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Encyclopedia > Nuclear power in the United Kingdom

United Kingdom
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As of 2006, the United Kingdom operates 24 nuclear reactors generating one-fifth of its electricity (19.26% in 2004). The UK also has major nuclear reprocessing plants, including Sellafield. Image File history File links UKEnergyGraphic. ... Energy policy of the United Kingdom is a set of official publications and activities directed at the present and future production, transmission and use of various power technologies. ... For Government policy, see Energy policy of the United Kingdom Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom has been receiving increased attention over recent years. ... As of 2007, solar power in the United Kingdom (photovoltaic electricity generation) is relatively commercially unattractive due to the moderate level of insolation, cheap grid electricity (compared to other European countries), and low financial incentives from government. ... Wind power in the United Kingdom passed the milestone of 2 GW installed capacity on 9 February 2007, equivalent to two coal fired power stations, with the opening of the Braes ODoune wind farm, near Stirling. ... Domestic housing in the United Kingdom is currently one of the major obstacles to achieving the 20% overall cut in UK carbon emissions targeted by the Government for 2010. ... The United Kingdoms Climate Change Programme was launched in November 2000 by the British government in response to its commitment agreed at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 11 KB) Summary Description: A blank map of the United Kingdom, with country outline and coastline; contact the author for help with modifications or add-ons Source: Reference map provided by Demis Mapper 6 Date: 2006-21-06 Author: User... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Aerial picture of Berkeley nuclear power station taken in 1981 Berkeley nuclear power station situated on the bank of the River Severn in Gloucestershire, England. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bradwell power station, located on the Dengie peninsula in the South East of England is a twin Magnox reactor, now undergoing decommissioning following shutdown in March 2002 after 40 years of operation. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by Sellafield Ltd, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... There are two nuclear power stations located near Dungeness in the south east of Kent, England. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Hartlepool Power Station is a nuclear power station of the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) type, which was opened near Hartlepool in 1983 and is scheduled for decommissioning by 2014. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... The Heysham site includes two nuclear power station of the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) type. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Hinkley Point A nuclear power station is located on a site in Somerset on the Bristol Channel coast, west of the River Parrett estuary, The power station has twin reactors and is currently being decommissioned. ... Hinkley Point B is a nuclear power station near Bridgwater, Somerset, on the south west coast of England. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... The reactors at Oldbury nuclear power station Oldbury nuclear power station is a nuclear power station located on the south bank of the River Severn close to the village of Oldbury-on-Severn in South Gloucestershire, England. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... View of Sizewell from the south Sizewell is a small fishing village with a few holiday homes in the county of Suffolk, England. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Chapelcross nuclear power station, prior to demolition of the cooling towers. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dounreay (Ordnance Survey Grid reference NC982669) is the name of a now ruinous castle on the north coast of Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Hunterston B Power Station is a nuclear power station south of Largs in North Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Hunterston B Power Station is a nuclear power station south of Largs in North Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Torness nuclear power station was the last of the United Kingdoms second generation nuclear power plants to be commissioned. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Trawsfynydd is a village in North Wales adjacent to the A470 north of Dolgellau. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Wylfa Nuclear Power Station Wylfa is a nuclear power station situated just west of Cemaes Bay on the island of Anglesey, north Wales. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Winfrith Atomic Energy Authority site existed from the 1960s until its shutdown in 1990, although decommissioning of the site will be ongoing for some time. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by Sellafield Ltd, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ...


The UK's first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1956 and, at its peak in 1997, 26% of the nation's electricity was generated from nuclear power. Since then a number of stations have been closed, and others are scheduled to follow. The two remaining Magnox nuclear stations and four of the seven AGR nuclear stations are currently planned to be closed by 2015. This is a cause behind the UK's forecast 'energy gap', though secondary to the reduction in coal generating capacity. However the oldest AGR nuclear power station was recently life-extended by ten years, and it is likely many of the others can be life-extended, significantly reducing the energy gap. The last nuclear power station in the UK will be in Suffolk and will cease generation in 2035, [1] For fusion power, see Fusion power. ... Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ... Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. ... For Government policy, see Energy policy of the United Kingdom Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom has been receiving increased attention over recent years. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


All UK nuclear installations in the UK are overseen by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), reporting to the Health and Safety Commission, is the British government body responsible for the regulation of risks to health and safety in the UK. It was created as a result of the Health and Safety at Work, etc, Act 1974, and has since...

