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Encyclopedia > Nuclear power
The Ikata Nuclear Power Plant, a PWR that has no cooling tower, but cools by direct exchange with the ocean.
The Ikata Nuclear Power Plant, a PWR that has no cooling tower, but cools by direct exchange with the ocean.
The Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, a BWR. The nuclear reactors are located inside the rectangular containment buildings towards the front of the cooling towers. The towers in the background vent water vapor.

Nuclear power is an extremely dangerous power source that has killed 1.2 million people in the U.S alone This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixels, file size: 2. ... The Ikata Nuclear Power Plant , Ikata NPP) is a nuclear power plant in the town of Ikata in the Nishiuwa District in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER if of Russian design) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use ordinary water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, a nuclear power station, is in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania just south of Shickshinny. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. ... Image 1: Natural draft wet cooling towers at Didcot Power Station, UK Cooling towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambient wet-bulb air temperature. ...

Contents

Use

Historical and projected world energy use by energy source, 1980-2030, Source: International Energy Outlook 2007, EIA.
Historical and projected world energy use by energy source, 1980-2030, Source: International Energy Outlook 2007, EIA.
The status of nuclear power globally. Nations in dark green have reactors and are constructing new reactors, those in light green are constructing their first reactor, those in dark yellow are considering new reactors, those in light yellow are considering their first reactor, those in blue have reactors but are not constructing or decommissioning, those in light blue are considering decommissioning and those in red have decommissioned all their commercial reactors. Brown indicates that the country has declared itself free of nuclear power and weapons.
The status of nuclear power globally. Nations in dark green have reactors and are constructing new reactors, those in light green are constructing their first reactor, those in dark yellow are considering new reactors, those in light yellow are considering their first reactor, those in blue have reactors but are not constructing or decommissioning, those in light blue are considering decommissioning and those in red have decommissioned all their commercial reactors. Brown indicates that the country has declared itself free of nuclear power and weapons.
See also: Nuclear power by country and List of nuclear reactors

As of 2004, nuclear power provided 6.5% of the world's energy and 15.7% of the world's electricity, with the U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for 57% of all nuclear generated electricity.[1] As of 2007, the IAEA reported there are 439 nuclear power reactors in operation in the world,[2] operating in 31 different countries.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 617 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (694 × 674 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) author: EIA, source URL: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 617 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (694 × 674 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) author: EIA, source URL: http://www. ... The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 51 KB) Summary A map showing countries which have or had commercial nuclear power stations. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 51 KB) Summary A map showing countries which have or had commercial nuclear power stations. ... A nuclear power station at Cattenom in France. ... List of nuclear reactors is a comprehensive annotated list of all the nuclear reactors of the world, sorted by country. ... President Dwight D. Eisenhower opened the Shippingport atomic power station on May 26, 1958 as part of his Atoms for Peace program. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The United States produces the most nuclear energy, with nuclear power providing 20% of the electricity it consumes, while France produces the highest percentage of its electrical energy from nuclear reactors—80% as of 2006.[4][5] In the European Union as a whole, nuclear energy provides 30% of the electricity.[6] Nuclear energy policy differs between European Union countries, and some, such as Austria and Ireland, have no active nuclear power stations. In comparison France has a large number of these plants, with 16 currently in use. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nuclear energy policy is national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy, such as mining for nuclear fuel, generating electricity by nuclear power, enriching and storing spent nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel reprocessing. ...


Many military and some civilian (such as some icebreaker) ships use nuclear marine propulsion, a form of nuclear propulsion[7] For other uses, see Icebreaker (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nuclear propulsion can include a wide variety of methods, the commonality of which is the use of some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source. ...


International research is ongoing into different safety improvements such as passively safe plants[8], the use of nuclear fusion, and additional uses of produced heat such as the hydrogen production (in support of a hydrogen economy), for desalinating sea water, and for use in district heating systems. Passively safe is a form of nuclear reactor which uses the laws of physics to keep the nuclear reaction under control rather than engineered safety systems. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Hydrogen production is done in bulk today from hydrocarbon fossil fuels via a chemical path. ... A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which energy is stored and transported as hydrogen (H2), particularly as an energy carrier for vehicle applications (e. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... District heating pipe in Tübingen, Germany District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements. ...


History

Origins

Nuclear fission was first experimentally achieved by Enrico Fermi in 1934 when his team bombarded uranium with neutrons[9]. In 1938, German chemists Otto Hahn[10] and Fritz Strassmann, along with Austrian physicists Lise Meitner[11] and Meitner's nephew, Otto Robert Frisch[12], conducted experiments with the products of neutron-bombarded uranium. They determined that the relatively tiny neutron split the nucleus of the massive uranium atoms into two roughly equal pieces--an incredible result. Numerous scientists (Leo Szilard being one of the first) recognized that if the fission reactions released additional neutrons, a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction could result. This spurred scientists in many countries (including the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the Soviet Union) to petition their government for support of nuclear fission research. An induced nuclear fission event. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, 1913, at the KWI for Chemistry in Berlin Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Fritz Strassman (February 22, 1902 - April 22, 1980) was a German physical chemist who, along with Otto Hahn, discovered the nuclear fission of uranium in 1938. ... Lise Meitner ca. ... Otto Robert Frisch (1 October 1904–22 September 1979), Austrian-British physicist. ... Leó Szilárd (right) working with Albert Einstein. ...


In the United States, where Fermi and Szilard had both emigrated, this led to the creation of the first man-made reactor, known as Chicago Pile-1, which achieved criticality on December 2, 1942. This work became part of the Manhattan Project, which built giant reactors at Hanford, Washington in order to breed plutonium for use in the first nuclear weapons. (A parallel uranium enrichment effort was also pursued.) On December 2, 1942, the worlds first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, Chicago Pile-1, took place on a squash court beneath Stagg Field on the University of Chicago campus. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Hanford was a small agricultural community in Benton County, Washington. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


After World War II, the fear that reactor research would encourage the rapid spread of nuclear weapons and nuclear "know-how", combined with what many scientists thought would be a long road of development, created a situation in which reactor research was kept under very strict government control and classification. Additionally, most reactor research centered on purely military purposes. Electricity was generated for the first time by a nuclear reactor on December 20, 1951 at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco, Idaho, which initially produced about 100 kW (the Arco Reactor was also the first to experience partial meltdown, in 1955). In 1952, a report by the Paley Commission (The President's Materials Policy Commission) for President Harry Truman made a "relatively pessimistic" assessment of nuclear power, and called for "aggressive research in the whole field of solar energy".[13] A December 1953 speech by President Dwight Eisenhower, "Atoms for Peace", emphasized the useful harnessing of the atom and set the U.S. on a course of strong government support for international use of nuclear power. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Experimental Breeder Reactor Number 1 in Idaho, the birthplace of atomic energy. ... Arco, Idaho Arco is a city located in Butte County, Idaho. ... A nuclear meltdown occurs when the core of a nuclear reactor melts. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Solar power from a parabolic reflector. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ...


Early years

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Shippingport, Pennsylvania was the first commercial reactor in the USA and was opened in 1957.
The Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Shippingport, Pennsylvania was the first commercial reactor in the USA and was opened in 1957.

