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Encyclopedia > Nuclear arms race
U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006.
U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006.
Nuclear weapons
One of the first nuclear bombs.

History of nuclear weapons
Nuclear warfare
Nuclear arms race
Weapon design / testing
Effects of nuclear explosions
Delivery systems
Nuclear espionage
Proliferation / Arsenals Image File history File links US_and_USSR_nuclear_stockpiles. ... Image File history File links US_and_USSR_nuclear_stockpiles. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... An American nuclear test. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... Nuclear espionage is the purposeful giving of state secrets regarding nuclear weapons to other states without authorization (espionage). ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of nuclear weapons ordered by state and then type within the states. ...

 Nuclear-armed countries 

Russia - US - France - Israel - UK
PR China - India
Pakistan - North Korea
Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. ... The United States of America was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ... The Peoples Republic of China is estimated to have an arsenal of about 400 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999, although this number is questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding nuclear weapons other than stating that China possesses the smallest nuclear arsenal amongst the five nuclear...

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The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States allies, the Russian Army and their respective allies during the Cold War. During the Cold War, in addition to the American and Soviet nuclear stockpiles, other countries also developed nuclear weapons, though none engaged in warhead production on the same size as the two superpowers. The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

World War II

The first nuclear weapon was created by the American Manhattan Project during the Second World War and was developed for use against the Axis powers[1]. Scientists in the Soviet Union, then an ally of the United States, were aware of the possibility of nuclear weapons and had been doing some work in that direction[2]. This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ...


The Soviet Union was not informed of the American experiments until Stalin was informed at the Potsdam Conference on July 24, 1945[3][4]. The Americans did not trust the Soviets to keep the information from German spies; there was also deep distrust of the Soviets and their intentions, despite the wartime partnership. Even during the war many government and military figures in the USA saw the USSR as a potential enemy in the future. Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The Soviets were well aware of the program due to a spy ring operating within the American nuclear program. The atomic spies (including Klaus Fuchs [5] and Theodore Hall) kept Stalin well informed of American developments [6]. When U.S. President Harry S. Truman informed Stalin of the weapons, he was surprised at how calmly Stalin took the news and thought that Stalin had not understood what he had told him. In fact Stalin had long been aware of the program[7]. The American program had been so secret that even Truman did not know about the weapons until he became president; Stalin had thus known about the Manhattan Project before Truman himself did[8]. Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Atomic Spies and Atom Spies are terms that refer to various people in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada who are thought to have illicitly given information about nuclear weapons production or design to the Soviet Union during World War II and the early Cold War. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ... Theodore Halls ID badge photo from Los Alamos. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...


In August of 1945, atomic bombs were dropped per Truman's order on designated Japanese cities. The first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, and then another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki by the B-29 bombers Enola Gay and Bock's Car respectively. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Boeing Model 341/345) was a four-engine heavy bomber flown by the United States Army Air Force. ...


Early Cold War

In the years immediately after the Second World War, the United States and the USSR had a nuclear monopoly on both specific knowledge and, most importantly, raw materials. Initially, it was thought that uranium was relatively rare in the world, but this was discovered to be incorrect. While American leaders hoped the monopoly would be able to draw concessions from the Soviet Union, this proved ineffective. Behind the scenes the Soviet regime was working furiously to build their own atomic weapons. During the war Soviet efforts had been limited by a lack of uranium, but new supplies in Eastern Europe were taken and provided a steady supply while the Soviets developed a domestic source. While American thinkers had predicted that the USSR would not have nuclear weapons until the mid-1950s, the first Soviet bomb was detonated on August 29 of 1949, shocking the entire world. The weapon (called "Joe One" by the West) was more or less a copy of the weapon which the United States had dropped on Japan ("Fat Man"). pooo This article is about the chemical element. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... External links http://gawain. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ...