Contents

Economics of UK nuclear power

The Basics

The history of nuclear energy economics in the UK is mixed. Early generation reactors (Magnox) were not built for sole commercial considerations while later reactors faced severe delays (culminating in the Sizewell B taking 7 years to build, after original consultations were in the early 1980s). Costs have also been made problematic by a lack of national strategy or policy for spent nuclear fuel, so that a mixed use of reprocessing and short-term storage have been employed, with little regard for long-term considerations (though a national depository has been proposed). Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ...


There is generally a mixed consensus in the UK about the cost/benefit nature of nuclear energy, as well as ideological influence (for instance, those favouring 'energy security' generally arguing pro, while those worried about the 'environmental impact' con). Because of this, and a lack of a consistent energy policy in the UK since the mid-1990s, no new reactors have been built since Sizewell B in 1995. Costs have been a major influence to this (with Sizewell B having run at a cost of 6p/kWh for its first five years of operation[2]), while the long-lead time between proposal and operation (at ten years or more) has put off many investors, especially with long-term considerations such as energy market regulation and nuclear waste remaining unresolved. Sizewell is a small fishing village with a few holiday homes, just north of the more popular holiday villages of Thorpeness and Aldeburgh on the East Anglian coast, and near Leiston, Suffolk. ...


It is important to note that any future project would be private, rather than public. This transfers the running and immediate concerns to the operator, while reducing (although not eliminating) government participation and long-term involvement/liability (nuclear waste, as involving government policy, will likely remain a liability, even if only a limited one). As of the 2007 energy white paper, the Government has endorsed a generally 'pro-nuclear' attitude, although many key details have been left out and any serious decision delayed until the end of 2007. However, in the wake of it, and stemming from the more favourable position already shown in the 2006 energy white paper, British Energy and EDF have expressed interest in a new generation of nuclear power stations in Britain. British Energy plc (LSE: BGY) is the UKs largest electricity generator by volume and a constituent company of FTSE 100. ... Électricité de France (EDF) is the main electricity generation and distribution company in France. ...


A Short History

When the rest of the UK generating industry was privatised, the Government introduced the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation, initially as means of supporting the nuclear generators, which remained under state ownership until the formation of British Energy. British Energy, the private sector company that now operates the UK's more modern nuclear plants, came close to bankruptcy and in 2004 was restructured with UK government investment of over £3 billion. Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... The Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) refers to a collection of orders requiring the electricity Distribution Network Operators in the England and Wales to purchase electricity from the nuclear power and renewable energy sectors. ... British Energy plc (LSE: BGY) is the UKs largest electricity generator by volume and a constituent company of FTSE 100. ...


There are several reasons to expect significant improvement if new third generation nuclear power stations are built: A generation III reactor is a development of any of the generation II nuclear reactor designs incorporating evolutionary improvements in design which have been developed during the lifetime of the generation II reactor designs, such as improved fuel technology, passive safety systems and standardised design. ...

  • modern designs are expected to be simpler, use fewer materials and require less on-site fabrication
  • big-project management techniques have improved over the last 15 years
  • more competitive international process for letting a nuclear construction contract
  • turnkey (fixed price) contracts rather than the cost-plus contracts that were characteristic of past UK nuclear construction [3]

As of 2007 no third generation power station has been completed in Europe, confirming these improvements. The construction of the first such power station, a European Pressurized Reactor at Olkiluoto in Finland, is running 18 months behind schedule, creating doubts that recent improvements sufficiently improve construction costs. However some observers suggest that such delays should be expected as this is the first reactor of its kind and the contractors are not used to working to the standards of the nuclear industry.[4] The project is based on a "turnkey" contract which means the price to the customer is fixed regardless of the delays. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The European Pressurized Reactor (EPR or US-EPR for the United States specific design) is a third generation nuclear fission pressurized water reactor (PWR) design. ... The Olkiluoto island with two existing and one planned nuclear power plant Olkiluoto is an island located in western Finland in the municipality of Eurajoki. ...