In 1954, Lewis Strauss, then chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (forerunner of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the United States Department of Energy) spoke of electricity in the future being "too cheap to meter."[14] While few doubt he was thinking of atomic energy when he made the statement, he may have been referring to hydrogen fusion, rather than uranium fission. [7] Actually, the consensus of government and business at the time was that nuclear (fission) power might eventually become merely economically competitive with conventional power sources. Image File history File links Shippingport_Reactor. ... Image File history File links Shippingport_Reactor. ... The Shippingport reactor was the first full-scale nuclear power plant in the United States. ... Shippingport is a borough located in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1896 births | 1974 deaths ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... NRC headquarters in Rockville, MD. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or NRC) is a United States government agency that was established by the Energy Reorganization Act in 1974, and was first opened January 19, 1975. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ...


On June 27, 1954, the USSRs Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant became the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid, and produced around 5 megawatts electric power.[15][16] is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nuclear power station Obninsk Russian: was apart of the science city Obninsk, about 110 km southwest from Moscow. ... Transmission towers Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power transmission, or more accurately Electrical energy transmission, is the second process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ...


In 1955 the United Nations' "First Geneva Conference", then the world's largest gathering of scientists and engineers, met to explore the technology. In 1957 EURATOM was launched alongside the European Economic Community (the latter is now the European Union). The same year also saw the launch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organisation composed of the members of the European Union. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


The world's first commercial nuclear power station, Calder Hall in Sellafield, England was opened in 1956 with an initial capacity of 50 MW (later 200 MW).[17] The first commercial nuclear generator to become operational in the United States was the Shippingport Reactor (Pennsylvania, December, 1957). Calder Hall can refer to - Calder Hall Magnox nuclear power station at Sellafield Calder Hall (Trinidad and Tobago) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by Sellafield Ltd, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Shippingport reactor was the first full-scale nuclear power plant in the United States. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ...


One of the first organizations to develop nuclear power was the U.S. Navy, for the purpose of propelling submarines and aircraft carriers. It has a good record in nuclear safety, perhaps because of the stringent demands of Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, who was the driving force behind nuclear marine propulsion as well as the Shippingport Reactor. The U.S. Navy has operated more nuclear reactors than any other entity, including the Soviet Navy, with no publicly known major incidents. The first nuclear-powered submarine, USS Nautilus (SSN-571), was put to sea in December 1954.[18] Two U.S. nuclear submarines, USS Scorpion and Thresher, have been lost at sea. USN redirects here. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Hyman G. Rickover (1955) Admiral Hyman George Rickover, U.S. Navy, (January 27, 1900 or August 24, 1898 – July 8, 1986) was known as the Father of the Nuclear Navy, which as of July 2007 had produced 200 nuclear-powered submarines, and 23 nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and cruisers, though... The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the worlds first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first vessel to complete a submerged transit across the North Pole. ... USS Scorpion (SSN-589) was the sixth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the scorpion, (hence the Scorpius constellation on her insignia). ... The second USS Thresher (SSN-593) was the lead ship of its class of nuclear-powered attack submarines in the United States Navy. ...


Enrico Fermi and Leó Szilárd in 1955 shared U.S. Patent 2,708,656  for the nuclear reactor, belatedly granted for the work they had done during the Manhattan Project. Leó Szilárd (February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964 Originally Szilárd Leó) was a Jewish Hungarian-American physicist who conceived the nuclear chain reaction and worked on the Manhattan Project. ...


Development

History of the use of nuclear power (top) and the number of active nuclear power plants (bottom).
History of the use of nuclear power (top) and the number of active nuclear power plants (bottom).

Installed nuclear capacity initially rose relatively quickly, rising from less than 1 gigawatt (GW) in 1960 to 100 GW in the late 1970s, and 300 GW in the late 1980s. Since the late 1980s capacity has risen much more slowly, reaching 366 GW in 2005. Between around 1970 and 1990, more than 50 GW of capacity was under construction (peaking at over 150 GW in the late 70s and early 80s) — in 2005, around 25 GW of new capacity was planned. More than two-thirds of all nuclear plants ordered after January 1970 were eventually cancelled.[18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 604 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/png) This figure shows the history of nuclear power generation. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 604 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/png) This figure shows the history of nuclear power generation. ... The gigawatt (symbol: GW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one billion (109) watts. ...

Washington Public Power Supply System Nuclear Power Plants 3 and 5 were never completed.
Washington Public Power Supply System Nuclear Power Plants 3 and 5 were never completed.

During the 1970s and 1980s rising economic costs (related to extended construction times largely due to regulatory changes and pressure-group litigation)[citation needed] and falling fossil fuel prices made nuclear power plants then under construction less attractive. In the 1980s (U.S.) and 1990s (Europe), flat load growth and electricity liberalization also made the addition of large new baseload capacity unattractive. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1369 KB) Summary Satsop, Washington Description: Satsop Development Park; formerly Washington Public Power Supply System Nuclear Power Plans 3 and 5; (Satsop, Washington) Viewpoint location: Flight 334 from Seattle/Tacoma, WA to Oakland, CA Alaska Airlines Lat/Long: 46. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1369 KB) Summary Satsop, Washington Description: Satsop Development Park; formerly Washington Public Power Supply System Nuclear Power Plans 3 and 5; (Satsop, Washington) Viewpoint location: Flight 334 from Seattle/Tacoma, WA to Oakland, CA Alaska Airlines Lat/Long: 46. ... Energy Northwest is a municipal corporation in Washington state tasked with building and operating power plants. ... Electricity liberalization refers to the liberalization of electricity markets. ...


The 1973 oil crisis had a significant effect on countries, such as France and Japan, which had relied more heavily on oil for electric generation (39% and 73% respectively) to invest in nuclear power.[19][20] Today, nuclear power supplies about 80% and 30% of the electricity in those countries, respectively. The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum...


A general movement against nuclear power arose during the last third of the 20th century, based on the fear of a possible nuclear accident, fears of radiation, nuclear proliferation, and on the opposition to nuclear waste production, transport and final storage. Perceived risks on the citizens' health and safety, the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island and the 1986 Chernobyl disaster played a part in stopping new plant construction in many countries,[21] although the Brookings Institution suggests that new nuclear units have not been ordered in the U.S. primarily for economic reasons rather than fears of accidents.[22] Pathways from airborne radioactive contamination to man This is a list of notable accidents involving nuclear material. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... For details on this station, see Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst in history, resulting in a severe nuclear meltdown. ...


Unlike the Three Mile Island accident, the much more serious Chernobyl accident did not increase regulations affecting Western reactors since the Chernobyl reactors were of the problematic RBMK design only used in the Soviet Union, for example lacking containment buildings.[23] An international organization to promote safety awareness and professional development on operators in nuclear facilities was created: WANO; World Association of Nuclear Operators. RBMK is an acronym for the Russian reaktor bolshoy moshchnosti kanalniy (Russian: Реактор Большой Мощности Канальный) which means reactor (of) high power (of the) channel (type), and describes a now obsolete class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactor which was built only in the Soviet Union. ... A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. ... WANO can refer to: World Association of Nuclear Operators WANO (AM), an AM radio station located in Pineville, Kentucky Even though those bastards took me off im still alive:: the GIRL wano Category: ...


