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Encyclopedia > Nuclear program of Iran
Nuclear program of Iran
Anti-aircraft guns guarding Natanz Nuclear Facility.
Anti-aircraft guns guarding Natanz Nuclear Facility.

The Iranian nuclear program was launched in the 1950s with the help of the United States as part of the Atoms for Peace program.[1] After the Iranian Revolution in 1979, the government temporarily disbanded the program, and then revived it with less Western assistance than during the pre-revolution era. Iran's current effort includes several research sites, a uranium mine, a nuclear reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include a uranium enrichment plant. The Iranian government asserts that the program's goal is to develop nuclear power plants, and that it plans to use them to generate 6,000 MW of electricity by 2010.[2] The U.S. and some other nations' officials allege the program covers an attempt to acquire nuclear weapons. As of November 15, 2007, however, the IAEA has seen "no concrete information" that this is the case.[3] Iran's officials have also categorically denied the accusations and insist that they will maintain their right to peaceful nuclear technology.[4][5] The November 2007 US National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) judges that "in fall 2003, Tehran halted its nuclear weapons program" due to increasing international scrutiny and that it remained halted as of mid-2007. The estimate further judges that US intelligence does not know whether Iran "intends to develop nuclear weapons", but that Iran would be unlikely to achieve nuclear weapons "capability before 2013 because of foreseeable technical and programmatic problems". [6] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... This article is about Iran and weapons of mass destruction. ... 1956: Marion King Hubbert publishes his prediction that world oil production will peak in the year 2000. ... The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1696 was passed by the United Nations Security Council on 31 July 2006. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737 was unanimously passed by the United Nations Security Council on 23 December 2006. ... Flag of the United Nations Flag of Islamic Republic of Iran United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on 24 March 2007. ... Gholam Reza Aghazadeh is the vice president of the Islamic Republic of Iran and also the president of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. ... Hassan Rowhani (حسن روحانی) is an Iranian politician and cleric, and as of March 2007, a member of the Supreme National Security Council. ... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... Saeed Jalili (Persian: ,born 1965 in Mashhad [1]) is an Iranian politician. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... Operation Merlin is an alleged United States covert operation under the Clinton Administration to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon in order to delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program. ... The Green Salt Project is an alleged secretive Iranian entity focusing on uranium processing, high explosives and a missile warhead design. ... This article is about Iran and weapons of mass destruction. ... This article is about the current international tensions between Iran and other countries, especially the United States and Israel. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 502 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 502 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Tomb of Abd al_Samad, built in 1304CE. Natanz (Persian: نطنز) is the centre of a township of the same name in the Isfahan province of Iran. ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... Occident redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Core of CROCUS, a small nuclear reactor used for research at the EPFL in Switzerland. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...

Contents

Overview

Gawdat Bahgat, Director of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, asserts that Iranian's nuclear program is formed by three forces: one, perception of security threats from Pakistan, Iraq, Israel, and the United States; two, domestic economic and political dynamics; and three, national pride.[4] Bahgat further outlines four key influences on Iran's relations with the international community and how that impacts Iran's position on its nuclear program: Indiana University of Pennsylvania (or IUP) is a public university located in the borough of Indiana, Pennsylvania, USA, sixty miles northeast of Pittsburgh. ...

  1. Iranian officials have little confidence in the international community because of its behavior during the 1980s Iran-Iraq war. During that war the larger and more populous Iran had the upper hand, but to close the geographic and demographic gap, Saddam Hussein used chemical weapons against Iranian troops and civilians. These chemical weapons killed or injured thousands of Iranians and played a major role in turning the war in favor of Iraq. The international community was notably indifferent, doing little to condemn Iraq or to protect Iran. This indifference has reinforced the Iranian view that 'Iran is fully justified in arming itself with nuclear weapons for defense and deterrence.' [citation needed] The Gulf war (1990–91) only confirmed the new perceptions. As Shahram Chubin asserts, “Iran has learned from its war with Iraq that, for deterrence to operate, the threatening state must be confronted with the certainty of an equivalent response. The threat of in-kind retaliation (or worse) deterred Iraq’s use of chemical weapons in Desert Storm; it appears that the absence of such a retaliatory capability facilitated its decision to use chemical weapons against Iran."
  2. Lack of confidence in the international community was reinforced when many nations, under pressure from the United States, rejected or withdrew from signed commercial deals with the Iranian nuclear authority.
  3. Most of the information regarding Iran's nuclear capability is classified and thus one can not make accurate assessments. "However, based on open sources, some analysts believe that Tehran has developed a significant indigenous nuclear infrastructure. Its programme is more advanced than Libya’s prior to 2003, but less developed than that of North Korea." Iran's "indigenous nuclear infrastructure" is open to IAEA inspection and even school tour groups, and so hardly needs be the subject of beliefs or speculation.
  4. "Despite long-time accusations that Iran is pursuing nuclear weapons, no one has produced a 'smoking gun.' However, the scope and long secrecy of Iranian nuclear activities have led many observers to conclude that Iran is pursuing such a capability." Iranians assert that some degree of secrecy was necessary as a result of previous US pressures on foreign cooperation with the development of Iran's nuclear energy program.

In 2005, a bipartisan Congressional intelligence panel concluded that American intelligence on Iran was too inadequate to allow firm judgements about Iran's weapons programs.[7]


Currently, thirteen states possess operational enrichment or reprocessing facilities, which are necessary to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons.[8] To alleviate concerns that its civilian nuclear program may be diverted to non-peaceful uses, Iran has offered to place additional restrictions on its nuclear program. These offers included, for example, ratifying the Additional Protocol to allow additional inspections, operating the uranium enrichment facility at Natanz as a multinational fuel center, renouncing plutonium reprocessing and immediately fabricating all enriched uranium into reactor fuel rods.[9] Iran's offer to open its uranium enrichment program to foreign private and public participation corresponds to suggestions of an IAEA expert committee which was formed to investigate the methods to reduce the risk that sensitive fuel cycle activities could contribute to national nuclear weapons capabilities.[10] Iran has likewise been offered "a long-term comprehensive arrangement which would allow for the development of relations and cooperation with Iran based on mutual respect and the establishment of international confidence in the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran’s nuclear program."[11]


Since 1974 Iran has consistently called for the creation of a nuclear-weapons free zone in the Middle East.[12] Iranian authorities repeatedly assert that nuclear weapons would harm rather than strengthen their security environment, and would confer no strategic benefit on their country. As stated by Hossein Mousavian, a member of Iran's nuclear negotiating team:

It is incorrect to say that Iran's nuclear activities constitute a response to perceived nuclear threats from other states, such as Israel, or to a strategic threat arising from the US presence in Iraq and Afghanistan. It is therefore also incorrect to adduce the existence of this threat as evidence that Iran is aiming at a nuclear weapons programme. Naturally, Iran is concerned by the fact that Israel possesses a substantial nuclear arsenal, but Iran's possession of nuclear weapons would not reduce its fears on this score. Similarly, Iranian concerns regarding the US military presence in the region would in no way be allayed were Iran to possess nuclear weapons. The possession of nuclear weapons would neither be conducive to Iranian security nor in reality enhance the perception of security enjoyed by the Iranian people.[13]

History

Iranian newspaper clip from 1968 reads: "A quarter of Iran's Nuclear Energy scientists are women." The photograph shows some female Iranian PhDs posing in front of Tehran's research reactor.
Iranian newspaper clip from 1968 reads: "A quarter of Iran's Nuclear Energy scientists are women." The photograph shows some female Iranian PhDs posing in front of Tehran's research reactor.

Image File history File links Atomic_women_Iran. ... Image File history File links Atomic_women_Iran. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...

1950s and 60s

The foundations for Iran's nuclear program were laid after a 1953, CIA-supported coup deposed democratically-elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and brought Shah (King) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to power.[14] By 1957, the West judged the regime sufficiently stable and friendly that nuclear proliferation would not become a threat. In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... Shah of Iran redirects here. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ...


That year, a civil nuclear co-operation program was established under the U.S. Atoms for Peace programme. In 1967, the Tehran Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) was established, run by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI). The TNRC was equipped with a U.S.-supplied, 5-megawatt nuclear research reactor, which became operational in 1967 and was fueled by highly enriched uranium.[15] Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1968 and ratified it in 1970. With the establishment of Iran's atomic agency and the NPT in place, the Shah approved plans to construct, with U.S. help, up to 23 nuclear power stations by the year 2000. Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... Research reactors comprise a wide range of civil and commercial nuclear reactors which are generally not used for power generation. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


Gawdat Bahgat, a professor of Middle Eastern Studies, states that "Despite assertions that Iran’s nuclear program under the Shah was only for peaceful purposes, some sources claim that the Shah intended to build a nuclear weapons capability. In the mid-1970s, the Shah was quoted as saying that Iran would have nuclear weapons 'without a doubt and sooner than one would think.' The Center for Non-proliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies claims that the Western intelligence community 'had long suspected that the Shah’s nuclear scientists conducted research into military applications.'...despite these speculations about the Shah’s intentions, it is important to point out that in 1974, when the AEOI was established, the Shah called for making the entire Middle East a nuclear weapons-free zone (MENWFZ)."[4]


1970s

Advertisement from the 1970s by American nuclear-energy companies, using Iran's nuclear program as a marketing ploy.
Advertisement from the 1970s by American nuclear-energy companies, using Iran's nuclear program as a marketing ploy.

In March 1974, the Shah envisioned a time when the world's oil supply would run out, and declared, "Petroleum is a noble material, much too valuable to burn... We envision producing, as soon as possible, 23 000 megawatts of electricity using nuclear plants."[16] Bushehr would be the first plant, and would supply energy to the inland city of Shiraz. In 1975, the Bonn firm Kraftwerk Union AG, a joint venture of Siemens AG and AEG Telefunken, signed a contract worth $4 to $6 billion to build the pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. Construction of the two 1,196 MWe nuclear generating units was subcontracted to ThyssenKrupp, and was to have been completed in 1981. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (534 × 747 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Advertisement from the 1970s by American nuclear-power companies. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (534 × 747 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Advertisement from the 1970s by American nuclear-power companies. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Siemens redirects here. ... Telefunken is a German radio- and television company, founded in 1903. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER if of Russian design) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use ordinary water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... ThyssenKrupp AG (ISIN: DE0007500001) is a very large German industrial conglomerate, with about 188,000 employees. ...


"President Gerald Ford signed a directive in 1976 offering Tehran the chance to buy and operate a U.S.-built reprocessing facility for extracting plutonium from nuclear reactor fuel. The deal was for a complete 'nuclear fuel cycle'."[17] At the time, Richard Cheney was the White House Chief of Staff, and Donald Rumsfeld was the Secretary of Defense. The Ford strategy paper said the "introduction of nuclear power will both provide for the growing needs of Iran's economy and free remaining oil reserves for export or conversion to petrochemicals." For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941), widely known as Dick Cheney, is an American politician and businessman affiliated with the U.S. Republican Party. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ...


