. According to the The Economist magazine, "even before the election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Iran was negotiating in bad faith. During this period, European officials believe, it continued to work in secret on nuclear research, having promised to suspend uranium enrichment." [50] This article is about Iran and weapons of mass destruction. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ...


Some sceptics also argue that energy and economic considerations would not justify Iran's nuclear power programme, since "if Iran really were short on energy, it could build gas-fired power plants at much lower cost, or make better use of its vast hydraulic resources;" and that the huge investment needed for nuclear power would pay greater returns if used to maintain or upgrade Iran's basic oil industry infrastructure. [51] Critics also cite as reasons for particular concern Iranian support for Hezbollah and the Iraqi Insurgency,[52] ideological intolerance towards Israel's existence, and pursuit of long-range missile technology capable of reaching anywhere in the Middle East. For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The Iraq resistance movement is the armed resistance by diverse groups to the coalition occupation of Iraq. ...


Israeli viewpoint

Main article: Iran-Israel relations

The view of many Israelis matches the view held by the US and many European countries.[53] Iran is perceived as "an existential threat", and anti-Israeli views expressed by Iranian religious and political leaders are often compared to Nazi ideology. See Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel for an example. [54] Relations between Iran and Israel have alternated from close political alliances between the two states during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty to hostility following the rise to power of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... During his presidency, Mahmoud Ahmadinejads speeches and statements have contributed to increased tensions between Iran and Israel, and between Iran and a few Western nations. ...


The Declaration of the Non-Aligned Movement

On September 16, 2006, in Havana, Cuba, all of the 118 Non-Aligned Movement member countries, at the summit level, declared that they were supporting Iran's nuclear programme for civilian purposes in their final written statement.[55] That is a clear majority of the 192 countries comprising the entire United Nations and representing 55% of the world population. // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Nickname: (Spanish) City of Columns Position of Havana in the Americas Coordinates: Country Cuba Province Ciudad de La Habana Municipalities 15 Founded 1515a Government  - Mayor Juan Contino Aslán Area  - City 721. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Map of countries by population —showing the population of the Peoples Republic of China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than a billion. ...


Nuclear facilities in Iran

Anarak

Anarak has a waste storage site, near Yazd. Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, one of the most ancient and historic cities in Iran and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. ...


Arak

Arak was one of the two sites exposed by a spokesman for the MEK terrorist group in 2002. Iran is constructing a 40 MWt heavy water moderated research reactor at this location, which should be ready for commissioning in 2014.[56][57] In August 2006, Iran announced the inauguration of the Arak plant for the production of heavy water. Under the terms of Iran's safeguards agreement, Iran was under no obligation to report the existence of the site while it was still under construction since it was not within the 180-day time limit specified by the safeguards agreement. This reactor is intended to replace the life-expired 1967 Tehran Nuclear Research Center research reactor, mainly involved in the production of radioisotopes for medical and agricultural purposes.[58] MKO Logo The Peoples Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI, also MEK, MKO) (Persian: سازمان مجاهدين خلق ايران sazmaan-e mujahedin-e khalq-e Iran) is a militant political party that advocates overthrowing the government in the Islamic Republic of Iran and replacing it with its own leadership. ...


Ardakan

Construction of a nuclear fuel site at Ardakan is reportedly scheduled to be finished in mid-2005.


Bonab

The Atomic Energy Research Center at Bonab is investigating the applications of nuclear technology in agriculture. It is run by the AEOI.


Bushehr

Iran will commisision its first nuclear power plant in Bushehr by the end of 2007 (construction 95% complete)

The Bushehr Nuclear Power Facility (28.83484° N 50.89356° E) is located 17 kilometres south of the city of Bushehr (also known as Bushire), between the fishing villages of Halileh and Bandargeh along the Persian Gulf. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A nuclear power station. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


On June 29, 2004, IAEA Director General Mohammad El-Baradei announced that the Bushehr reactor was "not of international concern" since it was a bilateral Russian-Iranian project intended to produce nuclear energy. The reactor is under full IAEA safeguards.


The facility was the idea of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who envisioned a time when the world's oil supply would run out. He wanted a national electrical grid powered by clean nuclear power plants. Bushehr would be the first plant, and would supply energy to the inland city of Shiraz. In August 1974, the Shah said, "Petroleum is a noble material, much too valuable to burn... We envision producing, as soon as possible, 23 000 megawatts of electricity using nuclear plants". His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ...