Opposition in Ireland, New Zealand and Poland prevented nuclear programs there, while Austria (1978), Sweden (1980) and Italy (1987) (influenced by Chernobyl) voted in referendums to oppose or phase out nuclear power.


Future of the industry

See also: Nuclear energy policy, Mitigation of global warming, and Economics of new nuclear power plants

As of 2007, Watts Bar 1, which came on-line in Feb. 7, 1996, was the last U.S. commercial nuclear reactor to go on-line. This is often quoted as evidence of a successful worldwide campaign for nuclear power phase-out. However, political resistance to nuclear power has only ever been successful in parts of Europe, New Zealand, the Philippines and in the United States. Even in the U.S. and throughout Europe, investment in research and in the nuclear fuel cycle has continued, and some experts[attribution needed] predict that electricity shortages, fossil fuel price increases, global warming and heavy metal emissions from fossil fuel use, new technology such as passively safe plants, and national energy security will renew the demand for nuclear power plants. Willys. Nuclear energy policy is national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy, such as mining for nuclear fuel, generating electricity by nuclear power, enriching and storing spent nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel reprocessing. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. ... The Economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. ... The Watts Bar nuclear power plant is located between Chattanooga, Tennessee and Knoxville, Tennessee on a 1,770 acre (7. ... The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. ... This article is about energy crises in general. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Many countries remain active in developing nuclear power, including Japan, China and India, all actively developing both fast and thermal technology, South Korea and the United States, developing thermal technology only, and South Africa and China, developing versions of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Finland, France and Romania actively pursue nuclear programs (the only 3 countries in the EU to do so); Finland has a new European Pressurized Reactor under construction by Areva, which is currently two years behind schedule. Japan has an active nuclear construction program with new units brought on-line in 2005. In the U.S., three consortia responded in 2004 to the U.S. Department of Energy's solicitation under the Nuclear Power 2010 Program and were awarded matching funds—the Energy Policy Act of 2005 authorized loan guarantees for up to six new reactors, and authorized the Department of Energy to build a reactor based on the Generation IV Very-High-Temperature Reactor concept to produce both electricity and hydrogen. As of the early 21st century, nuclear power is of particular interest to both China and India to serve their rapidly growing economies—both are developing fast breeder reactors. See also energy development. In the energy policy of the United Kingdom it is recognized that there is a likely future energy supply shortfall, which may have to be filled by either new nuclear plant construction or maintaining existing plants beyond their programmed lifetime. Graphite Pebble for Reactor The pebble bed reactor (PBR) or pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) is an advanced nuclear reactor design. ... The European Pressurized Reactor (EPR or US-EPR for the United States specific design) is a third generation nuclear fission pressurized water reactor (PWR) design. ... AREVA (Euronext: CEI) is a France-based multinational industrial conglomerate that deals in energy, especially in nuclear power. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The Nuclear Power 2010 Program was unveiled by the U.S. Secretary of the Department of Energy on February 14, 2002 as one means towards addressing the expected need for new power plants. ... The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. ... The Very High Temperature Reactor is a Generation IV reactor concept that uses a graphite-moderated reactor with a once-through uranium fuel cycle. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... 20XX redirects here. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... Energy policy of the United Kingdom is a set of official publications and activities directed at the present and future production, transmission and use of various power technologies. ...


On December 20, 2002 the Bulgarian Council of Ministers voted to restart construction of the Belene Nuclear Power Plant. The plant's foundations were laid in 1987, however construction was abandoned in 1990, with the first reactor being 40% ready. It is expected that the first reactor should go on-line in 2013, and the second in 2014.[24] is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Belene Nuclear Power Plant (Bulgarian: ) is a nuclear power plant currently in construction 3 km from Belene and 11 km from Svishtov in Pleven Province, northern Bulgaria, near the Danube River. ...


On September 22, 2005 it was announced that two sites in the U.S. had been selected to receive new power reactors (exclusive of the new power reactor scheduled for INL). is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is an 890 square mile (2,300 km²) complex located in the Idaho desert between the towns of Arco and Idaho Falls. ...


In August 2007 TVA was approved to restart construction of Watts Bar 2. The reactor is scheduled to be completed and come online in 2013.


In October 2007, two new plants have been scheduled to build in Texas. They should be online by 2014.


Nuclear reactor technology

Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant.
Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant.

Conventional thermal power plants all have a fuel source to provide heat. Examples are gas, coal, or oil. For a nuclear power plant, this heat is provided by nuclear fission inside the nuclear reactor. When a relatively large fissile atomic nucleus is struck by a neutron it forms two or more smaller nuclei as fission products, releasing energy and neutrons in a process called nuclear fission. The neutrons then trigger further fission, and so on. When this nuclear chain reaction is controlled, the energy released can be used to heat water, produce steam and drive a turbine that generates electricity. While a nuclear power plant uses the same fuel, uranium-235 or plutonium-239, a nuclear explosive involves an uncontrolled chain reaction, and the rate of fission in a reactor is not capable of reaching sufficient levels to trigger a nuclear explosion because commercial reactor grade nuclear fuel is not enriched to a high enough level. Naturally found uranium is less than 1% U-235, the rest being U-238. Most reactor fuel is enriched to only 3-4%, but some designs use natural uranium or highly enriched uranium. Reactors for nuclear submarines and large naval surface ships, such as aircraft carriers, commonly use highly enriched uranium. Although highly enriched uranium is more expensive, it reduces the frequency of refueling, which is very useful for military vessels. CANDU reactors are able to use unenriched uranium because the heavy water they use as a moderator and coolant does not absorb neutrons like light water does. Core of CROCUS, a small nuclear reactor used for research at the EPFL in Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (807 × 349 pixel, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (807 × 349 pixel, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ‹ The template below (German plant) is being considered for deletion. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... This article or section should include material from Fissile material In nuclear engineering, a fissile material is one that is capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A nuclear explosive is an explosive device that derives its energy from nuclear reactions. ... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... Qinshan Phase III Units 1 & 2, located in Zhejiang China: Two CANDU 6 reactors, designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), owned and operated by the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company Limited. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A coolant, or heat transfer fluid, is a fluid which flows through a device in order to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that utilize or dissipate it. ...


The chain reaction is controlled through the use of materials that absorb and moderate neutrons. In uranium-fueled reactors, neutrons must be moderated (slowed down) because slow neutrons are more likely to cause fission when colliding with a uranium-235 nucleus. Light water reactors use ordinary water to moderate and cool the reactors. When at operating temperatures if the temperature of the water increases, its density drops, and fewer neutrons passing through it are slowed enough to trigger further reactions. That negative feedback stabilizes the reaction rate. A light water reactor or LWR is a thermal nuclear reactor that uses ordinary water, also called light water, as its neutron moderator. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The current types of plants (and their common components) are discussed in the article nuclear reactor technology. Core of CROCUS, a small nuclear reactor used for research at the EPFL in Switzerland. ...