Iran, a U.S. ally then, had deep pockets and close ties to Washington. U.S. and European companies scrambled to do business there.[18]


Then-United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger said in 2005, 'I don't think the issue of proliferation came up'.[17] As a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which Iran signed in 1968, their programme would have been under International Atomic Energy Agency inspection. Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


Post-1979 Revolution

After the 1979 Revolution, Iran informed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of its plans to restart its nuclear program using indigenously-made nuclear fuel, and in 1983 the IAEA even planned to provide assistance to Iran under its Technical Assistance Program to produce enriched uranium. An IAEA report stated clearly that its aim was to “contribute to the formation of local expertise and manpower needed to sustain an ambitious program in the field of nuclear power reactor technology and fuel cycle technology”. However, the IAEA was forced to terminate the program under U.S. pressure.[19] The revolution was a turning point in terms of foreign co-operation on nuclear technology. After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


Another result of the 1979 Revolution was France's refusal to give any enriched uranium to Iran after 1979. Iran also didn't get back its investment from Eurodif. The joint stock company Eurodif was formed in 1973 by France, Belgium, Spain and Sweden. In 1975 Sweden’s 10% share in Eurodif went to Iran as a result of an arrangement between France and Iran. The French government subsidiary company Cogéma and the Iranian Government established the Sofidif (Société franco–iranienne pour l’enrichissement de l’uranium par diffusion gazeuse) enterprise with 60% and 40% shares, respectively. In turn, Sofidif acquired a 25% share in EURODIF, which gave Iran its 10% share of Eurodif. Reza Shah Pahlavi lent 1 billion dollars (and another 180 million dollars in 1977) for the construction of the Eurodif factory, to have the right of buying 10% of the production of the site. These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Eurodif, which means European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium, is a subsidiary company of French company Cogéma which exploits a uranium enrichment plant established in the nuclear site of Tricastin in Pierrelatte in Drôme. ... A joint stock company (JSC) is a type of business partnership in which the capital is formed by the individual contributions of a group of shareholders. ... Areva NC, formerly Cogema (Compagnie générale des matières nucléaires, name changed in march 2006), a French company created in 1976 as a wholly owned subsidiary of the AREVA group, is an industrial group active in uranium mining, conversion and enrichment through spent fuel reprocessing and recycling. ...


The U.S. was also paid to deliver new fuel and upgrade its power in accordance with a contract signed before the revolution. The U.S. delivered neither the fuel nor returned the billions of dollars payment it had received. Germany was paid in full, totaling billions of dollars, for the two nuclear facilities in Bushehr, but after three decades, Germany has also refused to export any equipment or refund the money.[20] Iran's government suspended its payments and tried refunding the loan by making pressure on France by handling militant groups, including the Hezbollah who took French citizens hostage in the 1980s. In 1982, president François Mitterrand refused to give any uranium to Iran, which also claimed the $1 billion debt. In 1986, Eurodif manager Georges Besse was assassinated; the act was allegedly claimed by left-wing militants from Action Directe. However, they denied any responsibility during their trial.[21] In their investigation La République atomique, France-Iran le pacte nucléaire, David Carr-Brown and Dominique Lorentz pointed out toward the Iranian intelligence services' responsibility. More importantly, they also showed how the French hostage scandal was connected with the Iranian blackmail. Finally an agreement was found in 1991: France refunded more than 1.6 billion dollars. Iran remained shareholder of Eurodif via Sofidif, a Franco-Iranian consortium shareholder to 25% of Eurodif. However, Iran abstained itself from asking for the produced uranium.[22][23] Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Georges Besse (born December 25, 1927 in Clermont-Ferrand, France, died November 17, 1986) was a French businessman who led several large state-controlled French companies during his lifetime. ... Action Directe was a French left-wing urban guerrilla or terror group which committed a series of assassinations and violent attacks in France in the 1980s. ... Dominique Lorentz is a French investigative journalist who has written books on the stakes and reality of nuclear proliferation, as well as a film documentary, La République Atomique (The Atomic Republic), which related terrorist acts in France in the 1980s to the nuclear program of Iran. ... Eurodif, which means European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium, is a subsidiary company of French company Cogéma which exploits a uranium enrichment plant established in the nuclear site of Tricastin in Pierrelatte in Drôme. ...


Kraftwerk Union, the joint venture of Siemens AG and AEG Telefunken who had signed a contract with Iran in 1975, fully withdrew from the Bushehr nuclear project in July 1979, after work stopped in January 1979, with one reactor 50% complete, and the other reactor 85% complete. They said they based their action on Iran's non-payment of $450 million in overdue payments. The company had received $2.5 billion of the total contract. Their cancellation came after certainty that the Iranian government would unilaterally terminate the contract themselves, following the revolution, which paralyzed Iran's economy and led to a crisis in Iran's relations with the West. The French company Framatome, a subsidiary of Areva, also withdrew itself. Siemens redirects here. ... Telefunken is a German radio- and television company, founded in 1903. ... AREVA (Euronext: CEI) is a France-based multinational industrial conglomerate that deals in energy, especially in nuclear power. ...


In 1984, Kraftwerk Union did a preliminary assessment to see if it could resume work on the project, but declined to do so while the Iran-Iraq War continued. In April of that year, the U.S. State Department said, "We believe it would take at least two to three years to complete construction of the reactors at Bushehr." The spokesperson also said that the light water power reactors at Bushehr "are not particularly well-suited for a weapons program." The spokesman went on to say, "In addition, we have no evidence of Iranian construction of other facilities that would be necessary to separate plutonium from spent reactor fuel." Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft...


The Bushehr reactors were then damaged by multiple Iraqi air strikes between March 24, 1984 to 1988 and work on the nuclear program came to a standstill. In 1990, Iran began to look outwards towards new partners for its nuclear program; however, due to a radically different political climate and punitive U.S. economic sanctions, few candidates existed. is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


According to a report by the Argentine justice, Iran signed three agreements with Argentina in 1987-88. Argentina has had a National Atomic Energy Commission since 1950, and completed its first nuclear reactor, Atucha I in 1974 and Embalse in 1984, a year after the return to democracy. The first Iranian-Argentine agreement involved help in converting a nuclear reactor in Tehran so that it could use 20%-enriched uranium (ie, low-grade uranium that cannot be used for weapons production) and indicates that it included the shipment of the 20%-enriched uranium to Iran. The second and third agreements were for technical assistance, including components, for the building of pilot plants for uranium-dioxide conversion and fuel fabrication. Under US pressure, assistance was reduced, but not completely terminated, and negotiations with the aim of re-establishing the three agreements took pace from early 1992 to 1994.[24] Seal of the CNEA The National Atomic Energy Commission (Spanish: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA) is the Argentine government agency in charge of nuclear energy research and development. ... Atucha I is one of two operational nuclear power plants of Argentina. ... Embalse (in full, Central Nuclear Embalse) is one of the two operational nuclear power plants in Argentina. ...


1990s

From the beginning of 1990s, Russian Federation formed a joint research organization with Iran called Persepolis which provided Iran with Russian nuclear experts, and technical information stolen from the West by GRU and SVR, according to GRU defector Stanislav Lunev [25]. He said that five Russian institutions, including the Russian Federal Space Agency helped Tehran to improve its missiles. The exchange of technical information with Iran was personally approved by the SVR director Trubnikov [25]. For other uses, see GRU (disambiguation). ... Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki (Служба внешней разведки) (SVR) is Russian for Foreign Intelligence Service and is the name of Russias primary external intelligence agency. ... For other uses, see GRU (disambiguation). ... Stanislav Lunev (born 1946 in Leningrad) is the highest-ranking GRU officer to defect from Russia to the United States. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство России, commonly known as Roskosmos) or RKA, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство, commonly known as Rosaviakosmos), is the government agency responsible for Russias space science programme and general aerospace research. ... Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki (Служба внешней разведки) (SVR) is Russian for Foreign Intelligence Service and is the name of Russias primary external intelligence agency. ...


In 1995, Iran signed a contract with Russia to resume work on the partially-complete Bushehr plant,[26] installing into the existing Bushehr I building a 915MWe VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor, with completion expected in 2007. There are no current plans to complete the Bushehr II reactor. For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... WWER-10ff (also VVER-1000 as a direct translitteration from Russian ВВЭР-1000). ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER if of Russian design) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use ordinary water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ...


In 1996, the U.S. tried, without success, to block the People's Republic of China from selling to Tehran a conversion plant. The PRC also provided Iran with gas needed to test the uranium enrichment process.


2000 - August 2006

Seen here in this ISNA footage is Gholam Reza Aghazadeh and AEOI officials with a sample of Yellowcake during a public announcement on the April 11, 2006, in Mashad that Iran had managed to successfully complete the fuel cycle by itself.
Seen here in this ISNA footage is Gholam Reza Aghazadeh and AEOI officials with a sample of Yellowcake during a public announcement on the April 11, 2006, in Mashad that Iran had managed to successfully complete the fuel cycle by itself.

On August 14, 2002, Alireza Jafarzadeh, a spokesman for an Iranian dissident group National Council of Resistance of Iran, revealed to the general public the existence of two nuclear sites under-construction: a uranium enrichment facility in Natanz (part of which is underground), and a heavy water facility in Arak. It's possible that intelligence agencies already knew about these facilities but the reports had been classified.[27] Image File history File links Hastehi. ... Image File history File links Hastehi. ... ISNA – The First Students News Agency STUDENT NEWS AGENCY can be introduced in the category of STUDENT MEDIA. Iranian Student News Agency (ISNA,http://isna. ... Gholam Reza Aghazadeh is the vice president of the Islamic Republic of Iran and also the president of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. ... The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Imam Reza Shrine Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Alireza Jafarzadeh Alireza Jafarzadeh (born 1957) is an expert on the Middle East, an author, a media commentator, and and an active dissident figure to the Iranian government who is best known for revealing the existence of clandestine nuclear facilities in Iran in 2002. ... Tomb of Abd al_Samad, built in 1304CE. Natanz (Persian: نطنز) is the centre of a township of the same name in the Isfahan province of Iran. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Arak, (in Persian: اراک) previously known as Soltan-abad, is the center of Markazi province, Iran. ...