In 1975, the Bonn firm Kraftwerk Union AG, a joint venture of Siemens AG and AEG Telefunken, signed a contract worth $4 to $6 billion to build the pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. Construction of the two 1,196 MWe nuclear generating units was subcontracted to ThyssenKrupp AG, and was to have been completed in 1981. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Siemens AG (ISIN: DE0007236101, FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is one of the worlds largest technology companies. ... Telefunken is a German radio- and television company, founded in 1903. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER if of Russian design) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use ordinary water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... German industrial company ThyssenKrupp AG, with about 200,000 employees, mainly operates in the steel industry, but also in the automotive, industrial construction, and shipbuilding areas, as well as manufacturing elevators and providing other technologies and services. ...


Kraftwerk Union was eager to work with the Iranian government because, as spokesman Joachim Hospe said in 1976, "To fully exploit our nuclear power plant capacity, we have to land at least three contracts a year for delivery abroad. The market here is about saturated, and the United States has cornered most of the rest of Europe, so we have to concentrate on the third world."


Kraftwerk Union fully withdrew from the Bushehr nuclear project in July 1979, after work stopped in January 1979, with one reactor 50% complete, and the other reactor 85% complete. They said they based their action on Iran's non-payment of $450 million in overdue payments. The company had received $2.5 billion of the total contract. Their cancellation came after certainty that the Iranian government would unilaterally terminate the contract themselves, following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which paralysed Iran's economy and led to a crisis in Iran's relations with the West. 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution After Islamic Conquest  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran...


In 1984, Kraftwerk Union did a preliminary assessment to see if it could resume work on the project, but declined to do so while the Iran-Iraq war continued. In April of that year, the U.S. State Department said, "We believe it would take at least two to three years to complete construction of the reactors at Bushehr." The spokesperson also said that the light water power reactors at Bushehr "are not particularly well-suited for a weapons programme." The spokesman went on to say, "In addition, we have no evidence of Iranian construction of other facilities that would be necessary to separate plutonium from spent reactor fuel." Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4...


The reactors were then damaged by multiple Iraqi air strikes from 1984 to 1988, during the Iran-Iraq war. Shortly afterwards Iraq invaded Iran and the nuclear programme was stopped until the end of the war. Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4...


In 1990, Iran began to look outwards towards partners for its nuclear programme; however, due to a radically different political climate and punitive U.S. economic sanctions, few candidates existed.


In 1995 Iran signed a contract with Russia to resume work on the partially-complete Bushehr plant, installing into the existing Bushehr I building a 915MWe VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor, with completion expected in 2007.[59] The Russian state-controlled company Atomstroyexport (Atomic Construction Export), an arm of Russia's atomic energy ministry, MinAtom, is constructing the plant. MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... WWER-10ff (also VVER-1000 as a direct translitteration from Russian ВВЭР-1000). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Ministry for Atomic Energy (Russian Federation) is the ministry of Russia responsible for all things nuclear. ...


Under an agreement reached in September 2006, fuel deliveries to Bushehr are scheduled to start in March 2007 and the plant is due to come on stream in September 2007.[60]


On February 20th, 2007, according to Russian officials, it was reported that the opening of Bushehr could be delayed because Iran has fallen behind with the payments. A top Iranian nuclear official denied this. [26]


Iran announced on April 15, 2007, that it is seeking bids for two additional nuclear reactors to be located near Bushehr.[61]


Chalus

In 1995 Iranian exiles living in Europe claimed Iran was building a secret facility for building nuclear weapons in a mountain 20 kilometres from the town of Chalus.[62] In October 2003 Mohamed ElBaradei announced that "In terms of inspections, so far, we have been allowed to visit those sites to which we have requested access". It therefore appears the allegations about the Chalus site were unfounded.[63] Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ...


Darkovin

Iran declared in March 6, 2007, that it has started construction of a domestically built nuclear power plant with capacity of 360 MW in Darkhovin, in southwestern Iran.[64] A nuclear power station. ...


Isfahan

The Nuclear Technology Center of Isfahan is a nuclear research facility that currently operates four small nuclear research reactors, all supplied by China. It is run by the AEOI.[65]


The Uranium Conversion Facility at Isfahan converts yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride. As of late October 2004, the site is 70% operational with 21 of 24 workshops completed. There is also a Zirconium Production Plant (ZPP) located nearby that produces the necessary ingredients and alloys for nuclear reactors.[66] Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ... Uranium hexafluoride, or UF6, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ...