A number of other designs for nuclear power generation, the Generation IV reactors, are the subject of active research and may be used for practical power generation in the future. A number of the advanced nuclear reactor designs could also make critical fission reactors much cleaner, much safer and/or much less of a risk to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. ...


Safety

Main article: Nuclear safety
See also: Nuclear safety in the U.S.

The topic of nuclear safety covers: This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • The research and testing of the possible incidents/events at a nuclear power plant,
  • What equipment and actions are designed to prevent those incidents/events from having serious consequences,
  • The calculation of the probabilities of multiple systems and/or actions failing thus allowing serious consequences,
  • The evaluation of the worst-possible timing and scope of those serious consequences (the worst-possible in extreme cases being a release of radiation),
  • The actions taken to protect the public during a release of radiation,
  • The training and rehearsals performed to ensure readiness in case an incident/event occurs.

Many different safety features have been added to nuclear power plants and in the United States, the NRC has responsible over nuclear safety.


Economics

This is a controversial subject, since multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. The Economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. ...


Which power source (generally coal, natural gas, nuclear or wind) is most cost-effective depends on the assumptions used in a particular study—several are quoted in the main article.


Life cycle

The Nuclear Fuel Cycle begins when uranium is mined, enriched, and manufactured into nuclear fuel, (1) which is delivered to a nuclear power plant. After usage in the power plant, the spent fuel is delivered to a reprocessing plant (2) or to a final repository (3) for geological disposition. In reprocessing 95% of spent fuel can be recycled to be returned to usage in a power plant (4).
The Nuclear Fuel Cycle begins when uranium is mined, enriched, and manufactured into nuclear fuel, (1) which is delivered to a nuclear power plant. After usage in the power plant, the spent fuel is delivered to a reprocessing plant (2) or to a final repository (3) for geological disposition. In reprocessing 95% of spent fuel can be recycled to be returned to usage in a power plant (4).
Main article: Nuclear fuel cycle

A nuclear reactor is only part of the life-cycle for nuclear power. The process starts with mining. Generally, uranium mines are either open-pit strip mines, or in-situ leach mines. In either case, the uranium ore is extracted, usually converted into a stable and compact form such as yellowcake, and then transported to a processing facility. Here, the yellowcake is converted to uranium hexafluoride, which is then enriched using various techniques. At this point, the enriched uranium, containing more than the natural 0.7% U-235, is used to make rods of the proper composition and geometry for the particular reactor that the fuel is destined for. The fuel rods will spend about 3 years inside the reactor, generally until about 3% of their uranium has been fissioned, then they will be moved to a spent fuel pool where the short lived isotopes generated by fission can decay away. After about 5 years in a cooling pond, the spent fuel is radioactively and thermally cool enough to handle, and it can be moved to dry storage casks or reprocessed. Download high resolution version (923x914, 322 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (923x914, 322 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A nuclear power station. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In-situ leaching (ISL), also called in-situ recovery (ISR) or solution mining, is a process of recovering minerals such as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into the deposit. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ... Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as hex in industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... Spent fuel pool (SFP) are storage pools for spent fuel from nuclear reactors. ...


Fuel resources

Main article: Uranium market
The Estimate of Available Uranium depends on what resources are included in the estimate. The squares represent relative sizes of different estimates, whereas the numbers at the lower edge show how long the given resource would last at present consumption. ██ Reserves in current mines ██ Known economic reserves ██ Conventional undiscovered resources ██ Total ore resources at 2004 prices ██ Unconventional resources (at least 4 billion tons, could last for millennia)
The Estimate of Available Uranium depends on what resources are included in the estimate. The squares represent relative sizes of different estimates, whereas the numbers at the lower edge show how long the given resource would last at present consumption.
██ Reserves in current mines [25]
██ Known economic reserves [26]
██ Conventional undiscovered resources [27]
██ Total ore resources at 2004 prices [25]
██ Unconventional resources (at least 4 billion tons, could last for millennia) [27]

Uranium is a fairly common element in the Earth's crust. Uranium is approximately as common as tin or germanium in Earth's crust, and is about 35 times as common as silver. Uranium is a constituent of most rocks, dirt, and of the oceans. The world's present measured resources of uranium, economically recoverable at a price of 130 USD/kg, are enough to last for some 70 years at current consumption. This represents a higher level of assured resources than is normal for most minerals. On the basis of analogies with other metallic minerals, a doubling of price from present levels could be expected to create about a tenfold increase in measured resources, over time. The fuel's contribution to the overall cost of the electricity produced is relatively small, so even a large fuel price escalation will have relatively little effect on final price. For instance, typically a doubling of the uranium market price would increase the fuel cost for a light water reactor by 26% and the electricity cost about 7%, whereas doubling the price of natural gas would typically add 70% to the price of electricity from that source. At high enough prices, eventually extraction from sources such as granite and seawater become economically feasible.[28][29] 10 countries are responsible for 94 % of the global uranium extraction. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... Image File history File links Uranium_resources. ... Image File history File links Uranium_resources. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Current light water reactors make relatively inefficient use of nuclear fuel, fissioning only the very rare uranium-235 isotope. Nuclear reprocessing can make this waste reusable and more efficient reactor designs allow better use of the available resources.[30] A light water reactor or LWR is a thermal nuclear reactor that uses ordinary water, also called light water, as its neutron moderator. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ...


As opposed to current light water reactors which use uranium-235 (0.7% of all natural uranium), fast breeder reactors use uranium-238 (99.3% of all natural uranium). It has been estimated that there is up to five billion years’ worth of uranium-238 for use in these power plants[31], at present levels of usage.


Breeder technology has been used in several reactors, but the high cost of reprocessing fuel safely requires prices of more than 200 USD/kg before becoming justified economically.[32] As of December 2005, the only breeder reactor producing power is BN-600 in Beloyarsk, Russia. The electricity output of BN-600 is 600 MW — Russia has planned to build another unit, BN-800, at Beloyarsk nuclear power plant. Also, Japan's Monju reactor is planned for restart (having been shut down since 1995), and both China and India intend to build breeder reactors. This article is about the fast breeder reactor in Japan. ...


Another alternative would be to use uranium-233 bred from thorium as fission fuel in the thorium fuel cycle. Thorium is about 3.5 times as common as uranium in the Earth's crust, and has different geographic characteristics. This would extend the total practical fissionable resource base by 450%. [33] Unlike the breeding of U-238 into plutonium, fast breeder reactors are not necessary — it can be performed satisfactorily in more conventional plants. India has looked into this technology, as it has abundant thorium reserves but little uranium. General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... // The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, consists of front end steps that lead to the preparation of uranium for use as fuel for reactor operation and back end steps that are necessary to safely manage, prepare, and dispose of radioactive waste. ...


Fusion power commonly propose the use of deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen, as fuel and in many current designs also lithium. Assuming a fusion energy output equal to the current global output and that this does not increase in the future, then the known current lithium reserves would last 3000 years, lithium from sea water would last 60 million years, and a more complicated fusion process using only deuterium from sea water would have fuel for 150 billion years.[34] Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ...