The IAEA immediately sought access to these facilities and further information and co-operation from Iran regarding its nuclear program.[28] According to arrangements in force at the time for implementation of Iran's safeguards agreement with the IAEA,[29] Iran was not required to allow IAEA inspections of a new nuclear facility until six months before nuclear material is introduced into that facility. At the time, Iran was not even required to inform the IAEA of the existence of the facility. This 'six months' clause was standard for implementation of all IAEA safeguards agreements until 1992, when the Board of Governors decided that facilities should be reported during the planning phase, even before construction began. Iran was the last country to accept that decision, and only did so February 26, 2003, after the IAEA investigation began.[30]. is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


France, Germany and the United Kingdom (the "EU-3") undertook a diplomatic initiative with Iran to resolve questions about its nuclear program. On October 21, 2003, in Tehran, the Iranian government and EU-3 Foreign Ministers issued a statement[31] in which Iran agreed to co-operate with the IAEA, to sign and implement an Additional Protocol as a voluntary, confidence-building measure, and to suspend its enrichment and reprocessing activities during the course of the negotiations. The EU-3 in return explicitly agreed to recognise Iran's nuclear rights and to discuss ways Iran could provide "satisfactory assurances" regarding its nuclear power programme, after which Iran would gain easier access to modern technology. Iran signed an Additional Protocol on December 18, 2003, and agreed to act as if the protocol were in force, making the required reports to the IAEA and allowing the required access by IAEA inspectors, pending Iran's ratification of the Additional Protocol. is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The IAEA reported November 10, 2003,[32] that "it is clear that Iran has failed in a number of instances over an extended period of time to meet its obligations under its Safeguards Agreement with respect to the reporting of nuclear material and its processing and use, as well as the declaration of facilities where such material has been processed and stored." Iran was obligated to inform the IAEA of its importation of uranium from China and subsequent use of that material in uranium conversion and enrichment activities. It was also obligated to report to the IAEA experiments with the separation of plutonium. A comprehensive list of Iran's specific "breaches" of its IAEA safeguards agreement, which the IAEA described as part of a "pattern of concealment," can be found in the November 15, 2004 report of the IAEA on Iran's nuclear programme.[33] Iran attributes its failure to report certain acquisitions and activities on US obstructionism, which reportedly included pressuring the IAEA to cease providing technical assistance to Iran's uranium conversion program in 1983.[34] is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On the question of whether Iran had a hidden nuclear weapons program, the IAEA reported in November 2003 that it found "no evidence" that the previously undeclared activities were related to a nuclear weapons program, but also that it was unable to conclude that Iran's nuclear programme was exclusively peaceful. The IAEA remains unable to draw such a conclusion since the IAEA only certifies the absence of undeclared nuclear activities for nations that have formally ratified the Additional Protocol. According to the IAEA's own Annual Safeguards Implementation Report of 2004[35], of the 61 states where both the NPT safeguards and the Additional protocol are implemented, the IAEA has certified the absence of undeclared nuclear activity for only 21 countries, leaving Iran in the same category as 40 other countries including Canada, the Czech Republic, and South Africa. Nevertheless, Iran did voluntarily implement the Additional Protocol, and the IAEA certified in Jan 31, 2006 that "Iran has continued to facilitate access under its Safeguards Agreement as requested by the Agency, and to act as if the Additional Protocol is in force, including by providing in a timely manner the requisite declarations and access to locations."[36] As of August 2007, Iran and the IAEA entered into an agreement on the modalities of resolving additional outstanding issue.


The IAEA Board of Governors eventually concluded that Iran's past safeguards "breaches" and "failures" constituted "non-compliance" with its Safeguards Agreement[37] even though the IAEA had certified that there was no diversion of fissile material to military use, the sole basis for a referral to the UN Security Counsel as specified in Article 19 of Iran's safeguards agreement. The Board deferred a formal decision on this for nearly two years, until September 24, 2005,[38] in order to encourage Iran to co-operate with the EU-3 diplomatic initiative. The Board deferred the formal report to the UN Security Council, required by Article XII.C of the IAEA Statute,[39] for another five months, until February 27, 2006.[40] The IAEA Board of Governors opted to vote on the resolution rather than adopting it by consensus, its usual approach.[41] is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Under the terms of the Paris Agreement, on November 14, 2004, Iran's chief nuclear negotiator announced a voluntary and temporary suspension of its uranium enrichment program (enrichment is not a violation of the NPT) and the voluntary implementation of the Additional Protocol, after pressure from the United Kingdom, France, and Germany acting on behalf of the European Union (EU) (known in this context as the EU-3). The measure was said at the time to be a voluntary, confidence-building measure, to continue for some reasonable period of time (six months being mentioned as a reference) as negotiations with the EU-3 continued. On November 24, Iran sought to amend the terms of its agreement with the EU to exclude a handful of the equipment from this deal for research work. This request was dropped four days later. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... EU three or EU 3 refers to the United Kingdom, France and Germany, with relation to the status, power and influence of these three nations within the European Union in their attempts to end Irans nuclear program. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In early August 2005, Iran removed seals on its uranium enrichment equipment in Isfahan[9], which UK officials termed a "breach of the Paris Agreement"[10] though a case can be made that the EU violated the terms of the Paris Agreement by demanding that Iran abandon nuclear enrichment [11]. Several days later, the EU-3 offered Iran a package in return for permanent cessation of enrichment. Reportedly, it included benefits in the political, trade and nuclear fields, as well as long-term supplies of nuclear materials and assurances of non-aggression by the EU (and not the US),[12]. Mohammad Saeedi, the deputy head of Iran's atomic energy organization rejected the offer, terming it "very insulting and humiliating"[13] and other independent analysts characterized the EU offer as an "empty box". These developments coincided with the election of President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad, and the appointment of Ali Larijani as the chief Iranian nuclear negotiator [14]. Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ...


In September 2005, IAEA Director General Mohammad ElBaradei reported that “most” highly-enriched uranium traces found in Iran by agency inspectors came from imported centrifuge components, validating Iran's claim that the traces were due to contamination. Sources in Vienna and the State Department reportedly stated that, for all practical purposes, the HEU issue has been resolved.


In January 2006, James Risen, a New York Times reporter, alleged in his book State of War that in February 2000, a U.S. covert operation — code-named Operation Merlin — had backfired. It originally aimed to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon, in order to delay the alleged Iranian nuclear weapons program. Instead, the plan may have accelerated Iran's nuclear program by providing useful information, once the flaws were identified [15]. James Risen is a reporter for the New York Times and previously the Los Angeles Times, and author/co-author of two books about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... This article is about journalistic reporters. ... Operation Merlin is an alleged United States covert operation under the Clinton Administration to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon in order to delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program. ...


On February 4, 2006, the 35 member Board of Governors of the IAEA voted 27-3 (with five abstentions: Algeria, Belarus, Indonesia, Libya and South Africa) to report Iran to the UN Security Council. The measure was sponsored by the United Kingdom, France and Germany, and it was backed by the United States. Two permanent council members, Russia and China, agreed to referral only on condition that the council take no action before March. The three members who voted against referral were Venezuela, Syria and Cuba.[42][43] is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In late February, 2006, IAEA Director Mohammad El-Baradei raised the suggestion of a deal, whereby Iran would give up industrial-scale enrichment and instead limit its program to a small-scale pilot facility, and agree to import its nuclear fuel from Russia. The Iranians indicated that while they would not be willing to give up their right to enrichment in principle, they were willing to consider the compromise solution. However in March 2006, the Bush Administration made it clear that they would not accept any enrichment at all in Iran.


On April 11, 2006, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that Iran had successfully enriched uranium. President Ahmadinejad made the announcement in a televised address from the northeastern city of Mashhad, where he said "I am officially announcing that Iran joined the group of those countries which have nuclear technology." The uranium was enriched to 3.5% using over a hundred centrifuges. At this level, it could be used in a nuclear reactor if enough of it was made; uranium for a nuclear bomb would require around 90% enrichment and many thousands of centrifuges to be built and operated. is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


On April 13, 2006, after US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said (on April 12, 2006) the Security Council must consider "strong steps" to induce Tehran to change course in its nuclear ambition; President Ahmadinejad vowed that Iran won't back away from uranium enrichment and that the world must treat Iran as a nuclear power, saying "Our answer to those who are angry about Iran achieving the full nuclear fuel cycle is just one phrase. We say: Be angry at us and die of this anger," because "We won't hold talks with anyone about the right of the Iranian nation to enrich uranium." is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On April 14, 2006, The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) published a series of analyzed satellite images of Iran's nuclear facilities at Natanz and Esfahan.[44] Featured in these images is a new tunnel entrance near the Uranium Conversion Facility (UCF) at Esfahan and continued construction at the Natanz uranium enrichment site. In addition, a series of images dating back to 2002 shows the underground enrichment buildings and its subsequent covering by soil, concrete, and other materials. Both facilities were already subject to IAEA inspections and safeguards. is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Iran responded to the demand to stop enrichment of uranium August 24, 2006, offering to return to the negotiation table but refusing to end enrichment.[45] is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Qolam Ali Hadad-adel, speaker of Iran's parliament, said on August 30, 2006, that Iran had the right to "peaceful application of nuclear technology and all other officials agree with this decision," according to the semi-official Iranian Students News Agency. "Iran opened the door to negotiations for Europe and hopes that the answer which was given to the nuclear package would bring them to the table.""[45] is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


August 31, 2006 and later

  • President George W. Bush insisted on August 31, 2006 that "there must be consequences" for Iran's defiance of demands that it stop enriching uranium. He said "the world now faces a grave threat from the radical regime in Iran. The Iranian regime arms, funds, and advises Hezbollah."[46] The U.N.'s nuclear watchdog agency issued a report saying Iran has not suspended its uranium enrichment activities, a United Nations official said. The report by the International Atomic Energy Agency opens the way for U.N. Security Council sanctions against Tehran. Facing a Security Council deadline to stop its uranium enrichment activities, Iran has left little doubt it will defy the West and continue its nuclear programme.[45]
  • A congressional report released on August 23, 2006 made many allegations that have been strongly disputed by the IAEA calling it "erroneous" and "misleading".""[47]
  • John Bolton, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, said on August 31, 2006 that he expected action to impose sanctions to begin immediately after the deadline passes, with meetings of high-level officials in the coming days, followed by negotiations on the language of the sanctions resolution. Bolton said that when the deadline passes "a little flag will go up." "In terms of what happens afterward, at that point, if they have not suspended all uranium enrichment activities, they will not be in compliance with the resolution," he said. "And at that point, the steps that the foreign ministers have agreed upon previously ... we would begin to talk about how to implement those steps." The five permanent members of the Security Council, plus Germany, previously offered Iran a package of incentives aimed at getting the country to restart negotiations, but Iran refused to halt its nuclear activities first. Incentives included offers to improve Iran's access to the international economy through participation in groups such as the World Trade Organization and to modernize its telecommunications industry. The incentives also mentioned the possibility of lifting restrictions on U.S. and European manufacturers wanting to export civil aircraft to Iran. And a proposed long-term agreement accompanying the incentives offered a "fresh start in negotiations."[45]

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... There are several people named John Bolton, including: John Gatenby Bolton – British-Australian astronomer (1922–1993) John R. Bolton – U.S. politician and diplomat U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. (2005-current) (b. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... WTO redirects here. ...