Zirconium Production Plant, Isfahan.

Zirconium Production Plant, Isfahan. ... Zirconium Production Plant, Isfahan. ...

Karaj

The Center for Agricultural Research and Nuclear Medicine at Hashtgerd was established in 1991 and is run by the AEOI. [27]


Lashkar Abad

Lashkar Abad is a pilot plant for isotope separation. Established in 2002, the site was first exposed by Alireza Jafarzadeh in May 2003 which led to the inspection of the site by the IAEA. Laser enrichment experiments were carried out there, however, the plant has been shut down since Iran declared it has no intentions of enriching uranium using the laser isotope separation technique.[28] In September 2006, Alireza Jafarzadeh claimed that the site has been revived by Iran and that laser enrichment has been taking place at this site.SPC Alireza Jafarzadeh Alireza Jafarzadeh (born 1957) is an expert on the Middle East, an author, a media commentator, and and an active dissident figure to the Iranian government who is best known for revealing the existence of clandestine nuclear facilities in Iran in 2002. ... Alireza Jafarzadeh Alireza Jafarzadeh (born 1957) is an expert on the Middle East, an author, a media commentator, and and an active dissident figure to the Iranian government who is best known for revealing the existence of clandestine nuclear facilities in Iran in 2002. ...


Lavizan

( 35°46′23″N, 51°29′52″E) All buildings at the former Lavizan-Shian Technical Research Center site were demolished between August 2003 and March 2004. Environmental samples taken by IAEA inspectors showed no trace of radiation. The site is to be returned to the City of Teheran.[67]


According to Reuters, claims by the US that topsoil has been removed and the site had been sanitized could not be verified by IAEA investigators who visited Lavizan:

Washington accused Iran of removing a substantial amount of topsoil and rubble from the site and replacing it with a new layer of soil, in what U.S. officials said might have been an attempt to cover clandestine nuclear activity at Lavizan. Former U.S. ambassador to the IAEA, Kenneth Brill, accused Iran in June of using "the wrecking ball and bulldozer" to sanitize Lavizan prior to the arrival of U.N. inspectors. But another diplomat close to the IAEA told Reuters that on-site inspections of Lavizan produced no proof that any soil had been removed at all.

Natanz

( 33°43′24.43″N, 51°43′37.55″E) is a hardened Fuel Enrichment Plant (FEP) covering 100,000 square metres that is built 8 meters underground and protected by a concrete wall 2.5 meters thick, itself protected by another concrete wall. In 2004, the roof was hardened with reinforced concrete and covered with 22 metres of earth. The complex consists of two 25,000 square meter halls and a number of administrative buildings. This once secret site was one of the two exposed by Alireza Jafarzadeh in 2002. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei visited the site on 21 February 2003 and reported that 160 centrifuges were complete and ready for operation, with 1000 more under construction at the site.[68] Under the terms of Iran's safeguards agreement, Iran was under no obligation to report the existence of the site while it was still under construction. More details: Proposed Israeli Nuclear First Strike on Natanz Facility. Alireza Jafarzadeh Alireza Jafarzadeh (born 1957) is an expert on the Middle East, an author, a media commentator, and and an active dissident figure to the Iranian government who is best known for revealing the existence of clandestine nuclear facilities in Iran in 2002. ...


Parchin

The Parchin Military Complex is not a nuclear site. This was confirmed on 1 November 2005, when the IAEA was given access to the site and environmental samples were taken. Inspectors did not observe any unusual activities in the buildings visited, and the results of the analysis of environmental samples did not indicate the presence of nuclear material.[69]


Saghand

( 32°28′45″N, 55°24′30″E) Location of Iran's first uranium ore mines, expected to become operational by March 2005. The deposit is estimated to contain 3,000 to 5,000 tons of uranium oxide at a density of about 500 ppm over an area of 100 to 150 square kilometers. [29]


Tehran

The Tehran Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) is managed by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI). It is equipped with a U.S.-supplied 5-megawatt nuclear research reactor capable of producing 600 g of plutonium annually in spent fuel. 17 years production would be sufficient to make a single atomic bomb, however storage of the waste is closely monitored by the IAEA and extracting the plutonium is not possible while Iran maintains its status as a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


The Plasma Physics Research Center of Islamic Azad University operates a Tokamak fusion reactor designated Iran Tokamak 1 (IR-T1).[70] A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ...