Depleted uranium

Main article: Depleted uranium

Uranium enrichment produces many tons of depleted uranium (DU) which consists of U-238 with most of the easily fissile U-235 isotope removed. U-238 is a tough metal with several commercial uses — for example, aircraft production, radiation shielding, and making bullets and armor — as it has a higher density than lead. There are concerns that U-238 may lead to health problems in groups exposed to this material excessively, like tank crews and civilians living in areas where large quantities of DU ammunition have been used. Depleted uranium storage yard. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... This article is about the metal. ...


Solid waste

For more details on this topic, see Radioactive waste.

The safe storage and disposal of nuclear waste is a significant challenge. The most important waste stream from nuclear power plants is spent fuel. A large nuclear reactor produces 3 cubic metres (25-30 tonnes) of spent fuel each year.[35] It is primarily composed of unconverted uranium as well as significant quantities of transuranic actinides (plutonium and curium, mostly). In addition, about 3% of it is made of fission products. The actinides (uranium, plutonium, and curium) are responsible for the bulk of the long term radioactivity, whereas the fission products are responsible for the bulk of the short term radioactivity[36]. Radioactive wastes are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Spent fuel is highly radioactive and needs to be handled with great care and forethought. However, spent nuclear fuel becomes less radioactive over time. After 40 years, the radiation flux is 99.9% lower than it was the moment the spent fuel was removed, although still dangerously radioactive.[30] Radiation flux is a measure of the flow of radiation from a given radioactive source. ...


Spent fuel rods are stored in shielded basins of water (spent fuel pools), usually located on-site. The water provides both cooling for the still-decaying fission products, and shielding from the continuing radioactivity. After a few decades some on-site storage involves moving the now cooler, less radioactive fuel to a dry-storage facility or dry cask storage, where the fuel is stored in steel and concrete containers until its radioactivity decreases naturally ("decays") to levels safe enough for other processing. This interim stage spans years or decades, depending on the type of fuel. Most U.S. waste is currently stored in temporary storage sites requiring oversight, while suitable permanent disposal methods are discussed. Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant) to the point that it is no longer useful in sustaining a nuclear reaction. ... A typical dry cask storage system with vertical cylinders Dry cask storage is a method of storing high-level radioactive waste, such as spent nuclear fuel that has already been cooled in the spent fuel pool for at least one year. ...


As of 2003, the United States had accumulated about 49,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors. Underground storage at Yucca Mountain in U.S. has been proposed as permanent storage. After 10,000 years of radioactive decay, according to United States Environmental Protection Agency standards, the spent nuclear fuel will no longer pose a threat to public health and safety. 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Yucca Mountain Yucca Mountain is a ridge line in Nye County, in the south-central part of the U.S. state of Nevada. ... EPA redirects here. ...


The amount of waste can be reduced in several ways, particularly reprocessing. Even so, the remaining waste will be substantially radioactive for at least 300 years even if the actinides are removed, and for up to thousands of years if the actinides are left in. Even with separation of all actinides, and using fast breeder reactors to destroy by transmutation some of the longer-lived non-actinides as well, the waste must be segregated from the environment for one to a few hundred years, and therefore this is properly categorized as a long-term problem. Subcritical reactors or fusion reactors could also reduce the time the waste has to be stored.[37] It has been argued that the best solution for the nuclear waste is above ground temporary storage since technology is rapidly changing. The current waste may well become a valuable resource in the future. This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... // Transmutation is the conversion of one object into another. ... A subcritical reactor is a nuclear fission reactor that produces fission without achieving criticality. ... The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. ...


The nuclear industry also produces a volume of low-level radioactive waste in the form of contaminated items like clothing, hand tools, water purifier resins, and (upon decommissioning) the materials of which the reactor itself is built. In the United States, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has repeatedly attempted to allow low-level materials to be handled as normal waste: landfilled, recycled into consumer items, et cetera. Most low-level waste releases very low levels of radioactivity and is only considered radioactive waste because of its history. For example, according to the standards of the NRC, the radiation released by coffee is enough to treat it as low level waste.[citation needed]


In countries with nuclear power, radioactive wastes comprise less than 1% of total industrial toxic wastes, which remain hazardous indefinitely unless they decompose or are treated so that they are less toxic or, ideally, completely non-toxic.[30] Overall, nuclear power produces far less waste material than fossil-fuel based power plants. Coal-burning plants are particularly noted for producing large amounts of toxic and mildly radioactive ash due to concentrating naturally occurring metals and radioactive material from the coal. Contrary to popular belief, coal power actually results in more radioactive waste being released into the environment than nuclear power. The population effective dose equivalent from radiation from coal plants is 100 times as much as nuclear plants.[38] Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... In pharmacology an effective dose is the amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response in 50% of the people taking it. ...


Fusion energy makes nuclear waste of a type that must be stored and could be reused after some 100 years, not the tens of thousands of years of fission waste.


Reprocessing

For more details on this topic, see Nuclear reprocessing.

Reprocessing can potentially recover up to 95% of the remaining uranium and plutonium in spent nuclear fuel, putting it into new mixed oxide fuel. This would produce a reduction in long term radioactivity within the remaining waste, since this is largely short-lived fission products, and reduces its volume by over 90%. Reprocessing of civilian fuel from power reactors is currently done on large scale in Britain, France and (formerly) Russia, will be in China and perhaps India, and is being done on an expanding scale in Japan. The full potential of reprocessing has not been achieved because it requires breeder reactors, which are not yet commercially available. France is generally cited as the most successful reprocessor, but it presently only recycles 28% (by mass) of the yearly fuel use, 7% within France and another 21% in Russia.[39] // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... Nuclear reprocessing ... A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that breeds fuel. ...


Unlike other countries, the US has stopped civilian reprocessing as one part of US non-proliferation policy, since reprocessed material such as plutonium can be used in nuclear weapons. Spent fuel is all currently treated as waste.[40] In February, 2006, a new U.S. initiative, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership was announced. It would be an international effort to reprocess fuel in a manner making nuclear proliferation unfeasible, while making nuclear power available to developing countries.[41] The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, announced by U.S. Department of Energy secretary Samuel Bodman on February 6, 2006, is a plan to form an international partnership to see spent nuclear fuel reprocessed in a way that renders the plutonium in it usable for nuclear fuel but not for nuclear...


Debate on nuclear power

Critics claim that nuclear power is an uneconomic and potentially dangerous energy source with a limited fuel supply compared to renewable energy, and dispute whether the costs and risks can be reduced through new technology. Critics also point to the problem of storing radioactive waste, the potential for possibly severe radioactive contamination by accident or sabotage, the possibility of nuclear proliferation and the disadvantages of centralized electrical production. Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Radioactive wastes are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ...


Arguments of economics and safety are used by both sides of the debate. The Economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. ... This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ...


Proponents of nuclear energy claim that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions and increases energy security by decreasing dependence on foreign countries for energy sources.[42] Proponents also claim that the risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by the technology in the new reactors and the operational safety record is already good when compared to the other major kinds of power plants. Many go on to argue that renewables are limited to a minority share of energy production because they are intermittent power sources and have questionable economics themselves as well as demanding too much money for development. This article is about a concept related to renewable energy, of which sustainable energy is a superset. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Intermittent power sources are sources of power generation, primarily electricity, whose power output is either variable or intermittent. ...