Iran
  • The Iranian government has repeatedly made compromise offers to place strict limits on its nuclear program beyond what the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Additional Protocol legally require of Iran, in order to ensure that the program cannot be secretly diverted to the manufacture of weapons.[48] These offers include operating Iran's nuclear program as an international consortium, with the full participation of foreign governments. This offer by the Iranians matched a proposed solution put forth by an IAEA expert committee that was investigating the risk that civilian nuclear technologies could be used to make bombs.[49] Iran has also offered to renounce plutonium extraction technology, thus ensuring that its heavy water reactor at Arak cannot be used to make bombs either[50]. More recently, the Iranians have reportedly also offered to operate uranium centrifuges that automatically self-destruct if they are used to enrich uranium beyond what is required for civilian purposes.[51] However, despite offers of nuclear cooperation by the five permanent members of the UN Security Council and Germany, Iran has refused to suspend its enrichment program as the Council has demanded.[52] Iran’s representative asserted that dealing with the issue in the Security Council was unwarranted and void of any legal basis or practical utility because its peaceful nuclear programme posed no threat to international peace and security, and, that it ran counter to the views of the majority of United Nations Member States, which the Council was obliged to represent.
  • "They should know that the Iranian nation will not yield to pressure and will not let its rights be trampled on," Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad told a crowd August 31, 2006 in a televised speech in the northwestern Iranian city of Orumiyeh. In front of his strongest supporters in one of his provincial power bases, the Iranian leader attacked what he called "intimidation" by the United Nations, which he said was led by the United States. Ahmadinejad criticised a White House rebuff of his offer for a televised debate with President Bush. "They say they support dialog and the free flow of information," he said. "But when debate was proposed, they avoided and opposed it." Ahmadinejad said that sanctions "cannot dissuade Iranians from their decision to make progress," according to Iran's state-run IRNA news agency. "On the contrary, many of our successes, including access to the nuclear fuel cycle and producing of heavy water, have been achieved under sanctions." Iran has been under IAEA investigation since 2003, with inspectors turning up evidence of clandestine plutonium experiments, black-market centrifuge purchases and military links to what Iran says is a civilian nuclear program.[45]
  • Iran insists enrichment activities are intended for peaceful purposes, but much of the West, including the United States, allege that Iran is pursuing nuclear weapons. The August 31, 2006 deadline calls for Iran to comply with U.N. Resolution 1696 and end its nuclear activities or face the possibility of economic sanctions. The United States believes the council will agree to implement sanctions when high-level ministers reconvene in mid-September, U.S. Undersecretary of State Nicholas Burns said. "We're sure going to work toward that [sanctions] with a great deal of energy and determination because this cannot go unanswered," Burns said. "The Iranians are obviously proceeding with their nuclear research; they are doing things that the International Atomic Energy Agency does not want them to do, the Security Council doesn't want them to do. There has to be an international answer, and we believe there will be one."[45]
  • Iran asserts that there is no legal basis for Iran's referral to the United Nations Security Council since the IAEA has not proven that previously undeclared activities had a relationship to a weapons program, and that all nuclear material in Iran (including material that may not have been declared) had been accounted for and had not been diverted to military purposes. Article 19 of Iran's safeguards agreement allows a report to the Security Council if the IAEA is unable to verify that nuclear material has not been diverted. Article XII.C of the IAEA Statute requires a report to the UN Security Council for any safeguards noncompliance with the safeguards provisions, such as the 18-year history of "breaches" and "policy of concealment" first reported by the IAEA in November 2003.
  • Iran also minimizes the significance of the IAEA's inability to verify the peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear program, arguing the IAEA has only drawn such conclusions in thirty-two states that have implemented the Additional Protocol. The IAEA reported on August 30, 2006 that while it "is able to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran", it "remains unable to verify certain aspects relevant to the scope and nature of Iran’s nuclear program" and that Iran's adherence to the recently agreed "action plan" was "essential."[53] Iran also argues that the UN Security Council resolutions demanding a suspension of enrichment constitute a violation of Article IV of the Non-Proliferation Treaty which recognizes the inalienable right of signatory nations to nuclear technology "for peaceful purposes," although the IAEA remains unable to resolve questions about whether Iran's enrichment program is peaceful.
  • Iran agreed to implement the Additional Protocol under the terms of the October 2003 Tehran agreement and its successor, the November 2004 Paris agreement, and did so for 2 years before withdrawing from the Paris agreement in early 2006 following the breakdown of negotiations with the EU-3. Since then, Iran has offered not only to ratify the Additional Protocol, but to implement transparency measures on its nuclear program that exceed the Additional Protocol, as long as its right to operate an enrichment program is recognized. The UN Security Council, however, insists that Iran must suspend all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities.
  • On April 9, 2007, Iran announced that it has begun enriching uranium with 3 000 centrifuges, presumably at Natanz enrichment site. "With great honor, I declare that as of today our dear country has joined the nuclear club of nations and can produce nuclear fuel on an industrial scale", said Ahmadinejad.[54]
  • On April 22, 2007, Iranians foreign ministry spokesman Mohammad Ali Hosseini announced that his country rules out enrichment suspension ahead of talks with EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana on April 25, 2007.[55]
  • Iran has been repeatedly threatened with nuclear first strikes by the United States. The US Nuclear Posture Review made public in 2002 specifically envisioned the use of nuclear weapons on a first strike basis, even against non-nuclear armed states[56]. Investigative reporter Symour Hersh has reported that the Bush administration has been planning the use of nuclear weapons against Iran[57] When specifically questioned about the potential use of nuclear weapons against Iran, President Bush claimed that "All options were on the table". According to the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, "the president of the United States directly threatened Iran with a preemptive nuclear strike. It is hard to read his reply in any other way." [58] Nevertheless, the Iranian authorities consistently insist that are not seeking nuclear weapons as a deterrent to the United States, and instead emphasize the creation of a nuclear-arms free zone in the Middle East.[59]

 [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Iran showing location of Urmia Urmia (Persian: ارومیه, Turkish: Urumiah, Kurdish: Wurmê, Syriac: ܘܪܡܝܐ), previously called Rezaiyeh (رضائیه), is a city in northwestern Iran, and the capital of the West Azarbaijan province, situated on the western side of Lake Urmia near the Turkish border. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... R. Nicholas Burns For other people named Burns, see Burns (disambiguation). ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Mohammad Ali Hosseini (In Persian: محمد علی حسینی) is the vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran. ... Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

United Nations
  • The IAEA has condemned the US over a report written by a congressional committee on the nuclear situation in Iran. The leaked report was called erroneous and misleading in a letter sent to Peter Hoekstra. Allegations in the report of why an inspector was dismissed were branded outrageous and dishonest. One unnamed western diplomat called it déjà vu of the false reports made by the US administration to justify the invasion of Iraq.[60]
  • IAEA officials complain that most U.S. intelligence shared with the U.N. nuclear watchdog agency about Iran's nuclear programme proved to be inaccurate, and none has led to significant discoveries inside Iran.[61]
  • On 10 May 2007, Agence France-Presse, quoting un-named diplomats, reported that Iran had blocked IAEA inspectors when they sought access to the Iran's enrichment facility. Both Iran and the IAEA vehemently denied the report. On 11 March, 2007, Reuters quoted International Atomic Energy Agency spokesman Marc Vidricaire, "We have not been denied access at any time, including in the past few weeks. Normally we do not comment on such reports but this time we felt we had to clarify the matter...If we had a problem like that we would have to report to the [35-nation IAEA governing] board ... That has not happened because this alleged event did not take place."[62]
  • On July 30 2007, inspectors from the IAEA spent five hours at the Arak complex, the first such visit since April. Visits to other plants in Iran were expected during the following days. It has been suggested that access may have been granted in an attempt to head off further sanctions.[63]
  • In late October 2007, according to the International Herald Tribune, the head of the IAEA, Mohamed ElBaradei, stated that he had seen "no evidence" of Iran developing nuclear weapons. The IHT quoted ElBaredei as stating that,

"We have information that there has been maybe some studies about possible weaponization," said Mohamed ElBaradei, who leads the International Atomic Energy Agency. "That's why we have said that we cannot give Iran a pass right now, because there is still a lot of question marks." "But have we seen Iran having the nuclear material that can readily be used into a weapon? No. Have we seen an active weaponization program? No." UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ...

The IHT report went on to say that "ElBaradei said he was worried about the growing rhetoric from the U.S., which he noted focused on Iran's alleged intentions to build a nuclear weapon rather than evidence the country was actively doing so. If there is actual evidence, ElBaradei said he would welcome seeing it."[64]


European Union

Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Mohammad Ali Hosseini said on May 6, 2007 that no new schedule for renewed talks between Iran and the European Union over the country’s nuclear program has yet been set.[65] Mohammad Ali Hosseini (In Persian: محمد علی حسینی) is the vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


United Nations sanctions

On 31 July 2006 the United Nations Security Council demanded Iran to suspend all enrichment and reprocessing related activities.[66] In December they imposed a series of sanctions on Iran for its non-compliance with the earlier Security Council resolution deciding that Iran suspend enrichment-related activities without delay.[67] These sanctions were primarily targeted against the transfer of nuclear and ballistic missile technologies[68] and, in response to concerns of China and Russia, were lighter than that sought by the United States.[69] Following a report from the IAEA that all declared nuclear sites it had inspected were compliant. The Iranians had permitted inspections at non-nuclear facilities such as the Parchin Military Complex, which was suspected of being an undeclared nuclear facility but no evidence of a nuclear weapons program was found there either.[70] As this did not apply to activities at non-declared sites,[71] the target of the sanctions were widened in March 2007.[72] The implementation of the sanctions is monitored by a Security Council Committee.[73] is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


Nuclear power as a political issue

Iran's nuclear program has become political in two ways: local and international. Iranian politicians use it as part of their populist platform, and there is international speculation about Iran's possible use of nuclear technology. Iran is a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which it ratified in 1970. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


Iran's nuclear programme and the NPT

Main article: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

The Iranian nuclear programme has been controversial although the development of a civilian nuclear power programme is explicitly allowed under the terms of the NPT, there have been allegations that Iran has been illicitly pursuing a nuclear weapons programme, in violation of the NPT. (See Iran and weapons of mass destruction) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... This article is about Iran and weapons of mass destruction. ...


The Iranian government says it sees nuclear power as a way to modernise and diversify its energy-sources, other than its large oil and gas reserves. The Iranian public, nearly all political candidates, and the current government are unified on this point: Iran should be developing its peaceful nuclear industry.[74][75] In addition, it states that Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has issued a fatwa saying that the production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons was forbidden under Islam.[76] Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Iran. ...


Any use for nuclear weapons would be a violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which Iran ratified in 1970. Some of Iran's leaders before the revolution have also expressed their support in this regard. Ardeshir Zahedi for example, who signed Iran into the NPT during the Pahlavi dynasty, in an interview in May 2006, voiced his support for Iran's Nuclear Program stating it as an "inalienable right of Iran".[77] Ardeshir Zahedi Ardeshir Zahedi (born October 16, 1928) was an important Iranian diplomat during the 1960s and 1970s, serving as the countrys foreign minister and its ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ...


