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Encyclopedia > Nuclear power plant
A nuclear power station. The nuclear reactor is contained inside the cylindrical containment buildings to the right - left is a cooling tower venting water vapor from the Non-Radioactive side of the plant.
A nuclear power station. The nuclear reactor is contained inside the cylindrical containment buildings to the right - left is a cooling tower venting water vapor from the Non-Radioactive side of the plant.
Energy Portal
Main article: Nuclear power

A nuclear power plant (NPP) is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. Image File history File linksMetadata Nuclear_Power_Plant_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nuclear_Power_Plant_2. ... A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... A nuclear power station. ... This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... Oil power plant in Iraq A power station or power plant is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


Nuclear power plants are base load stations, which work best when the power output is constant (although boiling water reactors can come down to half power at night). Their units range in power from about 40 MWe to over 1200 MWe. New units under construction in 2005 are typically in the range 600-1200 MWe. The largest nuclear reactors currently in operation are the Tokyo Electric Power Company's 1356 MWe advanced boiling water reactors at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa, Japan, built by Toshiba, Hitachi and General Electric. A base load power plant is one that provides a steady flow of power regardless of total power demand by the grid. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tokyo Electric Power Company is en energy provider for Tokyo, Japan. ... The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is an improved design of boiling water reactor. ... Kashiwazaki (柏崎市; -shi) is a city located in Niigata, Japan. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March, 31 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a multinational high technology electrical and electronics manufacturing firm, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Hitachi may refer to: Hitachi (train) trains in Melbourne, Australia. ... GE redirects here. ...


As of 2007 the IAEA reported there are 435 nuclear power reactors in operation in the world [1], operating in 31 different countries [2]. Together they produce about 17% of the world's electric power. The U.S., France, and Japan together account for 49% of all nuclear power plants and 57% of all nuclear generated electricity.[2] 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

The control room at a U.S. nuclear power plant.
The control room at a U.S. nuclear power plant.

Electricity was generated for the first time by a nuclear reactor on December 20, 1951 at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco, Idaho in the United States. On June 27, 1954, the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid started operations at Obninsk, USSR [3]. The world's first commercial scale power station, Calder Hall in England opened in October 17, 1956. [4]. Image File history File links Chp_controlroom. ... Image File history File links Chp_controlroom. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Experimental Breeder Reactor Number 1 in Idaho, the birthplace of atomic energy. ... Arco, Idaho Arco is a city located in Butte County, Idaho. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Transmission towers Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power transmission, or more accurately Electrical energy transmission, is the second process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ... Obninsk (Russian: ) is a city in Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located 100 km south-west of Moscow, on the main rail line between Moscow and Kiev. ... The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by the British Nuclear Group, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

For more history, see nuclear reactor and nuclear power.
For information on the Chernobyl accident which only had a partial containment structure, see that subject and RBMK and nuclear power.

Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A nuclear power station. ... The nuclear power plant at Chernobyl prior to the completion of the sarcophagus. ... RBMK is an acronym for the Russian reaktor bolshoy moshchnosti kanalniy (Russian: Реактор Большой Мощности Канальный) which means reactor (of) high power (of the) channel (type), and describes a now obsolete class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactor which was built only in the Soviet Union. ... A nuclear power station. ...

Controversy

Nuclear power plant accidents such as the explosion and fire in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant[5] and radioactive waste[6] make nuclear power a controversial topic, enough so that the building of new commercial nuclear power plants has ceased—at least temporarily—in the U.S. and most of Western Europe.[citation needed] However, in the U.S., a consortium of six major companies is planning construction of a new nuclear power plant, which would be the first since the 1970s. [2] [7] [8] As well, the Canadian corperation, Bruce Power is in the process of refurbishment and restart of several of the generators at the Bruce Nuclear Power Generating Station.[9] Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, viewed from the roof of a building in Pripyat, Ukraine. ... An illustration showing the various sources of nuclear waste Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ...


Reprocessing

Main article: Nuclear reprocessing

Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel can extend the usefulness of mined uranium. However, it is generally conceded that reprocessed fuel is more expensive than fuel from mined uranium (providing that adequate disposal space is available). Such processing of civilian fuel has long been employed in Europe (at the COGEMA La Hague site) and briefly at the West Valley Reprocessing Plant in the U.S. // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... The COGEMA La Hague site is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant near La Hague on the French Cotentin Peninsula that currently has over half of the worlds light water reactor spent nuclear fuel reprocessing capacity. ... West Valley Reprocessing Plant is a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at West Valley, New York, USA, was operated successfully from 1966-72. ...


Reprocessing of spent fuel to obtain plutonium for nuclear weapons has been done in a number of countries: however these programs are typically separate from civilian activities, and usually cloaked in secrecy.


Use of breeder reactors combined with reprocessing could extend the usefulness of mined uranium by more than 60 times. [1] However, breeder reactors, not yet well developed, are currently significantly more difficult to operate. A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that breeds fuel. ...


Accident indemnification

The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage puts in place an international framework for nuclear liability [10]. However states with a majority of the world's nuclear power plants, including the U.S., Russia, China and Japan, are not party to international nuclear liability conventions. Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Background Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage: International Framework In September 1997, government took a significant step forward in improving the liability régime for nuclear damage. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


In the U.S., insurance for nuclear or radiological incidents is covered (for facilities licensed through 2025) by the Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Pathways from airborne radioactive contamination to man This is a list of notable accidents involving nuclear material. ... 2025 (MMXXV) will be a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act (commonly called the Price-Anderson Act) is an act of the Congress of the United States. ...