Pros and Cons - an overview

France is one of the world's most densely populated countries. According to a 2007 story broadcast on 60 Minutes, nuclear power gives France the cleanest air of any industrialized country, and the cheapest electricity in all of Europe.[43] France reprocesses its nuclear waste to reduce its mass and make more energy.[44] However, the article continues, "Today we stock containers of waste because currently scientists don't know how to reduce or eliminate the toxicity, but maybe in 100 years perhaps scientists will ... Nuclear waste is an enormously difficult political problem which to date no country has solved. It is, in a sense, the Achilles heel of the nuclear industry ... If France is unable to solve this issue, says Mandil, then 'I do not see how we can continue our nuclear program.'" Further, reprocessing itself has its critics, such as the Union of Concerned Scientists [8]PDF (113 KiB). This article is about the CBS news magazine. ... The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is an advocacy organization based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


In the U.S., which does not reprocess nuclear waste, nuclear power has its own set of problems such as what to do with all the radioactive waste. "Already more than 80,000 tonnes of highly radioactive waste sits in cooling pools next to the 103 US nuclear power plants, awaiting transportation to a storage facility yet to be found. This dangerous material will be an attractive target for terrorist sabotage as it travels through 39 states on roads and railway lines for the next 25 years"[45]. Even keeping track of it all has proved to be a problem [9]. In fact fears have been expressed that terrorists could get hold of some of it to make nuclear bombs[46]. Additionally many point to the possibility of a catastrophic accident at one of these plants which could affect many thousands or even millions. Greenpeace has produced a report titled An American Chernobyl: Nuclear “Near Misses” at U.S. Reactors Since 1986 which "reveals that nearly two hundred “near misses” to nuclear meltdowns have occurred in the United States". At almost 450 nuclear plants in the world that risk is greatly magnified they say. This is not to mention numerous incidents[47], many supposedly unreported, that have occurred. Another report called Nuclear Reactor Hazards: Ongoing Dangers of Operating Nuclear Technology in the 21st Century concludes that risk of a major accident has increased in the past years. See also [10].


Underlying much of the distrust is the fact that it has unfortunately often been the case that populations are not informed of hazards from various technologies that may impact on them. For example Brookhaven National Laboratory's leaking of radioactive tritium into community groundwater for up to 12 years which angered the local community [11], dangerous coverups at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant [12] or the pollution of Anniston, Alabama and other locations by Monsanto that went unreported for four decades [13]. For these reasons many feel the risks outweigh the benefits.


However, some people claim that the problems of nuclear waste do not come anywhere close to approaching the problems of fossil fuel waste.[48][49]. A 2004 article from the BBC states: "The World Health Organization (WHO) says 3 million people are killed worldwide by outdoor air pollution annually from vehicles and industrial emissions, and 1.6 million indoors through using solid fuel."[14] In the U.S. alone, fossil fuel waste kills 20,000 people each year.[50] A coal power plant releases 100 times as much radiation as a nuclear power plant of the same wattage.[51] In addition, fossil fuel waste causes global warming, which leads to increased deaths from hurricanes, flooding, and other weather events. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Accidents

The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is used to communicate the severity of nuclear accidents on a scale of 0 to 7. The two most well-known events are the Three Mile Island accident and the Chernobyl disaster. This article is about radiation accidents in general. ... The IAEA INES Scale The INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) was introduced by IAEA in order to enable prompt communication of safety significance information in case of nuclear accidents. ... Pathways from airborne radioactive contamination to man This is a list of notable accidents involving nuclear material. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst in history, resulting in a severe nuclear meltdown. ...


The 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 was the worst civilian nuclear accident outside the Soviet Union (INES score of 5). The reactor experienced a partial core meltdown. However, the reactor vessel and containment building were not breached and little radiation was released to the environment.[52] The event resulted in fundamental changes in how plants in the West were to be maintained and operated. For details on this station, see Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station. ... Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station consisted of two pressurized water reactors manufactured by Babcock & Wilcox each inside its own containment building and connected cooling towers. ... In a nuclear power plant, the reactor vessel is a pressure vessel containing the coolant and reactor core. ...


The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (now Ukraine) was the worst nuclear accident in history and is the only event to receive an INES score of 7. The power excursion and resulting steam explosion and fire spread radioactive contamination across large portions of Europe. A large 2005 study found that the death toll includes the 50 workers who died of acute radiation syndrome, nine children who died from thyroid cancer, and an estimated 4000 excess cancer deaths in the future. [53] Supporters of nuclear power argue that this accident occurred due to several critical design flaws in the Soviet RBMK reactors, such as lack of a containment building which would have stopped radioactive emissions from that accident, and that security in the remaining RBMK reactors have greatly improved.[15] Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst in history, resulting in a severe nuclear meltdown. ... Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, viewed from the roof of a building in Pripyat, Ukraine. ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Thyroid cancer is malignant growth of the thyroid gland. ...


Design changes are being pursued to lessen the risks of fission reactors; in particular, passively safe plants (such as the ESBWR) are available to be built and inherently safe designs are being pursued. Fusion reactors which may be viable in the future theoretically have very little risk of explosive radiation-releasing accidents. (They still produce residual radioactivity, however.) Passive nuclear safety describes a safety feature of a nuclear reactor that does not require operator action or electronic feedback in order to shut down safely in the event of a particular type of emergency (usually overheating resulting from a loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow). ... The Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) is a generation III+ reactor which builds on the success of the ABWR. Both are designs by General Electric, and are based on their BWR design. ... An inherently safe system is a variety of a certain system that cannot be made to cause harm – obviously the best arrangement safety-wise, but not always possible. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ...


The World Nuclear Association provides a comparison of deaths due to accidents among different forms of energy production. In their comparison, deaths per TW-yr of electricity produced from 1970 to 1992 are quoted as 885 for hydropower, 342 for coal, 85 for natural gas, and 8 for nuclear[54]. Air pollution from fossil fuels is argued to cause tens of thousands of additional deaths each year in the US alone.[55] Furthermore, a 2004 news article from the BBC stated, "The World Health Organization (WHO) says 3 million people are killed worldwide by outdoor air pollution annually from vehicles and industrial emissions, and 1.6 million indoors through using solid fuel. Most are in poor countries."[56] The World Nuclear Association (formerly the Uranium Institute) is a pro-nuclear power organisation which monitors and promotes the use of nuclear power. ...


Health effect on population near nuclear plants

A couple of fishermen near the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant. The reactor dome is visible on the left, and the large cooling tower on the right.

