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Encyclopedia > Nuclear gene

Nuclear gene is a gene located in the cell nucleus of an eukaryote. The term is used to distinguish nuclear genes from the genes in the mitochondrion, or in case of plants, also the chloroplast, which host their own genetic system and can produce proteins from scratch. The term "gene" most often refers to nuclear genes. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... The eukaryotic cell nucleus. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (IPA: ) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) (from Greek μιτος or mitos, thread + κουδριον or khondrion, granule) is a membrane-enclosed organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ...


Nuclear genes include the "original" genes of the eukaryotes. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to have originated from symbiotic bacteria that are now so integrated to their host cells that they function as integral cell components or organelles.[1][2] Both of these organelles still retain a small genome. Most of the organelles proteins are products of nuclear genes. Many of these genes have been moved to the nucleus during evolution. These proteins are produced in the cytoplasm like all nuclear gene products and then transported to the organelle. Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Organelles. ...


A example of the DNA sequence and structure of a plant nuclear gene can be found here . Many genomes have been sequenced and their gene sequences are stored in general DNA sequence databases (e. ...


References

  1. ^ Enrique Lopez-Juez and Kevin A. Pyke Plastids unleashed: their development and their integration in plant development Int. J. Dev. Biol. 49: 557 - 577 (2005) (Free full text)
  2. ^ Hoffmeister M, Martin W Interspecific evolution: microbial symbiosis, endosymbiosis and gene transfer. Environ Microbiol. 2003 Aug;5(8):641-9.

 
 

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