Decommissioning

The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), formed in April 2005 under the Energy Act 2004, oversees and manages the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's older Magnox power plants and associated reprocessing facilities at Sellafield, which were transferred to its ownership from BNFL. BNFL's subsidiary, British Nuclear Group, continues to operate the plants. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a public body of the United Kingdom formed by the Energy Act, 2004. ... Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ... The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by Sellafield Ltd, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ... British Nuclear Fuels plc or BNFL manufactures and transports nuclear fuel (notably MOX), runs reactors, generates and sells electricity, reprocesses and manages spent fuel (mainly at Sellafield), and decommissions nuclear plants and other similar facilities. ... British Nuclear Group (BNG) is a subsidiary of BNFL. One of it main aims is to manage the decommissioning of many of the UKs nuclear assets under contract to the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, a government body set up specifically to deal with the nuclear legacy under the Energy Act...


In 2005 the cost of decommissioning these sites was forecast to be £55.8 billion [5], however in 2006 cost estimates were increased to about £72 billion. [6]


In addition, latest forecasts indicate that the liabilities incurred by British Energy in relation to spent nuclear fuels have risen to £5.3 billion [7]. The costs of handling these is to be met by the Nuclear Liabilities Fund (NLF), the successor to the Nuclear Generation Decommissioning Fund. Although British Energy contributes to the NLF, the fund is underwritten by the Government. British Energy plc (LSE: BGY) is the UKs largest electricity generator by volume and a constituent company of FTSE 100. ... The Nuclear Liabilities Fund was created by the British Government in November 2004 to assume the long-term financial liabilities from spent nuclear fuels. ...


Waste management & disposal

Most of the UK's radioactive waste is currently held in temporary storage at Sellafield. The issue of long term storage and disposal has remained unresolved despite a number of options being considered over the years. Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by Sellafield Ltd, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ...


On July 31, 2006, the latest body to consider the issue - the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM) - published its final report [8]. Its main recommendation was that geological disposal should be adopted. This would involve burial at a depth between 200 – 1000m deep in a purpose built facility with no intention to retrieve the waste in the future. It was concluded that this could not be implemented for several decades, and that there were social and ethical concerns within UK society about the disposal option that would need to be resolved as part of the implementation process. Such a repository should start to be closed as soon as practicable rather than being left open for future generations. 14 additional recommendations were also made. The deep geological repository concept involves the encapsulation of used nuclear fuel in long-lived engineered casks which are then placed and sealed within excavated rooms in a naturally occurring geological formation at a design depth of 500 to 1000 metres below ground surface. ...


The report was criticised by David Ball, professor of risk management at Middlesex University who resigned from CoRWM in 2005, who said that it was based on opinions rather than sound science[9]. For non-business risks, see risk or the disambiguation page risk analysis. ... Middlesex University is a university in north London, England, located in the historic county boundaries of Middlesex (from which it takes its name). ...


Government policy

2002 Energy Review

In relation to Nuclear power, the conclusion of the Government's 2002 Energy review [10], carried out by the Performance and Innovation Unit, was that:

The immediate priorities of energy policy are likely to be most cost-effectively served by promoting energy efficiency and expanding the role of renewables. However, the options of new investment in nuclear power and in clean coal (through carbon sequestration) need to be kept open, and practical measures taken to do this.

The practical measures identified were: For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat. ... Carbon sequestration from a fossil-fuel power station A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main sinks are the oceans and growing vegetation. ...

  • Continuing to participate in international research.
  • Ensuring that the nuclear skill-base is maintained, and that the regulators are adequately staffed to assess any new investment proposals.
  • Shortening the lead-time to commissioning, should new nuclear power be chosen in future.
  • Permitting nuclear power to benefit from the development of carbon taxes and similar market mechanisms.
  • Addressing the problems of long-term nuclear waste disposal.