As Michael Spies of the Lawyer's Committee on Nuclear Policy has explained[78]: "The conclusion that no diversion has occurred certifies that the state in question is in compliance with its undertaking, under its safeguards agreement and Article III of the NPT, to not divert material to non-peaceful purposes. In the case of Iran, the IAEA was able to conclude in its November 2004 report that that all declared nuclear materials had been accounted for and therefore none had been diverted to military purposes. The IAEA reached this same conclusion in September 2005."


Nevertheless, acting under intense US pressure, the IAEA Board of Governors concluded that past Iranian violations of its safeguards agreements resulting doubts about whether Iran's program is peaceful raises questions that are within the competency of the UN Security Council's responsibility for maintaining international peace and security.[38] Some nations, including the United States, claim that Iran also violated its obligation under Article II not to seek or receive assistance in the manufacture of nuclear weapons.[79]


Iran's foreign minister has described attempts to stop it from gaining nuclear capabilities as "nuclear apartheid" and "scientific apartheid". In a November 2005 guest column in Le Monde, Manouchehr Mottaki said that the West's demands Iran "surrender its inalienable right to fully master nuclear technology" were "nuclear apartheid". [80] [81] In subsequent statements in February 2006 he insisted that "Iran rejects all forms of scientific and nuclear apartheid by any world power", and asserted that this "scientific and nuclear apartheid" was "an immoral and discriminatory treatment of signatories to the Non-Proliferation Treaty", [82] and that Iran has "the right to a peaceful use of nuclear energy and we cannot accept nuclear apartheid". [83] His words were later echoed in a June 2006 speech by Iran's deputy chief nuclear negotiator Javad Vaeedi, in which he claimed that "developing countries are moving towards destroying technological apartheid". [84] For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ... Manouchehr Mottaki (Persian: منوچهر متکی) (born 1953 in Bandar Gaz) is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs appointed by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


The August 2007 agreement with the IAEA

An IAEA report to the Board of Governors on August 30, 2007 states that Iran’s Fuel Enrichment Plant at Natanz is operating "well below the expected quantity for a facility of this design," and that 12 of the intended 18 centrifuge cascades at the plant are operating. The report states that the IAEA has "been able to verify the non-diversion of the declared nuclear materials at the enrichment facilities in Iran and has therefore concluded that it remains in peaceful use," and that longstanding issues regarding plutonium experiments and HEU contamination on spent fuel containers were considered "resolved." However, the report adds that "the Agency remains unable to verify certain aspects relevant to the scope and nature of Iran’s nuclear programme. It should be noted that since early 2006, the Agency has not received the type of information that Iran had previously been providing, including pursuant to the [unratified] Additional Protocol, for example information relevant to ongoing advanced centrifuge research."


The report also outlines a work plan agreed by Iran and the IAEA on August 21, 2007. The work plan reflects agreement on "modalities for resolving the remaining safeguards implementation issues, including the long outstanding issues." According to the plan, these modalities "cover all remaining issues and the Agency confirmed that there are no other remaining issues and ambiguities regarding Iran's past nuclear program and activities." The IAEA report describes the work plan is "a significant step forward," but adds "the Agency considers it essential that Iran adheres to the time line defined therein and implements all the necessary safeguards and transparency measures, including the measures provided for in the Additional Protocol." However, the work plan does not commit Iran to implement the Additional Protocol. [85]


According to Reuters, the report is likely to blunt Washington’s push for more severe sanctions against Iran. If Washington pushes for tougher sanctions, "our process will face a setback at a minimum, if not a halt,” said a senior U.N. official familiar with IAEA program on Iran, reflecting IAEA concerns that U.S.-led efforts to escalate penalties could only corner nationalistic Iran and goad it to freeze out inspectors.[86] In late October 2007, the Reuters news agency reported that, according to senior UN official, Olli Heinonen, Iranian cooperation with the IAEA was "good", although there was much that remained to be done.[87] Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ...


The November 15, 2007 IAEA report found that "Iran's statements are consistent with ... information available to the agency," but it warned that its knowledge of Tehran's present atomic work was shrinking due to Iran's refusal to continue voluntarily implementing the Additional Protocol, as it had done in the past under the October 2003 Tehran agreement and the November 2004 Paris agreement. The report also stated that Tehran continues to produce LEU. Iran has declared it has a right to peaceful nuclear technology under the NPT, despite Security Council demands that it cease its nuclear enrichment.[88][3]


On November 18, 2007, President Ahmadinejad announced that he intends to consult with other Arab nations on a plan, under the auspices of the Gulf Cooperation Council, to enrich uranium in a neutral third country, such as Switzerland.[89] is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... ...


Views on Iran's Nuclear Power Program

The Iranian viewpoint

Iran says that nuclear power is necessary for a booming population and rapidly-industrializing nation.

Iran insists [16] that nuclear power is necessary for a booming population and rapidly-industrializing nation. It points to the fact that Iran's population has more than doubled in 20 years, the country regularly imports gasoline and electricity, and that burning fossil fuel in large amounts severely harms Iran's environment. Additionally, Iran wishes to diversify its sources of energy. Iran's oil reserves are currently estimated at 133 billion barrels, at a current pumping rate of 1.5-1.8 billion barrels per year. This is only enough oil to last the next 74-89 years assuming pumping rates are steady and additional reserves are not found. In taking a stance that the Shah expressed decades ago, Iranians feel its valuable oil should be used for high-value products, not simple electricity generation. "Petroleum is a noble material, much too valuable to burn... We envision producing, as soon as possible, 23 000 megawatts of electricity using nuclear plants."[citation needed] Iran also faces financial constraints, and claims that developing the excess capacity in its oil industry would cost it $40 billion, let alone pay for the power plants.[citation needed] Roger Stern from Johns Hopkins University partially concurred with this view, projecting that due to "energy subsidies, hostility to foreign investment, and inefficiencies of its [Iranian] state-planned economy", Iranian oil exports would vanish by 2014–2015, although he notes that this outcome has "no relation to 'peak oil.'"[17] Earlier, the Gerald Ford Administration had arrived at a similar assessment,[90] and independent studies conducted by the Foreign Affairs Select Committee of the British Parliament and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences previously confirmed that Iran has a valid economic basis for its nuclear energy program. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An oil well in Canada. ...


Dr. William O. Beeman, Brown University's Middle East Studies programme professor, who spent years in Iran, says that the Iranian nuclear issue is a unified point of their political discussion: William Orman Beeman is an actor, author, singer, and professor of anthropology at Brown University. ...

"The Iranian side of the discourse is that they want to be known and seen as a modern, developing state with a modern, developing industrial base. The history of relations between Iran and the West for the last hundred years has included Iran's developing various kinds of industrial and technological advances to prove to themselves--and to attempt to prove to the world--that they are, in fact, that kind of country."

After the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran informed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of its plans to restart its nuclear program using indigenously-made nuclear fuel, and in 1983 the IAEA even planned to provide assistance to Iran under its Technical Assistance Program to produce enriched uranium. An IAEA report stated clearly that its aim was to “contribute to the formation of local expertise and manpower needed to sustain an ambitious program in the field of nuclear power reactor technology and fuel cycle technology”. However, the IAEA was forced to terminate the program under U.S. pressure.


Iran also believes it has a legal right to enrich uranium for peaceful purposes under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, a right which in 2005 the U.S. and the EU-3 began to assert had been forfeited by a clandestine nuclear program that came to light in 2002. In fact, Iran's enrichment programme was openly discussed on national radio, and IAEA inspectors had even visited Iran's uranium mines [16]. ([24]) Iranian politicians compare its treatment as a signatory to the NPT with three nuclear-armed nations that have not signed the NPT: Israel, India, and Pakistan. Each of these nations developed an indigenous nuclear weapons capability: Israel by 1968 [25], India by 1974 [26] and Pakistan by 1990 [27]. There is no provision in the Non-Proliferation Treaty that explicitly provides for interpretation or enforcement of the Treaty's provisions. However, the Treaty requires IAEA safeguards, and the IAEA Statute provides for reporting safeguards violations to the UN Security Council, which may act under its authority to maintain international peace and security.


The Iranian authorities assert that they cannot simply trust the United States or Europe to provide Iran with nuclear energy fuel, and point to a long series of agreements, contracts and treaty obligations which were not fulfilled. [18] Developing nations say they don’t want to give up their rights to uranium enrichment and don’t trust the United States or other nuclear countries to be consistent suppliers of the nuclear material they would need to run their power plants. [19]


Determination to continue the nuclear program and retaliate against any Western attack is strong in Iran. Hassan Abbasi, director of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps think tank, Doctrinal Analysis Center for Security without Borders (Markaz-e barresiha-ye doktrinyal-e amniyat bedun marz,) has announced that "approximately 40,000 Iranian estesh-hadiyun (martyrdom-seekers)" are ready to carry out suicide operations against "twenty-nine identified Western targets," should the U.S. military hit Iranian nuclear installations. [91]


Middle Eastern responses

The New York Times newspaper reports Iran's nuclear programme has spurred interest in establishing nuclear power programs by a number of neighboring countries, including Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Egypt. According to the report, "roughly a dozen states in the region have recently turned to the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna for help in starting" nuclear programs. [92] The article also described neighbouring states as very hostile to any nuclear weapons program Iran might embark on, stating "many diplomats and analysts say that the Sunni Arab governments are so anxious about Iran’s nuclear progress that they would even, grudgingly, support a United States military strike against Iran." However, both Egypt and Saudi Arabia have had nuclear programs that predate the controversy over Iran's nuclear program. Egypt was also found to have hidden nuclear activities from the IAEA. The interest in nuclear power shown by the Mideast nations is also shared by many nations, and corresponds to an increased world-wide interest in nuclear power. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


US and Western European viewpoints

The view of the US government and several major European nations is that Iran's primary goal is not developing electrical power generation resources but nuclear weapons. They cite Iran's concealment of many nuclear activities for nearly two decades in violation of its NPT safeguards obligations. According to The Economist magazine, "even before the election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Iran was negotiating in bad faith. During this period, European officials believe, it continued to work in secret on nuclear research, having promised to suspend uranium enrichment." [93] Note that Iran only promised to suspend enrichment on a temporary basis, which it verifiably did according to the IAEA, but did not make promise to suspend all nuclear research. The Iranians also attribute the concealment of portions of their nuclear program to the fact that the US repeatedly hampered their overt attempts at acquiring the necessary technology for their program. This article is about Iran and weapons of mass destruction. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ...