Yazd

Yazd Radiation Processing Center is equipped with a Rhodotron TT200 accelerator, made by IBA, Belgium, with outputs of 5 and 10MeV beam lines and a maximum power of 100KW. As of 2006 the centre is engaged in geophysical research to analyze the mineral deposits surrounding the city and is expected to play an important role in supporting the medical and polymer industries.[71] 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

1956: Marion King Hubbert publishes his prediction that world oil production will peak in the year 2000. ... Iran holds 10% of the worlds proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas. ... The economy of Iran has been improving steadily over the past two decades but a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%. According to experts, annual economic growth above five per... The AIPAC espionage scandal refers to allegations that information regarding United States policy towards Iran was passed to Israel through the powerful American Israel Public Affairs Committee. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The 13 steps is a paragraph of the Final Document (agreed by consensus) of the 2000 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, providing a set of practical steps for the systematic and progressive efforts to implement Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons... Operation Merlin is an alleged United States covert operation under the Clinton Administration to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon in order to delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program. ... Petrodollar warfare is a hypothesis that many international manœuvres in recent decades are taken to support the current dollar hegemony over other currencies. ... Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, announced by U.S. Department of Energy secretary Samuel Bodman on February 6, 2006, is a plan to form an international partnership to see spent nuclear fuel reprocessed in a way that renders the plutonium in it usable for nuclear fuel but not for nuclear... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... This article is about Iran and weapons of mass destruction. ... Iranian soldiers The military forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran include three regular armed forces; the Army, Navy, Air Force, and a fourth armed force, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution. ... The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... During his presidency, Mahmoud Ahmadinejads speeches and statements have contributed to increased tensions between Iran and Israel, and between Iran and a few Western nations. ... An Iranian stamp commemorating Mohammad Ali Jennahs 100th birth anniversary, printed in 1976. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This article is about the current international tensions between Iran and other countries, especially the United States and Israel. ...

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  71. ^ Yazd Radiation Processing Center (YRPC). Nuclear Threat Initiative (2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-25.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Asia Times Online is an Internet-only publication that reports and examines geopolitical, political, economic and business issues, looking at these from an Asian perspective. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Front gate of the main building of Xinhua News Agency in Beijing The Xinhua News Agency (Simplified Chinese: 新华社; Traditional Chinese: 新華社; pinyin: ), or NCNA (New China News Agency), is the official press agency of the government of the Peoples Republic of China and the biggest center for collecting information and... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (114th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Iran Nuclear Resources at ParsTimes.com
  • In Focus : IAEA and Iran
  • Iran's Nuclear Timeline (YouTube video)
  • Iran's Nuclear Facility (Video Clip in Farsi)

YouTube is a popular free video sharing website which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. ...

News articles

  • Taking aim at Iran, Sunday Times, March 13 2005
  • No Proof Found of Iran Arms Program, August 2005.
  • For Israelis, a new worry: Iran's nuclear intentions by John Murphy, published in the Baltimore Sun January 19, 2007
  • Israel sounds alarm on Iran's nuclear efforts Richard Boudreaux, Los Angeles Times February 7, 2007
  • Video from Iranian TV (4:39): Iran's Nuclear Program (in Persian with English subtitles)
  • Iran’s Ahmadinejad: West opposes our nukes to let Israel live on, Iran Focus
  • BBC - UN probe backs Iran nuclear claim
  • Iran: Tehran Threatens To Retaliate If Israel Strikes Nuclear Facilities