Per the Energy policy of the United Kingdom through its Nuclear Installations Act of 1965, liability is governed for nuclear damage for which a UK nuclear licensee is responsible. The Act requires compensation to be paid for damage up to a limit of £150 million by the liable operator for ten years after the incident. Between ten and thirty years afterwards, the Government meets this obligation. The Government is also liable for additional limited cross-border liability (about £300 million) under international conventions (Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and Brussels Convention supplementary to the Paris Convention). [11] Energy policy of the United Kingdom is a set of official publications and activities directed at the present and future production, transmission and use of various power technologies. ...


Future reactors

The 1600 MWe European Pressurized Reactor reactor is being built in Olkiluoto, Finland. A joint effort of French AREVA and German Siemens AG, it will be the largest reactor in the world. In December 2006 construction was about 18 months behind schedule so completion was expected 2010-2011.[12][13] MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) is a new fission nuclear reactor design, based on the pressurized water reactor or PWR. It has been designed and developed mainly by the Commissariat à lÉnergie Atomique in France and the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany. ... The Olkiluoto island with two existing and one planned nuclear power plant Olkiluoto is an island located in western Finland in the municipality of Eurajoki. ... AREVA (Euronext: CEI) is a France-based multinational industrial conglomerate that deals in energy, especially in nuclear power. ... Siemens AG (ISIN: DE0007236101, FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is one of the worlds largest technology companies. ...


As of March, 2007, there are seven nuclear power plants under construction in India, and five in China. [14] 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Popular Culture

On the fourth season of the television show 24, Habib Marwan (and his associates) attempt to hijack and melt down every nuclear reactor in the United States, but all stay stable except one. 24 is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning American television series created by Joel Surnow and Robert Cochran, and produced by Imagine Television. ... Habib Marwan is a fictional character played by Arnold Vosloo on the television show 24 and main villain of Season 4. ... Holdup redirects here. ...


The 1979 movie "The China Syndrome" features an accident and implied core meltdown at a nuclear power plant. The China Syndrome is a 1979 thriller film which tells the story of a reporter and cameramen who discover safety coverups at a nuclear power plant. ...


In the 2006 movie, 10.5: Apocalypse, a moving trench heads toward the 2 largest nuclear reactors in the United States, located in Texas. Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


Homer Simpson from the Simpsons works mainly at a nuclear power plant. In one episode he builds a small-scale nuclear reactor for his daughter Lisa Simpson's science project, using plutonium created from the plant at which he works. Homer Jay Simpson is a fictional character in the animated television series The Simpsons, voiced by Dan Castellaneta. ... The Simpsons. ... Lisa Marie Simpson is a fictional character on the animated television series The Simpsons, and is voiced by Yeardley Smith. ...


References

  1. ^ NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS INFORMATION, by IAEA, 15/06/2005
  2. ^ a b c World NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS 2005-06, 15/08/2006, Australian Uranium Information Centre
  3. ^ World Nuclear Association, Nuclear Power in Russia, June 2006
  4. ^ 1956: Queen switches on nuclear power, BBC, 17/10/2005
  5. ^ Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident
  6. ^ Spent Nuclear Fuel
  7. ^ Nuclear power plants in Europe, by the European Nuclear Society, 10/05/2006
  8. ^ Stronger Future for Nuclear Power, Physic Today.org, February 2006
  9. ^ First steam generator ready for Bruce A Restart
  10. ^ Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, IAEA, 12/11/1977
  11. ^ Nuclear section of the UK Department of Trade & Industry's website
  12. ^ Finland nuclear reactor delayed again, Business Week, 4 December 2006
  13. ^ Areva to take 500 mln eur charge for Finnish reactor delay, Forbes, 5 December 2006
  14. ^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9125556

IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... List of nuclear reactors is a comprehensive annotated list of all the nuclear reactors of the world, sorted by country. ... A nuclear power station at Cattenom in France. ... The Nuclear Information and Resource Service (NIRS) was founded in 1978 and is the information and networking center for citizens and organizations concerned about nuclear power, radioactive waste, radiation and sustainable energy issues. ... Whistleblower Gerald W. Brown. ... A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ... Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ... Method 1: fire-resistant cables: PVC-sheathed MICC cable. ... In mathematics, a deficient number or defective number is a number n for which &#963;(n) < 2n. ... The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. ... A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering. ... A SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor - though the term has been extended to cover shutdowns of other complex operations, such as server farms and even large model railroads (see Tech Model Railroad Club). ... New FEMA seal The Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA is an agency of the United States government dedicated to swift response in the event of disasters, both natural and man-made. ... NRC headquarters in Rockville, MD. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or NRC) is a United States government agency that was established by the Energy Reorganization Act in 1974, and was first opened January 19, 1975. ... Auxiliary feedwater is a backup water supply used during nuclear plant startup and shutdown to supply water to the steam generators during accident conditions for removing decay heat from the reactor. ... 10 countries are responsible for 94 % of the global uranium extraction. ...

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