Governments devoted massive amounts of resources to increasing the quality and quantity of their nuclear arsenal. Both nations quickly began work on hydrogen bombs and the United States detonated the first such device on November 1, 1952. Again the Soviets surprised the Americans by exploding a deployable thermonuclear device of their own the next August, though it was not actually a "true" multi-stage hydrogen bomb (that would wait until 1955). The Soviet H-bomb was almost completely a product of domestic research, as their espionage sources in the USA had only worked on very preliminary (and incorrect) versions of the hydrogen bomb. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...


The most important development in terms of delivery in the 1950s was the introduction of ICBMs. Missiles had long been seen as the ideal platform for nuclear weapons and in 1957 on the 4th of October with the launch of Sputnik the Soviet Union showed the world that they had missiles that could hit anywhere in the world. The United States launched their own on the 31 October 1959. A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ...


The period also saw attempts begin to defend against nuclear weapons. Both powers built large radar arrays to detect incoming bombers and missiles. Fighters to use against bombers and anti-ballistic missiles to use against ICBMs were also developed. Large underground bunkers were constructed to save the leadership of the superpowers, and individuals were told to build fallout shelters and taught how to react to a nuclear attack (civil defense). These bombs could kill millions in the event of an attack by either side. A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City. ... The old United States civil defense logo. ...


Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)

All of these defensive measures were far from foolproof and by the 1950s both the United States and Soviet Union had the power to obliterate the other side. Both sides developed a "second-strike" capability [9], i.e. they could launch a devastating attack even after sustaining a full assault from the other side (especially by means of submarines). This policy was part of what became known as Mutually Assured Destruction: both sides knew that any attack upon the other would be suicide for themselves as well, and thus would (in theory) restrain from attacking one another. Mutually assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


Both Soviet and American thinkers hoped to use nuclear weapons to extract concessions from the other side, or from other powers such as China, but the risk of any use of these weapons was so large that both sides refrained from what John Foster Dulles referred to as brinkmanship. While some like General Douglas MacArthur argued nuclear weapons should be used during the Korean War both Truman and Eisenhower disagreed. John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...


Both sides were also unaware of how their relative arsenals compared. The Americans tended to be lacking in confidence, in the 1950s they believed in a non-existent "bomber gap" (aerial photography later discovered that the Soviets had been playing a sort of Potemkin village game with their bombers in their military parades, flying them in large circles to make it appear they had far more than they truly did), and the 1960 American presidential election saw accusations of a wholly spurious "missile gap" between the Soviets and the Americans. The Soviet government structure tended to exaggerate the power of Soviet weapons to the leadership and Nikita Khrushchev. Potemkin villages were, purportedly, fake settlements erected at the direction of Russian minister Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin to fool Empress Catherine II during her visit to Crimea in 1787. ... The New York Times front page from two days after the election: November 10, 1960. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Khrushchev redirects here. ...


An additional controversy formed in the United States during the early-1960s over whether or not it was known if their weapons would work at all if it came down to it. All of the individual components of nuclear missiles had been tested separately (warheads, navigation systems, rockets), but it had been infeasible to test them all as a whole. Critics charged that it was not really known how a warhead would function in the gravity forces and temperature differences encountered in the upper atmosphere and outer space, and Kennedy was unwilling to run a risky test of an ICBM with a live warhead. The closest thing to an actual test, Operation Frigate Bird, which involved testing a live submarine launching a ballistic missile, was challenged by critics (including Curtis LeMay, who used doubt over missile accuracy to encourage the development of new bombers) on the grounds that it was a single test (and could therefore be an anomaly), was a lower-altitude SLBM (and therefore was subject to different conditions than an ICBM), and that significant modifications had been made to its warhead before testing.