March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Analysis

  • Analysis of the IAEA's reports on Iran by the Lawyer's Committee for Nuclear Policy on the issue undeclared material & activities.
  • Analysis of the European offer to Iran under the terms of the Paris Agreement by the British-American Security Information Council.
  • Arms Control Association Fact Sheet on questions regarding Iran's nuclear program.
  • BBC Iran Nuclear Issue Timeline
  • Iran's Nuclear Program. Part I: Its History
  • Iran's Nuclear Program. Part II: Are Nuclear Reactors Necessary?
  • BBC In-depth: the "Nuclear Fuel Cycle" Explained.
  • Iranian Nuclear Crisis Timeline at DKosopedia
  • Daniel Joyner. The Iran Nuclear Standoff: Legal Issues, JURIST, March 1 2006.
  • The Irania nuclear threat - project of Omedia
  • Iran’s Nuclear Program — Situation and Implications, (March 2007)
  • Oxford Research Group - Iran's Nuclear ActivitiesPDF (114 KiB)
  • Iran’s Nuclear Program and Allegations on U.S. Military Attack Option
  • "The Latest Developments and Attempts Regarding the Iran’s Nuclear Dossier", Arzu Celalifer
  • Iranian Analyst Dr. Majid Abbasi: International Sanctions May Lead Iran to Nuclear Energy for "Non-Peaceful" Purposes
  • Iran and Iraq: The Shia Connection, Soft Power, and the Nuclear Factor U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report, November 2005
  • PBS - Iranian journalist Maziar Bahari on the Similarities Between U.S. and Iran, September 2006.
  • Forced to Fuel (Harvard Int'l Law Review, Vol. 26 No. 4 - Winter 2005) lays out the case for nuclear energy in Iran, by Prof. Muhammad Sahimi.

A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan federal institution created by Congress to promote the prevention, management, and peaceful resolution of international conflicts. ...

Commentary

  • Scott Ritter on Iranian Nuclear Program
  • Spinwatch's analysis of how "The EU misleads on Iran’s nuclear activities."
  • Iran needs nuclear energy, not weapons, Le Monde diplomatique, November 2005 - questions whether Iran's nuclear program was really clandestine as commonly claimed.
  • Europe’s mendacity doomed Iran talks to failure, Trita Parsi Financial Times, August 2005
  • Rhetoric of War: First Iraq, Then Iran - Analyzes the fallacies and rhetoric for a pre-emptive war coming from the Bush administration.
  • A Nuclear Test for Diplomacy, column in The Washington Post by Henry A. Kissinger
  • The Persian Puzzle I: Iran and the invention of a nuclear crisis (First of a three-part series written in September 2005 by respected Indian analyst, Siddharth Varadarajan)
  • The Persian Puzzle II: What the IAEA really found in Iran
  • The Persian Puzzle III: The world must stand firm on diplomacy
  • Ardeshir Ommani. U.S.-EU tag team: Destroying the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), CounterPunch, March 4 2006.
  • Blast from the Past: Articles about US-European nuclear cooperation with Iran in the 1970s.
  • Dr. James Gordon Prather's archives on Iranian nuclear program
  • U.S. Instigated Iran's Nuclear Program 30 Years Ago, William O. Beeman, Pacific News Service, January 30 2006.
  • Iran: It’s Almost the End of the Film

Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (born May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat and Nobel Peace Prize winner who played an important part in foreign affairs through the positions he held in several Republican administrations between 1969 and 1977. ... Counterpunch can refer to: In traditional typography, a counterpunch is a type of punch used to create the negative space in or around a character. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Orman Beeman is an actor, author, singer, and professor of anthropology at The University of Minnesota, where he is Chair of the Department of Anthropology. ... Pacific News Service (PNS) is a nonprofit media organization founded in 1969. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Political statements

  • Iran's response to UN sanctions resolution presented by Ambassador Mohammad Javad Zarif, Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran before the Security Council 23 December 2006.
  • Some Facts and Materials on the Peaceful Iranian Nuclear Program - a collection of papers presented by the Iranian mission to the United Nations.
  • [31] Ambassador Javad Zarif's statement to the UN Security Council in response to the resolution requiring Iran to suspend enrichment, July 31 2006.
  • EU offer pursuant to the Paris Agreement and Iran's response to that offer
  • Text of the speech of Iran's envoy to the IAEA of March 7, 2007
  • Video (10 minutes), Jon Snow of British Channel 4 TV interviews Iran's top nuclear negotiator, Ali Larijani, live in Tehran, March 6 2006.
  • Video of Representative Ron Paul R-TX on the Iran Nuclear impasse
  • Countering the Iranian Nuclear Threat from the United States Department of State
  • Diplomacy Monitor-Iran Nuclear

July 31 is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Channel Four Television Corporation be merged into this article or section. ... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...

Documents

  • Text of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
  • List of Iranian proposals to resolve the nuclear dispute, collected by the Arms Control Association.
  • Nuclear program for electricity in the Muhammad Reza Pahlavi times

Organisations

  • Iran's Atomic Energy Organization

 
 

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