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Encyclopedia > Nuclear freeze

The nuclear freeze was a proposed agreement between the world's nuclear powers, primarily the United States and the then-Soviet Union, to freeze all production of new nuclear arms and to leave levels of nuclear armanent where they currently were. However, the difference in the systems between the two nations meant that while the proposal was widely publicized and debated in the United States, there is little evidence that this occurred within the Soviet Union. It should be noted that this proposal was primarily one of Western activists, and was never actually a direct part of governmental negotiations between the two major nuclear powers. For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...

The nuclear arms race between the two superpowers had gone on almost unabated since the Americans had developed the first atomic (fission) weapons in the 1940s, later matched by the Soviets, with both sides also developing hydrogen (fusion) weapons in the 1950s. The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) agreements of the 1970s had provided limits and quotas on the amount of these weapons, but adherence to such limits were generally regarded as unverifiable by conservatives on both sides and the limits were generally considered to be unrealistically high by liberals. An arms race is a competition between two or more countries for military supremacy. ... A superpower is a state with the ability to influence events or project power on a global scale. ... Sketch of induced nuclear fission, a neutron (n) strikes a uranium nucleus which splits into similar products (F. P.), and releases more neutrons to continue the process, and energy in the form of gamma and other radiation. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s - 1940s - 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Years: 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Events and trends Technology First nuclear bomb First cruise missile, the V1 flying bomb and the first ballistic missile, the... General Name, Symbol, Number Hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 1 , s Density, Hardness 0. ... Fusion may refer to: the merging of two or more entities into a single one For the combining of two atomic nuclei into a single nucleus (with possible emission of radioactivity), see nuclear fusion cold fusion refers to a controversial form of nuclear fusion which has recently (April/May 2005... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... SALT I 1969-1972 SALT II 1972-1979 External links http://www. ... Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of transition between the turbulent 1960s and the more conservative 1980s and 1990s, many of the trends that are associated widely with the Sixties, from the Sexual Revolution... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... In politics, the term liberal refers to: an adherent of the ideology of liberalism —an ideology espousing liberty. ...

The "nuclear freeze" was proposed as an alternative. The movement really began to gain traction as an issue in the early 1980s with the election of Ronald Reagan, a known "hawk" and "peace through strength" advocate, as United States President in 1980. Reagan stated that he had no desire for a freeze, but rather a verifiable bilateral reduction, in nuclear arms. He also showed little interest in meeting with the aging Soviet leaders. When Leonid Brezhnev, whom Reagan had never met, died in November, 1982, Reagan felt justified, believing that anything that he would or could have negotiated with Brezhnev would have died with him. He likewise never met with Breznhev's two immediate successors, Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, who were also elderly and in frail health like Breznhev, each dying within about a year after taking office. During this time, the freeze issue was being pressed in the United States. It almost became a litmus test issue, conservatives almost invariably opposed to the idea and liberals in favor of it. Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Order: 40th President Vice President: George H.W. Bush Term of office: January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev  listen (Russian: Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев) (December 19, 1906 – November 10, 1982) was effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ... November is the eleventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. ... 1982 is a number and represents a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar Events January-February January 6 - William Bonin is convicted of being the freeway killer. January 8 - AT&T agrees to divest itself of twenty-two subdivisions January 11 - Mark Thatcher, son of the British... Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов), (June 2 (O.S.) = June 15 (N.S.), 1914 - February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just sixteen months later. ... Chernenko Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (Константи́н Усти́нович Черне́нко) (September 24, 1911 - March 10, 1985) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU who led the Soviet Union from February 13, 1984 until his death just eleven months later. ... The term litmus test can be literal or metaphorical. ...

When Mikhail Gorbachev became Soviet leader, Reagan met with him and began work along with him on the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually ratified by both nations' legislative bodies and techically remains in force today, although it is considered by most strategic experts highly doubtful that the post-Soviet Russian miltary is actually capable of operating and successfully lanuching anything like the number of ballistic missiles and other strategic weapons allowed it under the treaty. As such is assumed to be the case, strategic nuclear weapons, although still deployed in large numbers by the United States, are of somewhat less concern than previously, and the "nuclear freeze" has thus become something of a dead issue, with a more immediate concern being how better to keep the ex-Soviet nuclear stockpile and other sources of potentially fissionable and/or fusionable materials out of the hands of terrorists. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov (Gorbachev)  listen (Russian: ; pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHYOHV) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... START, officially the STrategic Arms Reduction Treaty was a nuclear weapons limitation treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union. ... Ratification is the process of adopting an international treaty, or a constitution or other nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple subnational entities. ... Chamber of the Estates-General, the Dutch legislature. ... Terrorism is a controversial term with multiple definitions. ...

  Results from FactBites:
South Korea says North Korea must clarify nuclear freeze offer (436 words)
South Korea's Foreign Minister Ban Ki-Moon said Wednesday a North Korean proposal for a nuclear freeze would be unacceptable unless the hermit state shuttered all its nuclear facilities.
However, Ban said the offer would be "unacceptable" if North Korea's nuclear freeze means simply going back to a 1994 deal under which it agreed to mothball its facilities that could be used to produce nuclear weapons based on plutonium.
But Ban said he and Li were in agreement that the momentum of dialogue to resolve the nuclear impasse should be kept alive by ensuring that a third-round of six-way talks take place by the end of June as previously agreed.
Metro Pulse/Cover Story/Nuclear Freeze (4465 words)
But others say nuclear power is not the panacea its supporters think it is. In fact, the concerns with it are so numerous and frightening, it would be a grave mistake to reinvest in nuclear energy.
Many nuclear power reactors are running at the end of their planned 40-year life, but their operators are applying for extensions (12 life extensions have been granted so far, and the NRC has yet to deny an application).
Public comment on nuclear reactors would be allowed before a company had decided whether to actually construct one, she says, so public awareness would be low.
  More results at FactBites »



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