Strategic nuclear missiles, warheads and throw-weights of United States and USSR, 1964-82
Year Launchers Warheads Megatonnage
USA USSR USA USSR USA USSR
1964 2,416 375 6,800 500 7,500 1,000
1966 2,396 435 5,000 550 5,600 1,200
1968 2,360 1,045 4,500 850 5,100 2,300
1970 2,230 1,680 3,900 1,800 4,300 3,100
1972 2,230 2,090 5,800 2,100 4,100 4,000
1974 2,180 2,380 8,400 2,400 3,800 4,200
1976 2,100 2,390 9,400 3,200 3,700 4,500
1978 2,058 2,350 9,800 5,200 3,800 5,400
1980 2,042 2,490 10,000 6,000 4,000 5,700
1982 2,032 2,490 11,000 8,000 4,100 7,100
Source: Gerards Segal, The Simon & Schuster Guide to the World Today, (Simon & Schuster, 1987), p.82

in: Edwin Bacon, Mark Sandle, "Brezhnev Reconsidered", Studies in Russian and East European History and Society (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)

Initial nuclear proliferation

In addition to the United States and the Soviet Union, three other nations, the United Kingdom[10], People's Republic of China[11], and France[12] also developed far smaller nuclear stockpiles. In 1952, the United Kingdom became the third nation to possess nuclear weapons when it detonated an atomic bomb in Operation Hurricane[13] in Australia on October 3, 1952. During the Cold War, British nuclear deterrence came from submarines and nuclear-armed aircraft. The Resolution class ballistic missile submarines armed with the American-built Polaris missile provided the sea deterrent, while aircraft such as the Avro Vulcan, SEPECAT Jaguar, Panavia Tornado and several other Royal Air Force strike aircraft carrying WE.177 gravity bomb provided the air deterrent. Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The explosion cloud resulting from the Operation Hurricane detonation Operation Hurricane was the test of the first British atomic bomb. ... During the 1950s and early 1960s, Great Britains only nuclear deterrent was through the RAFs V-bombers. ... The Polaris Missile was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carrying a nuclear warhead developed during the Cold War for the United States Navy. ... The Avro Vulcan was a British delta wing subsonic bomber, operated by the Royal Air Force from 1953 until 1984. ... The SEPECAT Jaguar is an Anglo-French ground attack aircraft still in service with several export customers, notably the Indian Air Force and the Royal Air Force of Oman. ... The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine fighters, which was jointly developed by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. ... RAF redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An inert bomb originally used for training, shown here on its trolley in a museum WE.177 was the last British air-launched nuclear bomb. ...


France became the fourth nation to possess nuclear weapons on February 13, 1960, when the atomic bomb Gerboise Bleue was detonated in Algeria[14], then still a French colony. During the Cold War, the French nuclear deterrent was centered around the Force de frappe, a nuclear triad consisting of Dassault Mirage IV bombers carrying such nuclear weapons as the AN-22 gravity bomb and the ASMP stand-off attack missile, Pluton and Hades ballistic missiles, and the Redoutable class submarine armed with strategic nuclear missiles. There were 210 French nuclear tests from 1960 until 1996. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gerboise Bleue (blue jerboa) was the name of the first French nuclear test. ... The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine // a Pluton missile mobile launcher The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i. ... The Dassault Mirage IV is a French jet-propelled supersonic strategic bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. ... The AN-22 was Frances second air-dropped nuclear weapon. ... The Air-Sol Moyenne Portée (abbreviated ASMP) is a French air-launched missile with a nuclear warhead. ... The Pluton missile was a short-range nuclear ballistic system launched from a Transport-Erector-Launcher platform (TEL) mounted on an AMX-30 tank chassis. ... The Hadès system was a short-range ballistic tactical nuclear weapon system designed by France as a last warning before use of strategic nuclear weapons, in the perspective of a Soviet invasion of Western Europe. ... The Redoutable class submarine is a ballistic missile (SSBN) class, Sous-marin Nucléaire Lanceur dEngins (SNLE), of the Marine Nationale , the oceanic part (Force Océanique Stratégique, FOST) of the Force de frappe. ...