Some skeptics also argue that energy and economic considerations would not justify Iran's nuclear power program, since "if Iran really were short on energy, it could build gas-fired power plants at much lower cost, or make better use of its vast hydraulic resources;" and that the huge investment needed for nuclear power would pay greater returns if used to maintain or upgrade Iran's basic oil industry infrastructure. [94] However, Iran has made significant investments in hydroelectricity, by opening its largest hydroelectric dams, the Karun-3 as part of efforts to diversify Energy in Iran. Furthermore, independent studies conducted in the National Academy of Science in the US and Foreign Affairs Select Committee of the British Parliament have since confirmed that Iran has a valid economic basis for its nuclear energy program, and that harnessing other sources such as natural gas which is usually flared from oil fields cannot be economically used. As a further drive toward diversification of energy sources, Iran has also established wind farms in several areas, this one near Manjeel. ...


Critics also cite as reasons for particular concern Iranian support for Hezbollah and alleged support for the Iraqi insurgency, ideological intolerance towards Israel's existence, and pursuit of long-range missile technology capable of reaching anywhere in the Middle East. For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ...


The U.S. has repeatedly refused to rule out nuclear first strikes against Iran.[95] The US Nuclear Posture Review made public in 2002 specifically envisioned the use of nuclear weapons on a first strike basis, even against non-nuclear armed states[96]. Investigative reporter Seymour Hersh has reported that the Bush administration has been planning the use of nuclear weapons against Iran[97] When specifically questioned about the potential use of nuclear weapons against Iran, President Bush claimed that "All options were on the table". According to the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, "the president of the United States directly threatened Iran with a preemptive nuclear strike. It is hard to read his reply in any other way." [58] The policy of using nuclear weapons on a first-strike basis against non-nuclear opponents is a violation of the US Negative Security Assurance pledge not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear members of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) such as Iran. Threats of the use of nuclear weapons against another country constitute a violation of Security Council Resolution 984 of 11 April 1995 and the International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons. The Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons[1] was an advisory opinion handed down by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on 8 July 1996. ...


In the spring of 2006 Bush seemed to justify a military attack by setting an impossibly high bar for Iran to meet. "The world is united and concerned about their [Iranians] desire to have not only a nuclear weapon, but the capacity to make a nuclear weapon or the knowledge as to how to make a nuclear weapon...," (emphasis added)Bush said in an April 2006 press conference.20 No one can possibly prove what knowledge scientists might have in their brains. But according to Bush's logic, Iran is a dangerous enemy so long as its scientists might, at some time in the future, think about building a bomb.


On July 31, 2006, the United States rounded up European powers, and got China and Russia to acquiesce, to pass UN Security Council Resolution 1696. The resolution demanded that Iran stop "all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities." (Reprocessing involves removing highly radioactive plutonium from nuclear waste products, a procedure that can lead to production of bomb-grade fuel.) A month later, in a report not released to the public, IAEA Director ElBaradei indicated that Iran was not reprocessing uranium.


ElBaradei criticized Iran, however, for continued attempts at uranium enrichment. "Iran has not addressed the long outstanding verification issues or provided the necessary transparency to remove uncertainties associated with some of its activities...," wrote ElBaradei.


An IAEA official told the New York Times that "the qualitative and quantitative development of Iran's enrichment program continues to be fairly limited."


The IAEA report was hardly a smoking gun. But the Bush Administration huffed and puffed that Iran's failure to uphold the Security Council resolution meant the world should impose more sanctions. On March 24, 2007, the UN Security Council voted to impose another round of sanctions, prohibiting the sale of Iranian weapons to other countries and freezing the overseas assets of more Iranian individuals and organizations.


The United States failed to get any backing for military attacks on Iran to enforce the sanctions. The March resolution even restated the UN position that the Middle East region should be nuclear free, a criticism of Israel's large nuclear arsenal.


U.S. officials told the New York Times that the new sanctions went beyond the nuclear issue. "The new language was written to rein in what they [U.S. officials] see as Tehran's ambitions to become the dominant military power in the Persian Gulf and across the Middle East."[98]


France's foreign minister Bernard Kouchner warned that the international community had to be prepared for the possibility of war in the event that Iran obtains atomic weapons. "We will not accept that such a bomb is made," Kouchner said. "We must prepare ourselves for the worst," he said, specifying that that would be war. He did not elaborate on what kind of preparations that could entail. "We have decided, while negotiations are under way ... to prepare for eventual sanctions outside the United Nations, which would be European sanctions," he said. Bernard Kouchner (born November 1, 1939 in Avignon) is a French politician, diplomat, and doctor. ...


Kouchner was not specific about what penalties Europe might impose, other than to say they could be "economic sanctions regarding financial movements." "Our German friends proposed this. We discussed it a few days ago," he said. "The international community's demand is simple: They must stop enriching uranium," Kouchner said. "Our Iranian friends want to create, they say, civilian nuclear energy. They have the right to that, but all that they are doing proves the contrary. That is why we are worried," he said. [99]


Tensions have been raised by media reports of an Israeli air incursion over northeastern Syria on Sept. 6. One U.S. official said the attack hit weapons heading for the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah, an ally of Syria and Iran, but there also has been speculation the Israelis hit a nascent nuclear facility or were studying routes for a possible future strike on Iran. Others suspect Israel was performing an intelligence operation for the U.S.[100] For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...


With Iran adding to the talk of military options, Undersecretary of State Nicholas Burns called for U.N. Security Council members and U.S. allies to help push for a third round of sanctions against Iran over the nuclear program.[101]


In December 2007 the United States National Intelligence Estimate (that represents the consensus view of all 16 American spy agencies) judged with "high confidence” that Iran had halted its nuclear weapons program in 2003, with "moderate confidence" that the program remains frozen, and with "moderate-to-high confidence" that Iran is "keeping open the option to develop nuclear weapons." The new estimate says that the enrichment program could still provide Iran with enough raw material to produce a nuclear weapon sometime by the middle of next decade but that intelligence agencies “do not know whether it currently intends to develop nuclear weapons” at some future date. Senator Harry Reid, the majority leader, said he hoped the administration would “appropriately adjust its rhetoric and policy”.[102][103] National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs), produced by the National Intelligence Council, express the coordinated judgments of the US Intelligence Community made up of 16 intelligence agencies, and thus represent the most authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with respect to a particular national security issue. ... Harry Mason Reid (born December 2, 1939) is the senior United States Senator from Nevada and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two...


Israeli viewpoint

Main article: Iran-Israel relations
See also: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel

Tehran has said that Israel would be the first retaliatory target for any attack on Iran.[101] The view of many Israelis is that Iran is perceived as "an existential threat"[104]. Although Iran professes only peaceful ambitions for their nuclear program, their president has allegedly spoken of wiping Israel off the map.[101] This statement, though widely attributed to Ahmadinejad, is considered to be a mistranslation intended to portray Iran as a nuclear threat to Israel[105], and Israeli officials privately concede that Iranian nuclear weapons would not actually pose much of a threat to Israel[106],[107],[108] Relations between Iran and Israel have alternated from close political alliances between the two states during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty to hostility following the rise to power of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. ... During his presidency, Mahmoud Ahmadinejads speeches and statements have contributed to increased tensions between Iran and Israel, and between Iran and a few Western nations. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ...


Some Israelis claim that the Iranians might consider a nuclear exchange, even one that greatly damages their own country, to be a "win" for Muslims the world over and worth the sacrifice and regain control/influence on the disputed holy land. As such, the Israeli view is that they cannot risk the control of nuclear weapons by a theocratic, and possibly martyrdom-seeking, Iranian government. However, in October 2007, the Israel newspaper Haaretz reported that the Israeli Foreign Minister, Tzipi Livni, has admitted that "Iranian nuclear weapons do not pose an existential threat to Israel". The report went on to state that "Livni also criticized the exaggerated use that Prime Minister Ehud Olmert is making of the issue of the Iranian bomb, claiming that he is attempting to rally the public around him by playing on its most basic fears."[109] Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ...


Livni's reported remarks echo those of Ephraim Halevy, the former head of the Israeli intelligence agency, Mossad, that Iran is not a threat to Israel. According to Halevy, For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ...

"We cannot say that the Iranian threat is an existential threat on the State of Israel. I believe that the State of Israel cannot be eliminated."[110]

Iran has drawn up plans to retaliate against Israel with conventional weapons if Israel should attack or the United States, the Iranian deputy air force commander said on September 19, 2007, adding to tensions already heated up by an Israeli airstrike on Syria and Western calls for more U.N. sanctions against Tehran. Other Iranian officials also underlined their country's readiness to fight if the U.S. or Israel attacks, a reflection of concerns in Tehran that demands by the U.S. and its allies for Iran to curtail its nuclear program could escalate into military action.


"We have drawn up a plan to strike back at Israel with our bombers if this regime (Israel) makes a silly mistake," Iran's deputy air force commander, Gen. Mohammad Alavi, said in an interview with the semiofficial Fars news agency. Alavi warned that Israel is within range of Iran's medium-range missiles and fighter-bombers.


The Iranian air force had no immediate comment on the Fars report. But Defense Minister Mostafa Mohammed Najjar told the official IRNA news agency that "we keep various options open to respond to threats. ... We will make use of them if required." Iran's elite Revolutionary Guards also weighed in, saying Iran "has prepared its people for a possible confrontation against any aggression."


Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Mark Regev said his government took Iran's "threat very seriously and so does the international community." "Unfortunately we are all too accustomed to this kind of bellicose, extremist and hateful language coming from Iran," he said.[101] Mark Regev is the Spokesman of the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. ...


On the 5th of October, 2007, the Director-General of the Israeli Foreign Ministry, Aharon Abramovich, described the IAEA as a "hindrance" to "the international effort against Iran".[111]


In early 2006 Israeli intelligence, on the other hand, argued that Iran is much closer to having a bomb, perhaps one to three years away. In citing such estimates, the U.S. media don't provide any corroboration, nor explain why the Israeli assessment differs so widely from the CIA and IAEA. Indeed, Israel keeps postponing its estimates of when Iran will have the bomb. At the end of 2006 Meir Dagan, head of the Mossad intelligence agency, claimed Iran could have a bomb by 2009 or 2010.18


Israel's estimates are clearly influenced by its political and military goals. Using Ahmadinejad's statements attacking Israel and questioning the existence of the Holocaust, Israel proclaims Iran an immediate military threat. In reality, Ahmadinejad poses no offensive nuclear threat to Israel.19 Iran would be insane to launch a first strike against the militarily far superior Israel, let alone a nuclear strike with an arsenal of one or two bombs. Such an action would give the United States and Israel a political excuse to wreck havoc on Iran and gain lots of international support.


But Israel does have a vested interest in creating anxiety around a possible Iranian Bomb. While Iran has no ability to wipe Israel off the map, it does support the Palestinian group Hamas and the Lebanese political party and guerrilla group Hezbollah. Iran gives them political, financial and military backing. Israel doesn't want to suffer another defeat like its 2006 war against Hizbollah. So rather than give up occupied territory and agree to establishing a Palestinian state, Israeli leaders blame outsiders. Israel seeks to weaken or, preferably, overthrow Iran's government.