Most of human exposure to radiation comes from natural background radiation. Most of the remaining exposure comes from medical procedures. Several large studies in the US, Canada, and Europe have found no evidence of any increase in cancer mortality among people living near nuclear facilities. For example, in 1991, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the National Institutes of Health announced that a large-scale study, which evaluated mortality from 16 types of cancer, found no increased incidence of cancer mortality for people living near 62 nuclear installations in the United States. The study showed no increase in the incidence of childhood leukemia mortality in the study of surrounding counties after start-up of the nuclear facilities. The NCI study, the broadest of its kind ever conducted, surveyed 900,000 cancer deaths in counties near nuclear facilities.[16] Image File history File links Trojan1. ... Image File history File links Trojan1. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Background radiation is the ionizing radiation emitted from a variety of natural and artificial radiation sources: sources in the Earth and from those sources that are incorporated in our food and water, which are incorporated in our body, and in building materials and other products that incorporate those radioactive sources... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ...


Some areas of Britain near industrial facilities, particularly near Sellafield, have displayed elevated childhood leukemia levels, in which children living locally are 10 times more likely to contract the cancer. One study of those near Sellafield has ruled out any contribution from nuclear sources, and the reasons for these increases, or clusters, are unclear. Apart from anything else, the levels of radiation at these sites are orders of magnitude too low to account for the excess incidences reported. One explanation is viruses or other infectious agents being introduced into a local community by the mass movement of migrant workers.[57][58] Likewise, small studies have found an increased incidence of childhood leukemia near some nuclear power plants has been found in Germany[59] and France.[60] Nonetheless, the results of larger multi-site studies in these countries invalidate the hypothesis of an increased risk of leukemia related to nuclear discharge. The methodology and very small samples in the studies finding an increased incidence has been criticized.[61][62][63][64] Also, one study focusing on leukemia clusters in industrial towns in England indicated a link to high-capacity electricity lines suggesting that the production or distribution of the electricity, rather than the nuclear reaction, may be a factor.[dubious ][citation needed] The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by Sellafield Ltd, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ... Leukemia or leukaemia(Greek leukos λευκός, “white”; aima αίμα, “blood”) (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ...


Nuclear proliferation and terrorism concerns

For more details on this topic, see Nuclear proliferation.

Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons and related technology to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Since the days of the Manhattan Project it has been known that reactors could be used for weapons-development purposes—the first nuclear reactors were developed for exactly this reason—as the operation of a nuclear reactor converts U-238 into plutonium. As a consequence, since the 1950s there have been concerns about the possibility of using reactors as a dual-use technology, whereby apparently peaceful technological development could serve as an approach to nuclear weapons capability. World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Dual-use is a term often used in politics and diplomacy to refer to technology which can be used for both peaceful and military aims, usually in regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. ...


Original impetus for development of nuclear power came from the military nuclear programs, including the early designs of power reactors that were developed for nuclear submarines. In many countries nuclear and civilian nuclear programs are linked, at least by common research projects and through agencies such as the U.S. DOE. In the U.S., for example, the first goal of the Department of Energy is "to advance the national, economic, and energy security of the United States; to promote scientific and technological innovation in support of that mission; and to ensure the environmental cleanup of the national nuclear weapons complex."[65]


To prevent weapons proliferation, safeguards on nuclear technology were published in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and monitored since 1968 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Nations signing the treaty are required to report to the IAEA what nuclear materials they hold and their location. They agree to accept visits by IAEA auditors and inspectors to verify independently their material reports and physically inspect the nuclear materials concerned to confirm physical inventories of them in exchange for access to nuclear materials and equipment on the global market. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


Several states did not sign the treaty and were able to use international nuclear technology (often procured for civilian purposes) to develop nuclear weapons (India, Pakistan, Israel, and South Africa). Of those who have signed the treaty and received shipments of nuclear paraphernalia, many states have either claimed to, or been accused of, attempting to use supposedly civilian nuclear power plants for developing weapons. Certain types of reactors may be more conducive to producing nuclear weapons materials than others, such as possible future fast breeder reactors, and a number of international disputes over proliferation have centered on the specific model of reactor being contracted for in a country suspected of nuclear weapon ambitions.


There is concern in some countries[citation needed] over North Korea and Iran operating research reactors and fuel enrichment plant. In 2006, North Korea detonated what they claimed was a functioning nuclear weapon, which analysis has indicated was fueled by plutonium, presumably diverted from their Yongbyon nuclear reactor.[66] North Korea has since signed a deal with the United States regarding its Yongbyon plant and has discontinued its nuclear activities. An IAEA report also recently cited "significant cooperation" by Iran and that it has slowed its enrichment of uranium. See also Nuclear program of Iran. The Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center[1] is North Koreas major nuclear facility, operating its first nuclear reactors. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ...


Aside from their plutonium-producing potential, some research reactors are considered proliferation threats because of their use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) as their fuel. According to the IAEA, there are over 100 reactors in the world which continue to be fueled by HEU, though for decades work has pursued to convert these to operate with low-enriched uranium (LEU). In this case, the threat is not considered to be based on surrepticious weapons development, but rather that of theft of the enriched nuclear materials, which would help potential bomb makers subvert the largest hurdle in developing an enriched-uranium weapon.[67] Research reactors comprise a wide range of civil and commercial nuclear reactors which are generally not used for power generation. ...


Vulnerability of plants to attack

Nuclear power plants are generally (although not always) considered "hard" targets. In the US, plants are surrounded by a double row of tall fences which are electronically monitored. The plant grounds are patrolled by a sizeable force of armed guards.[68] The NRC's "Design Basis Threat" criteria for plants is a secret, and so what size attacking force the plants are able to protect against is unknown. However, to scram a plant takes less than 5 seconds while unimpeded restart takes hours, severely hampering a terrorist force in a goal to release radioactivity. A SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor - though the term has been extended to cover shutdowns of other complex operations, such as server farms and even large model railroads (see Tech Model Railroad Club). ...


Attack from the air is a more problematic concern. The most important barrier against the release of radioactivity in the event of an aircraft strike is the containment building and its missile shield. The NRC's Chairman has said "Nuclear power plants are inherently robust structures that our studies show provide adequate protection in a hypothetical attack by an airplane. The NRC has also taken actions that require nuclear power plant operators to be able to manage large fires or explosions—no matter what has caused them."[69]


In addition, supporters point to large studies carried out by the US Electric Power Research Institute that tested the robustness of both reactor and waste fuel storage, and found that they should be able to sustain a terrorist attack comparable to the September 11 terrorist attacks in the USA.[54] Spent fuel is usually housed inside the plant's "protected zone"[70] or a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask; stealing it for use in a "dirty bomb" is extremely difficult. Exposure to the intense radiation would almost certainly quickly incapacitate or kill any terrorists who attempt to do so.[71] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... A typical SNF shipping cask mounted on a railroad car. ...


Nuclear power plants are designed to withstand threats deemed credible at the time of licensing. However, as weapons evolve it cannot be said unequivocably that within the 60 year life of a plant it will not become vulnerable. In addition, the future status of storage sites may be in doubt. Other forms of energy production are also vulnerable to attack, such as hydroelectric dams and LNG tankers. A Hydroelectric Dam converts a River into a Large Reservoir and transforms the potential energy of the river into Electrical Power. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been cooled until it becomes liquid, and it is stored in tanks. ...