The People's Republic of China became the fifth nuclear power on October 16, 1964, when it detonated a uranium-235 bomb in a test codenamed 596[15]. Due to Soviet/Chinese tensions, the Chinese may have used nuclear weapons against either the United States or the Soviet Union in the event of a nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union[citation needed]. During the Cold War, the Chinese nuclear deterrent consisted of gravity bombs carried aboard H-6 bomber aircraft, missile systems such as the DF-2, DF-3, and DF-4[16], and in the later stages of the Cold War, the Type 092 ballistic missile submarine. The Peoples Republic of China is estimated by the U.S. Government to have an arsenal of about 150 nuclear weapons as of 1999. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... 596 is the codename of the Peoples Republic of Chinas first nuclear weapons test. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The Xian H-6 is a license-built[1] copy of the Soviet Tupolev Tu-16 twin-engine jet bomber, built for the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Air Force. ... Dong Feng 4 is a two-stage Chinese medium-range missile with liquid fuel (Nitric acid/UDMH). ... The Chinese Daqingyu (Xia) class is Chinas first reported SSBN, and the first ballistic missile-carrying, nuclear-powered submarine class (SSBN) designed and built in Asia. ...


Détente

Economic problems caused by the arms race in both powers, combined with China's new role and the ability to verify disarmament led to a number of arms control agreements beginning in the 1970s. This period known as détente allowed both states to reduce their spending on weapons systems. SALT I and SALT II and all limited the size of the states arsenals. Bans on nuclear testing, anti-ballistic missile systems, and weapons in space all attempted to limit the expansion of the arms race through the Partial Test Ban Treaty. Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ... nSALT II was a second round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks from 1972-1979 between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. ...


These treaties were only partially successful. Both states continued building massive numbers of nuclear weapons, and new technologies such as multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (also known as MIRVs) limited the effectiveness of the treaties. Both superpowers retained the ability to destroy each other many times over. For the article about the band, see M.I.R.V. The MIRVed U.S. Peacekeeper missile, with the re-entry vehicles highlighted in red. ...


Reagan and Star Wars

Towards the end of Jimmy Carter's presidency, and continued strongly through the subsequent presidency of Ronald Reagan, the United States rejected disarmament and tried to restart the arms race through the production of new weapons and anti-weapons systems. The central part of this strategy was the Strategic Defense Initiative, a space based anti-ballistic missile system derided as "Star Wars" by its critics. During the second part of 1980s, the Soviet economy was teetering towards collapse and was unable to match American arms spending. Numerous negotiations by Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to come to agreements on reducing nuclear stockpiles, but the most radical were rejected by Reagan as they would also prohibit his SDI program. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... This article is about the series. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


Post-Cold War

With the end of the Cold War the United States, and especially Russia, cut down on nuclear weapons spending. Fewer new systems were developed and both arsenals have shrunk. But both countries still maintain stocks of nuclear missiles numbering in the thousands. In the USA, stockpile stewardship programs have taken over the role of maintaining the aging arsenal. A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ...


After the Cold War ended, a large amount of resources and money which was once spent on developing nuclear weapons in USSR was then spent on repairing the environmental damage produced by the nuclear arms race, and almost all former production sites are now major cleanup sites. In the USA, the plutonium production facility at Hanford, Washington and the plutonium pit fabrication facility at Rocky Flats, Colorado are among the most polluted sites. Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... Rocky Flats Plant was a weapons production facility of the Atomic Energy Commission about 15 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado on a windy plateau called Rocky Flats. ...


United States policy and strategy regarding nuclear proliferation was outlined in 1995 in the document "Essentials of Post-Cold War Deterrence". Essentials of Post-Cold War Deterrence is a document produced in 1995 as a Terms of Reference by the Policy Subcommittee of the Strategic Advisory Group (SAG) of the United States Strategic Command (current USSTRATCOM, former CINCSTRAT), a branch of the Department of Defense. ...