Israeli officials, along with U.S. hawks, argue that Iran will soon reach "a point of no return," in which they have both the theoretical knowledge and practical ability to create weapon's grade plutonium. After that point, the hawks argue, Iran must be confronted militarily. The advantage of this argument, of course, is that it's all hypothetical. The Iranians cross this point of no return at whatever time the hawks allege. Who can prove otherwise?[112]


Following the release of the United States National Intelligence Estimate conclusion that Iran had halted its nuclear weapons program in 2003, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert said the findings demonstrated the need for tighter international sanctions on Iran.[113] Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ...


The Declaration of the Non-Aligned Movement

  • On September 16, 2006, in Havana, Cuba, all of the 118 Non-Aligned Movement member countries, at the summit level, declared that they were supporting Iran's nuclear program for civilian purposes in their final written statement.[114] The Non-Aligned Movement represents a majority of the 192 countries comprising the entire United Nations.
  • Several nations, including Argentina and Brazil, have recently developed nuclear enrichment capabilities that Iran is developing, and more may seek the technology in order to have an independent, secure source of fuel for their nuclear energy programs as nuclear energy becomes more popular in the future. Some developing nations are skeptical of the intentions of the five original nuclear states and are reluctant to give up the option of enriching uranium. Developing nations say they don’t want to give up their rights to uranium enrichment and don’t trust the United States or other nuclear countries to be consistent suppliers of the nuclear material they would need to run their power plants.[115]

is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...

Nuclear facilities in Iran

Anarak

Anarak has a waste storage site, near Yazd. Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, one of the most ancient and historic cities in Iran and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. ...


Arak

Arak was one of the two sites exposed by a spokesman for the MEK terrorist group in 2002. Iran is constructing a 40 MWt heavy water moderated research reactor at this location, which should be ready for commissioning in 2014.[116][117] In August 2006, Iran announced the inauguration of the Arak plant for the production of heavy water. Under the terms of Iran's safeguards agreement, Iran was under no obligation to report the existence of the site while it was still under construction since it was not within the 180-day time limit specified by the safeguards agreement. This reactor is intended to replace the life-expired 1967 Tehran Nuclear Research Center research reactor, mainly involved in the production of radioisotopes for medical and agricultural purposes.[118] MKO redirects here. ...


Ardakan

Construction of a nuclear fuel site at Ardakan is reportedly scheduled to be finished in mid-2005.


Bonab

The Atomic Energy Research Center at Bonab is investigating the applications of nuclear technology in agriculture. It is run by the AEOI.


Bushehr

The Bushehr Nuclear Power Facility (28.83484° N 50.89356° E) is located 17 kilometres south of the city of Bushehr (also known as Bushire), between the fishing villages of Halileh and Bandargeh along the Persian Gulf. Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


On June 29, 2004, IAEA Director General Mohammad El-Baradei announced that the Bushehr reactor was "not of international concern" since it was a bilateral Russian-Iranian project intended to produce nuclear energy. The reactor is under full IAEA safeguards.


The facility was the idea of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who envisioned a time when the world's oil supply would run out. He wanted a national electrical grid powered by clean nuclear power plants. Bushehr would be the first plant, and would supply energy to the inland city of Shiraz. In August 1974, the Shah said, "Petroleum is a noble material, much too valuable to burn... We envision producing, as soon as possible, 23 000 megawatts of electricity using nuclear plants". His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ...


In 1975, the Bonn firm Kraftwerk Union AG, a joint venture of Siemens AG and AEG Telefunken, signed a contract worth $4 to $6 billion to build the pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. Construction of the two 1,196 MWe nuclear generating units was subcontracted to ThyssenKrupp AG, and was to have been completed in 1981. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Siemens redirects here. ... Telefunken is a German radio- and television company, founded in 1903. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER if of Russian design) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use ordinary water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... German industrial company ThyssenKrupp AG, with about 200,000 employees, mainly operates in the steel industry, but also in the automotive, industrial construction, and shipbuilding areas, as well as manufacturing elevators and providing other technologies and services. ...


Kraftwerk Union was eager to work with the Iranian government because, as spokesman Joachim Hospe said in 1976, "To fully exploit our nuclear power plant capacity, we have to land at least three contracts a year for delivery abroad. The market here is about saturated, and the United States has cornered most of the rest of Europe, so we have to concentrate on the third world."


Kraftwerk Union fully withdrew from the Bushehr nuclear project in July 1979, after work stopped in January 1979, with one reactor 50% complete, and the other reactor 85% complete. They said they based their action on Iran's non-payment of $450 million in overdue payments. The company had received $2.5 billion of the total contract. Their cancellation came after certainty that the Iranian government would unilaterally terminate the contract themselves, following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which paralyzed Iran's economy and led to a crisis in Iran's relations with the West. After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza...


In 1984, Kraftwerk Union did a preliminary assessment to see if it could resume work on the project, but declined to do so while the Iran-Iraq war continued. In April of that year, the U.S. State Department said, "We believe it would take at least two to three years to complete construction of the reactors at Bushehr." The spokesperson also said that the light water power reactors at Bushehr "are not particularly well-suited for a weapons program." The spokesman went on to say, "In addition, we have no evidence of Iranian construction of other facilities that would be necessary to separate plutonium from spent reactor fuel." Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft...


The reactors were then damaged by multiple Iraqi air strikes from 1984 to 1988, during the Iran-Iraq war. Shortly afterwards Iraq invaded Iran and the nuclear program was stopped until the end of the war. Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft...


In 1990, Iran began to look outwards towards partners for its nuclear programme; however, due to a radically different political climate and punitive U.S. economic sanctions, few candidates existed.


In 1995 Iran signed a contract with Russia to resume work on the partially-complete Bushehr plant, installing into the existing Bushehr I building a 915MWe VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor, with completion expected in 2007.[119] The Russian state-controlled company Atomstroyexport (Atomic Construction Export), an arm of Russia's atomic energy ministry, MinAtom, is constructing the plant. MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... WWER-10ff (also VVER-1000 as a direct translitteration from Russian ВВЭР-1000). ... Atomstroyexport (Russian: ) is the Russian Federations nuclear power equipment and service export monopoly. ... The Ministry for Atomic Energy (Russian Federation) is the ministry of Russia responsible for all things nuclear. ...


In response to American and European pressure on Russia, a new revised agreement was reached in September 2006, under which fuel deliveries to Bushehr were scheduled to start in March 2007 and the plant was due to come on stream in September 2007 after years of delays.[120]


However, already five years behind schedule, it was reported again on February 20th, 2007 by Russian officials that the opening of Bushehr could be delayed further because Iran has allegedly fallen behind with the payments. A top Iranian nuclear official denied this and accused the Russians of deliberately delaying and politicising the issue under European and American pressure. [20] [21] Other Russian sources have made conflicting claims, saying the delays are caused by Iranian contractors not meeting their obligations. Iranians, on the other hand, claim the plant would have been finished long ago if Russians were not involved in the construction.


Iran announced on April 15, 2007, that it is seeking bids for two additional nuclear reactors to be located near Bushehr.


Chalus

In 1995 Iranian exiles living in Europe claimed Iran was building a secret facility for building nuclear weapons in a mountain 20 kilometres from the town of Chalus.[121] In October 2003 Mohamed ElBaradei announced that "In terms of inspections, so far, we have been allowed to visit those sites to which we have requested access". It therefore appears the allegations about the Chalus site were unfounded.[122] Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ...


Darkovin

Iran declared on March 6, 2007, that it has started construction of a domestically built nuclear power plant with capacity of 360 MW in Darkovin, in southwestern Iran. This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


Isfahan

The Nuclear Technology Center of Isfahan is a nuclear research facility that currently operates four small nuclear research reactors, all supplied by China. It is run by the AEOI.[123]

Zirconium Production Plant, Isfahan.

The Uranium Conversion Facility at Isfahan converts yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride. As of late October 2004, the site is 70% operational with 21 of 24 workshops completed. There is also a Zirconium Production Plant (ZPP) located nearby that produces the necessary ingredients and alloys for nuclear reactors. Zirconium Production Plant, Isfahan. ... Zirconium Production Plant, Isfahan. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ... Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as hex in industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ...


Karaj

The Center for Agricultural Research and Nuclear Medicine at Hashtgerd was established in 1991 and is run by the AEOI. [22]


Lashkar Abad

Lashkar Abad is a pilot plant for isotope separation. Established in 2002, the site was first exposed by Alireza Jafarzadeh in May 2003 which led to the inspection of the site by the IAEA. Laser enrichment experiments were carried out there, however, the plant has been shut down since Iran declared it has no intentions of enriching uranium using the laser isotope separation technique.[23] In September 2006, Alireza Jafarzadeh claimed that the site has been revived by Iran and that laser enrichment has been taking place at this site. SPC Alireza Jafarzadeh Alireza Jafarzadeh (born 1957) is an expert on the Middle East, an author, a media commentator, and and an active dissident figure to the Iranian government who is best known for revealing the existence of clandestine nuclear facilities in Iran in 2002. ... Alireza Jafarzadeh Alireza Jafarzadeh (born 1957) is an expert on the Middle East, an author, a media commentator, and and an active dissident figure to the Iranian government who is best known for revealing the existence of clandestine nuclear facilities in Iran in 2002. ...


Lavizan

( 35°46′23″N, 51°29′52″E) All buildings at the former Lavizan-Shian Technical Research Center site were demolished between August 2003 and March 2004. Environmental samples taken by IAEA inspectors showed no trace of radiation. The site is to be returned to the City of Teheran.[124]


According to Reuters, claims by the US that topsoil has been removed and the site had been sanitized could not be verified by IAEA investigators who visited Lavizan:

Washington accused Iran of removing a substantial amount of topsoil and rubble from the site and replacing it with a new layer of soil, in what U.S. officials said might have been an attempt to cover clandestine nuclear activity at Lavizan. Former U.S. ambassador to the IAEA, Kenneth Brill, accused Iran in June of using "the wrecking ball and bulldozer" to sanitize Lavizan prior to the arrival of U.N. inspectors. But another diplomat close to the IAEA told Reuters that on-site inspections of Lavizan produced no proof that any soil had been removed at all.

Natanz

( 33°43′24.43″N, 51°43′37.55″E) is a hardened Fuel Enrichment Plant (FEP) covering 100,000 square meters that is built 8 meters underground and protected by a concrete wall 2.5 meters thick, itself protected by another concrete wall. In 2004, the roof was hardened with reinforced concrete and covered with 22 meters of earth. The complex consists of two 25,000 square meter halls and a number of administrative buildings. This once secret site was one of the two exposed by Alireza Jafarzadeh in 2002. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei visited the site on 21 February 2003 and reported that 160 centrifuges were complete and ready for operation, with 1000 more under construction at the site.[125] Under the terms of Iran's safeguards agreement, Iran was under no obligation to report the existence of the site while it was still under construction. Alireza Jafarzadeh Alireza Jafarzadeh (born 1957) is an expert on the Middle East, an author, a media commentator, and and an active dissident figure to the Iranian government who is best known for revealing the existence of clandestine nuclear facilities in Iran in 2002. ...