It went on to state that Because nuclear is a mature technology within a well established global industry, there is no current case for further government support and that the decision whether to bring forward proposals for new nuclear build is a matter for the private sector.


2003 Energy White Paper

The Government's Energy White Paper, published in 2003 and titled "Our Energy Future - Creating a Low Carbon Economy" [11] concluded that:

Nuclear power is currently an important source of carbon-free electricity. However, its current economics make it an unattractive option for new, carbon-free generating capacity and there are also important issues of nuclear waste to be resolved. These issues include our legacy waste and continued waste arising from other sources. This white paper does not contain specific proposals for building new nuclear power stations. However we do not rule out the possibility that at some point in the future new nuclear build might be necessary if we are to meet our carbon targets.

Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ...

2006 Energy Review

In April 2005, advisers to British Prime Minister Tony Blair were suggesting that constructing new nuclear power stations would be the best way to meet the country's targets on reducing emissions of gases responsible for global warming. The energy policy of the United Kingdom has a near-term target of cutting emissions below 1997 levels by 20%, and a more ambitious target of a 60% cut by 2050. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Energy policy of the United Kingdom is a set of official publications and activities directed at the present and future production, transmission and use of various power technologies. ...


In November 2005 the Government announced an Energy Review [12], subsequently launched in January 2006, to "review the UK's progress against the medium and long-term Energy White Paper goals and the options for further steps to achieve them" [13].


Critics of nuclear power have suggested that the main reason behind the review is to provide a justification for the building of a new generation of nuclear reactors. They also say that doing so will not be able to help meet the 2010 target due to the length of time needed to plan, construct and commission such power plants, and will be too late to fill the 'Energy Gap' predicted to result from the closure of existing nuclear and coal fired power stations. However backers say nuclear power will help meet the longer term target of a 60% cut by 2050. (wikinews) The Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, expressed reservations about the 2006 Energy Review, its dependence upon nuclear power and its likely impact upon London and Londoners.[14]


2007 High Court Ruling

On February 15, 2007, environmental group Greenpeace won a High Court ruling that threw out the government's 2006 Energy Review. Mr Justice Sullivan presiding held that the government's review was 'seriously flawed', in particular in that key details of the economics of the argument were only published after the review was completed.[15] [16] Justice Sullivan held that the review's wording on nuclear waste disposal was "not merely inadequate but also misleading", and held the decision to proceed to be "unlawful". Judicial review proceedings were instigated by Greenpeace in October 2006 [17]. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (usually known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales (which under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, is to be known as the... Jeremy Sullivan became The Hon. ... It has been suggested that Judicial Review in English Law be merged into this article or section. ...


Responding to the news, Trade and Industry Secretary Alistair Darling said that there would be a fresh consultation, but that a decision was required before the end of 2007. He stated that the government remains convinced that new nuclear power plants are needed to help combat climate change and over-reliance on imported oil and gas.[18] Alistair Maclean Darling (born November 28, 1953) is a British politician. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Greenpeace hold the view that carbon emissions can be cut more cost-effectively by investment in a decentralised energy system that makes maximum use of combined heat and power and renewable energy sources. [19] Distributed generation generates electricity from many small energy sources. ... Cogeneration (also combined heat and power or CHP) is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat. ... Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat. ...


Attention was drawn in the media to numerous connections to nuclear industry lobbyists within the Labour Party [1].


2007 Consultation

The 2007 Energy White Paper: Meeting the Energy Challenge[2] was published on May 23, 2007. It contained a 'preliminary view is that it is in the public interest to give the private sector the option of investing in new nuclear power stations'. Alongside the White Paper the Government published a consultation document, The Future of Nuclear Power[3] together with a number of supporting documents.[4] One of these, a report by Jackson Consulting, suggests that it would be preferable to site new power stations on existing nuclear power stations sites that are owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority or British Energy.[5] Greenpeace responded to the release of the consultation document by repeating its position that by replacing the nuclear fleet rather than decommissioning would only reduce the UK's total carbon emissions by four percent[6]. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a public body of the United Kingdom formed by the Energy Act, 2004. ... British Energy plc (LSE: BGY) is the UKs largest electricity generator by volume and a constituent company of FTSE 100. ...