Use of waste byproduct as a weapon

An additional concern with nuclear power plants is that if the by-products of nuclear fission—the nuclear waste generated by the plant—were to be unprotected it could be used as a radiological weapon, colloquially known as a "dirty bomb". There have been incidents of nuclear plant workers attempting to sell nuclear materials for this purpose (for example, there was such an incident in Russia in 1999 where plant workers attempted to sell 5 grams of radioactive material on the open market,[72] and an incident in 1993 where Russian workers were caught attempting to sell 4.5 kilograms of enriched uranium.[73][74][75]), and there are additional concerns that the transportation of nuclear waste along roadways or railways opens it up for potential theft. The UN has since called upon world leaders to improve security in order to prevent radioactive material falling into the hands of terrorists,[76] and such fears have been used as justifications for centralized, permanent, and secure waste repositories and increased security along transportation routes.[77] A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. ... The term dirty bomb is primarily used to refer to a radiological dispersal device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


Environmental effects

Main article: Environmental effects of nuclear power

The primary environmental impacts of nuclear power are damage through Uranium mining, radioactive effluent emissions, and waste heat. Like renewable sources, the majority of life cycle studies have found that indirect carbon emissions from nuclear power are many times less than comparable fossil fuel plants. Nuclear generation does not directly produce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury or other pollutants associated with the combustion of fossil fuels (pollution from fossil fuels is blamed for 24,000 early deaths each year in the U.S. alone[78]). Nuclear power, as all power sources, has an effect on the environment through a number of stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, operation, and by the lingering effects of past accidents. ... The Ranger Uranium Mine in Australia. ... Waste heat is the by-product heat of machines and technical processes for which no useful application is found. ...


Floating nuclear power plants

Russia has begun building floating nuclear power plants. The £100 million ($204.9 million, 2 billion руб) vessel, the Lomonosov, to be completed in 2010, is the first of seven plants that Moscow says will bring vital energy resources to remote Russian regions. While producing only a small fraction of the power of a standard Russian land-based plant, it can supply power to a city of 200,000, or function as a desalination plant. The Russian atomic energy agency said that at least 12 countries were also interested in buying floating nuclear plants.[79] Floating nuclear power stations are vessels projected by the Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency that present self-contained, low-capacity, floating nuclear power plants (two modified naval propulsion reactors). ... Floating nuclear power stations are vessels projected by the Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency that present self-contained, low-capacity, floating nuclear power plants (two modified naval propulsion reactors). ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


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  • An entry to nuclear power through an educational discussion of reactors
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  • Texas Will Host First New U.S. Nuclear Plants since 1970s

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll CH OBE FRS (28 October 1912–24 July 2005) was a British physiologist who became the foremost epidemiologist of the 20th century, turning the subject into a rigorous science. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted on October 9, 2006 by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Statue of George II in the Grand Square of the University, with the dome above the Chapel entrance to the left. ...

See also

Nuclear technology Portal
Energy Portal


Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

The anti-nuclear movement holds that nuclear power is inherently dangerous and thus ought to be replaced with safe and affordable renewable energy. ... A control rod is a rod made of a chemical element capable of absorbing many neutrons without decaying themselves. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... Future energy development, providing for the worlds future energy needs, currently faces great challenges. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Nuclear terrorism denotes the use of nuclear weapons, radiological weapons (dirty bombs), or attacks against local facilities that handle nuclear material with mass destruction in mind. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... A typical SNF shipping cask mounted on a railroad car. ... The Toshiba 4S (Super Safe, Small and Simple) is a “nuclear battery” reactor design. ... The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was set up by resolution of the United Nations General Assembly in 1955. ... US President George W. Bush and Indias Prime Minister Manmohan Singh exchange handshakes in New Delhi on March 2, 2006 The United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2006 is the legal framework for a bilateral pact between the United States and India under which the U...

External links

Find more information on Nuclear power by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • Nuclear Tourist.com, nuclear power information
  • Boiling Water Reactor Plant, BWR Simulator Program
  • IAEA Website—The International Atomic Energy Agency
    • IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)
    • Information about all NPP in the world
    • IAEA's Web directory of nuclear related resources on the Internet
  • Energy Information Administration provides lots of statistics and information
  • Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues — Annotated Bibliography on Nuclear Power
  • Argonne National Laboratory — Maps of Nuclear Power Reactors
  • British Energy — Understanding Nuclear Energy / Nuclear Power
  • Congressional Research Service report on Nuclear Energy PolicyPDF (94.0 KiB)
  • New Scientist — nuclear power articles
  • Nuclear Power Education
  • Nuclear Waste Disposal Resources
  • Wilson Quarterly — Nuclear Power: Both Sides
  • Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger?
  • Nuclear Power Related News
  • An entry to nuclear power through an educational discussion of reactors
  • Briefing Papers from the Australian EnergyScience Coaltion
  • How Nuclear Power Works

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...

Nuclear news websites

  • ANS Nuclear Clips
  • Nuclear News
  • World Nuclear News

Critical

  • Greenpeace Nuclear Campaign
  • Critical assessment of the US-India nuclear energy accord published by the Internationalist Review
  • World Information Service on Energy (WISE)
  • Greenpeace — Calendar of Nuclear Accidents
  • 1 million europeans against nuclear power
  • Nuclear Files
  • Climate Change and Nuclear EnergyPDF (265 KiB)
  • Critical Hour: Three Mile Island, The Nuclear Legacy, And National SecurityPDF (929 KiB) Online book
  • Natural Resources Defense CouncilPDF (158 KiB)
  • Sierra Club

The Internationalist Review is an independent, non-profit e-journal founded on June 3 2006 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...

Supportive

  • American Nuclear Society (ANS)
  • Representing the People and Organisations of the Global Nuclear Profession
  • Environmentalists for Nuclear Power
  • SCK.CEN Belgian Nuclear Research Centre
  • Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)
  • Atomic Insights
  • Freedom for Fission
  • Nuclear is Our Future
  • The Nuclear Energy Option, online book by Bernard L. Cohen. Emphasis on risk estimates of nuclear.
  • World Nuclear Association

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nuclear power - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9412 words)
Nuclear power is the controlled use of nuclear reactions to release energy for work including propulsion, heat, and the generation of electricity.
The use of nuclear power is controversial because of the problem of storing radioactive waste for indefinite periods, the potential for possibly severe radioactive contamination by accident or sabotage, and the possibility that its use in some countries could lead to the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Nuclear power, coal, and wind power are currently the only realistic large scale energy sources that would be able to replace oil and natural gas after a peak in global oil and gas production has been reached (see peak oil).
Nuclear power plant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1431 words)
Nuclear power plants are base load stations, which work best when the power output is constant (although boiling water reactors can come down to half power at night).
In the U.S., a consortium of six major companies is planning construction of a new nuclear power plant, which would be the first since the 1970s.) [5], [6], [7] Almost all the advantages and disadvantages of commercial nuclear power are disputed in some degree by the advocates for and against nuclear power.
Disposal of spent fuel and other nuclear waste is claimed by some as an advantage of nuclear power, claiming that the waste is small in quantity compared to that generated by competing technologies, and the cost of disposal small compared to the value of the power produced.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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