Parchin

The Parchin Military Complex is not a nuclear site. This was confirmed on 1 November 2005, when the IAEA was given access to the site and environmental samples were taken. Inspectors did not observe any unusual activities in the buildings visited, and the results of the analysis of environmental samples did not indicate the presence of nuclear material.[126]


Saghand

( 32°28′45″N, 55°24′30″E) Location of Iran's first uranium ore mines, expected to become operational by March 2005. The deposit is estimated to contain 3,000 to 5,000 tons of uranium oxide at a density of about 500 ppm over an area of 100 to 150 square kilometers. [24]


Tehran

The Tehran Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) is managed by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI). It is equipped with a U.S.-supplied 5-megawatt nuclear research reactor capable of producing 600 g of plutonium annually in spent fuel. 17 years production would be sufficient to make a single atomic bomb, however storage of the waste is closely monitored by the IAEA and extracting the plutonium is not possible while Iran maintains its status as a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


The Plasma Physics Research Center of Islamic Azad University operates a Tokamak fusion reactor designated Iran Tokamak 1 (IR-T1).[127] This article is about the fusion reactor device. ...


Yazd

Yazd Radiation Processing Center is equipped with a Rhodotron TT200 accelerator, made by IBA, Belgium, with outputs of 5 and 10MeV beam lines and a maximum power of 100 kW. As of 2006 the centre is engaged in geophysical research to analyze the mineral deposits surrounding the city and is expected to play an important role in supporting the medical and polymer industries.[128] 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Iran Portal

Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... 1956: Marion King Hubbert publishes his prediction that world oil production will peak in the year 2000. ... As a further drive toward diversification of energy sources, Iran has also established wind farms in several areas, this one near Manjeel. ... The economy of Iran is a transition economy where a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%. According to experts, annual economic growth above five per cent would be needed to... The Lawrence Franklin espionage scandal (also known as the AIPAC espionage scandal) refers to allegations that information regarding United States policy towards Iran was passed to Israel through Lawrence Franklin via the American Israel Public Affairs Committee. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The 13 steps is a paragraph of the Final Document (agreed by consensus) of the 2000 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, providing a set of practical steps for the systematic and progressive efforts to implement Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons... Operation Merlin is an alleged United States covert operation under the Clinton Administration to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon in order to delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program. ... Petrodollar warfare is a hypothesis that many international manÅ“uvres in recent decades are taken to support the current dollar hegemony over other currencies. ... Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, announced by U.S. Department of Energy secretary Samuel Bodman on February 6, 2006, is a plan to form an international partnership to see spent nuclear fuel reprocessed in a way that renders the plutonium in it usable for nuclear fuel but not for nuclear... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... This article is about Iran and weapons of mass destruction. ... The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: ) include the IRIA (Persian: ) , the IRGC (Persian: ) , and the Police Force[1] (Persian: ). These forces total about 545,000 active personnel. ... The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... During his presidency, Mahmoud Ahmadinejads speeches and statements have contributed to increased tensions between Iran and Israel, and between Iran and a few Western nations. ... An Iranian stamp commemorating Mohammad Ali Jennahs 100th birth anniversary, printed in 1976. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Political relations between Iran (Persia) and the United States began when the Shah... This article is about the current international tensions between Iran and other countries, especially the United States and Israel. ... Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. ...

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  127. ^ Dr. Farhang Jahanpour (2006). Chronology of Iran's Nuclear Program. Oxford Research Group. Retrieved on 2006-09-25.
  128. ^ Yazd Radiation Processing Center (YRPC). Nuclear Threat Initiative (2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-25.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم خدمت امام سید علی حسینی سیستانی نام من (اسلام) وطلبه( حوزه علمیه حضرت امام اباالفضل(ع) ) (مشهد))هستم.ودر ارتش حضرت ولی عصر در خدمت ام .از شما Ù…ÛŒ خواهم Ú©Ù‡ برای بنده حقیر دعا فرمایید رییس حزب التوابین .اسلام ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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External links

  • Iranian Nuclear Crisis Timeline in Quotes
  • Confronting Iran: Critical perspectives on the current crisis, its origins, and implications by the Project for Defense Alternatives
  • Iran Nuclear Resources at ParsTimes.com
  • In Focus : IAEA and Iran
  • Iran's Nuclear Facility (Video Clip in Persian)

News articles

  • Taking aim at Iran, Sunday Times, March 13 2005
  • No Proof Found of Iran Arms Program, August 2005.
  • For Israelis, a new worry: Iran's nuclear intentions by John Murphy, published in the Baltimore Sun January 19, 2007
  • Video from Iranian TV (4:39): Iran's Nuclear Program (in Persian with English subtitles)
  • Iran’s Ahmadinejad: West opposes our nukes to let Israel live on, Iran Focus
  • BBC - UN probe backs Iran nuclear claim
  • Iran: Tehran Threatens To Retaliate If Israel Strikes Nuclear Facilities
  • [25], for a huge archive of news reports and articles on the Iranian nuclear program and the U.S. response to it, updated daily, and going back for several years.

is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Analysis

  • Analysis of the IAEA's reports on Iran by the Lawyer's Committee for Nuclear Policy on the issue undeclared material & activities.
  • Five Scenarios for the Iranian Nuclear Crisis - analysis by George Perkovich, IFRI Proliferation Papers n°16, 2006
  • Analysis of the European offer to Iran under the terms of the Paris Agreement by the British-American Security Information Council.
  • Arms Control Association Fact Sheet on questions regarding Iran's nuclear program.
  • Wright, Steven. The United States and Persian Gulf Security: The Foundations of the War on Terror, Ithaca Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0863723216
  • BBC Iran Nuclear Issue Timeline
  • Iran's Nuclear Program. Part I: Its History
  • Iran's Nuclear Program. Part II: Are Nuclear Reactors Necessary?
  • BBC In-depth: the "Nuclear Fuel Cycle" Explained.
  • Iranian Nuclear Crisis Timeline at DKosopedia
  • Daniel Joyner. The Iran Nuclear Standoff: Legal Issues, JURIST, March 1 2006.
  • The Irania nuclear threat - project of Omedia
  • Iran’s Nuclear Program — Situation and Implications, (March 2007)
  • Oxford Research Group - Iran's Nuclear ActivitiesPDF (114 KiB)
  • Iran’s Nuclear Program and Allegations on U.S. Military Attack Option
  • "The Latest Developments and Attempts Regarding the Iran’s Nuclear Dossier", Arzu Celalifer
  • Iran and Iraq: The Shia Connection, Soft Power, and the Nuclear Factor U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report, November 2005
  • PBS - Iranian journalist Maziar Bahari on the Similarities Between U.S. and Iran, September 2006.
  • Forced to Fuel (Harvard Int'l Law Review, Vol. 26 No. 4 - Winter 2005) lays out the case for nuclear energy in Iran, by Prof. Muhammad Sahimi.

A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan federal institution created by Congress to promote the prevention, management, and peaceful resolution of international conflicts. ...

Commentary

  • Multinational Enrichment on Iranian Soil: The Ignored Alternative to War - IranAffairs.com
  • Scott Ritter on Iranian Nuclear Program
  • Spinwatch's analysis of how "The EU misleads on Iran’s nuclear activities."
  • Iran needs nuclear energy, not weapons, Le Monde diplomatique, November 2005 - questions whether Iran's nuclear program was really clandestine as commonly claimed.
  • Europe’s mendacity doomed Iran talks to failure, Trita Parsi Financial Times, August 2005
  • Rhetoric of War: First Iraq, Then Iran - Analyzes the fallacies and rhetoric for a pre-emptive war coming from the Bush administration.
  • A Nuclear Test for Diplomacy, column in The Washington Post by Henry A. Kissinger
  • The Persian Puzzle I: Iran and the invention of a nuclear crisis (First of a three-part series written in September 2005 by respected Indian analyst, Siddharth Varadarajan)
  • The Persian Puzzle II: What the IAEA really found in Iran
  • The Persian Puzzle III: The world must stand firm on diplomacy
  • Ardeshir Ommani. U.S.-EU tag team: Destroying the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), CounterPunch, March 4 2006.
  • Blast from the Past: Articles about US-European nuclear cooperation with Iran in the 1970s.
  • Dr. James Gordon Prather's archives on Iranian nuclear program
  • U.S. Instigated Iran's Nuclear Program 30 Years Ago, William O. Beeman, Pacific News Service, January 30 2006.
  • Iran: It’s Almost the End of the Film
  • Nuclear weapons physicist Dr. James Gordon Prather on "Lessons Learned – or Not", October 13, 2007. AntiWar.com

This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (born May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat and Nobel Peace Prize winner who played an important part in foreign affairs through the positions he held in several Republican administrations between 1969 and 1977. ... Counterpunch can refer to: In traditional typography, a counterpunch is a type of punch used to create the negative space in or around a character. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Orman Beeman is an actor, author, singer, and professor of anthropology at The University of Minnesota, where he is Chair of the Department of Anthropology. ... Pacific News Service (PNS) is a nonprofit media organization founded in 1969. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Antiwar. ...

Political statements

  • Iran's response to UN sanctions resolution presented by Ambassador Mohammad Javad Zarif, Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran before the Security Council 23 December 2006.
  • Some Facts and Materials on the Peaceful Iranian Nuclear Program - a collection of papers presented by the Iranian mission to the United Nations.
  • [26] Ambassador Javad Zarif's statement to the UN Security Council in response to the resolution requiring Iran to suspend enrichment, July 31 2006.
  • EU offer pursuant to the Paris Agreement and Iran's response to that offer
  • Text of the speech of Iran's envoy to the IAEA of March 7, 2007
  • Video (10 minutes), Jon Snow of British Channel 4 TV interviews Iran's former top nuclear negotiator, Ali Larijani, live in Tehran, March 6 2006.
  • Video of Representative Ron Paul R-TX on the Iran Nuclear impasse
  • Countering the Iranian Nuclear Threat from the United States Department of State
  • Diplomacy Monitor-Iran Nuclear

is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the British television station. ... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Department of State redirects here. ...

Documents

  • Text of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
  • List of Iranian proposals to resolve the nuclear dispute, collected by the Arms Control Association.
  • Nuclear program for electricity in the Muhammad Reza Pahlavi times

Organisations

  • Iran's Atomic Energy Organization

  Results from FactBites:
 
Harvard Gazette: KSG panel takes on Iranian nuclear challenge (558 words)
Participating in a panel on Iran's nuclear future are moderator Graham Allison (from left), Ashton Carter, Brenda Shaffer, and Henry Sokolski.
The panel agreed there is widespread support throughout Iran for moving forward with nuclear technology - for military purposes as well as for national pride - and that a regime change won't alter that sentiment.
Iran has agreed to a voluntary temporary ban on its work toward nuclear capability while it engages in negotiations with European leaders.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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