On Sep 7 2007 several anti-nuclear groups including Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, CND and the WWF announced that they had pulled out of the consultation process. [20] They stated that it appeared as if the Government had already made up its mind regarding the future of nuclear power. The business and enterprise secretary, John Hutton, responded in a Radio 4 interview "It is not the government that has got a closed view on these issues, I think it is organisations like Greenpeace that have got a closed mind. There is only one outcome that Greenpeace and other organisations want from this consultation."


Public opinion

In the early 1990s concern was raised in the United Kingdom about the effect of nuclear power plants on unborn children, when clusters of leukemia cases were discovered nearby to some of these plants. The effect was speculative because clusters were also found where no nuclear plants were present, and not all plants had clusters around them. The latest studies carried by COMARE, Compete on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment, in 2003 found no evidence between nuclear power and childhood leukemia.[21][22] A nuclear power station. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ...


An opinion poll in Britain in 2002 by MORI on behalf of Greenpeace showed large support for wind energy and a majority for putting an end to nuclear energy if the costs were the same.[23] In November 2005 a YouGov poll conducted by business advisory firm Deloitte found that 36% of the UK population supported the use of nuclear power, though 62% would support an energy policy that combines nuclear along with renewable technologies.[24] The same survey also revealed an unrealistic public expectation for the future rate of renewables development - with 35% expecting the majority of electricity to come from renewables in only 15 years, which is more than double the government's expectation. Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... YouGov is a British internet-based market research firm. ... Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu is one of the Big Four auditors. ...


In the early 2000s there was a heated discussion about nuclear waste, BBC news leading to the creation of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (see above). Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ...


History

The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the United Kingdom. ...


The first station to be connected to the grid, on 27 August 1956, was Calder Hall, although the production of weapons-grade plutonium was the main reason behind this power station. is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Calder Hall can refer to - Calder Hall Magnox nuclear power station at Sellafield Calder Hall (Trinidad and Tobago) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Weapons-grade means that a substance is pure enough to be used to make a weapon or has properties that make it suitable for weapons use. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Oil power plant in Iraq A power station (also referred to as generating station or power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ...


See also

Energy Portal
Nuclear power related

Image File history File links Portal. ... List of nuclear reactors is a comprehensive annotated list of all the nuclear reactors of the world, sorted by country. ... Energy policy of the United Kingdom is a set of official publications and activities directed at the present and future production, transmission and use of various power technologies. ... For Government policy, see Energy policy of the United Kingdom Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom has been receiving increased attention over recent years. ... Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland take place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... The Civil Nuclear Constabulary (CNC) is an armed non-Home Office police force that protects civil nuclear installations and substances in the United Kingdom. ... For fusion power, see Fusion power. ... Nuclear energy policy is national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy, such as mining for nuclear fuel, generating electricity by nuclear power, enriching and storing spent nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel reprocessing. ... The Economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. ...

In the media

is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of government. ... British Energy plc (LSE: BGY) is the UKs largest electricity generator by volume and a constituent company of FTSE 100. ...

References

  1. ^ Labour and the nuclear lobby, Analysis, Brian Wheeler, BBC NEWS, May 23, 2007
  2. ^ 2007 Energy White Paper: Meeting the Energy Challenge, Department of Trade and Industry, published 2007-05-23, accessed 2007-05-23
  3. ^ The Future of Nuclear Power: Consultation Document, Department of Trade and Industry, published 2007-05-23, accessed 2007-05-24
  4. ^ Energy White Paper Supporting Documents, Department of Trade and Industry, published 2007-05-23, accessed 2007-05-24
  5. ^ Siting New Nuclear Power Stations: Availability and Options for Government, page 24, Jackson Consulting, published 2007-05-23, accessed 2007-05-24
  6. ^ Why Tony Blair is wrong about nuclear power, accessed 2007-05-24

 
 

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