Despite efforts made in cleaning up uranium sites, significant problems stemming from the legacy of uranium development still exist today on the Navajo Nation in the states of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. Hundreds of abandoned mines have not been cleaned up and present environmental and health risks in many Navajo communities. In addition to this, Navajo communities now have to face proposed new uranium solution mining that threatens the only source of drinking water for 10,000 to 15,000 people living in the Eastern Navajo Agency in northwestern New Mexico. The Southwest Research and Information Center (SRIC) aims to provide the public with information on resource exploitation on the people and their cultures, lands, water, and air of the American Southwest. Map of the Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation (Diné in Navajo language) encompasses all things important to the Navajo. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ...


India and Pakistan

The South-Asian states of India and Pakistan have also engaged in a nuclear arms race. India detonated what it called a "peaceful nuclear device" in 1974 ("Smiling Buddha") [17] much to the surprise and alarm of the world who had been giving India nuclear technology for civilian, energy producing and peaceful purposes. The test generated great concern in Pakistan, which feared that it would be at the mercy of its long-time arch rival and quickly responded by pursuing its own nuclear weapons program. In the last few decades of the 20th century, Pakistan and India began to develop nuclear-capable rockets, and Pakistan had its own covert bomb program which extended over many years since the first Indian weapon was detonated. In 1998 India, under a new hardline religious government, test detonated 5 more nuclear weapons near its border with Pakistan with many of its politicians openly threatening war. While the international response to the detonation was muted, domestic pressure within Pakistan began to build steam and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif ordered the testing of its own nuclear weapons in a tit-for-tat fashion and to act as a deterrent. India claimed to have tested a hydrogen bomb as well. Their arms race is somewhat analogous to the US/USSR race. In this case India possesses higher resources than Pakistan to devote on research and development of nuclear arms, but Pakistan has managed to keep pace despite having lesser resources. Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Smiling Buddha was the first nuclear test explosion by India on May 18, 1974 at Pokhran. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Israel

Israel is widely believed to possess a substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons and maintains intermediate-range ballistic missiles to deliver them. The Israeli government refuses to officially confirm or deny that it has a nuclear weapon program, and has an unofficial but rigidly enforced policy of deliberate ambiguity, saying only that it would not be the first to "introduce nuclear weapons in the Middle East". Israel is widely believed to be one of the nuclear-armed nation-states not within the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the other three being India, Pakistan and North Korea.In a December 2006 interview, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert said Iran aspires "to have a nuclear weapon as America, France, Israel and Russia." Olmert's office later said that the quote was taken out of context, in other parts of the interview, Olmert refused to confirm or deny Israel's nuclear weapon status. According to The Nuclear Threat Initiative, based on Vanunu's information, Israel has approximately 200 nuclear explosive devices by 1980' and a Jericho missile delivery system . Mordechai Vanunu (מרדכי ואנונו) (born October 13, 1954) is a former Israeli nuclear technician who publicly exposed Israels possession of nuclear weapons. ...


Milestone nuclear explosions

The following list is of milestone nuclear explosions. In addition to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the first nuclear test of a given weapon type for a country is included, and tests which were otherwise notable (such as the largest test ever). All yields (explosive power) are given in their estimated energy equivalents in kilotons of TNT (see megaton). The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ...

Date Name Yield (kT) Country Significance
16 Jul 1945 Trinity 19 Flag of the United States USA First fission device test, first plutonium implosion detonation
6 Aug 1945 Little Boy 15 Flag of the United States USA Bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, first detonation of an enriched uranium gun-type device
9 Aug 1945 Fat Man 21 Flag of the United States USA Bombing of Nagasaki, Japan
29 Aug 1949 RDS-1 22 Flag of the Soviet Union USSR First fission weapon test by the USSR
3 Oct 1952 Hurricane 25 Flag of the United Kingdom UK First fission weapon test by the UK
1 Nov 1952 Ivy Mike 10,400 Flag of the United States USA First "staged" thermonuclear weapon test (not deployable)
12 Aug 1953 Joe 4 400 Flag of the Soviet Union USSR First fusion weapon test by the USSR (not "staged", but deployable)
1 Mar 1954 Castle Bravo 15,000 Flag of the United States USA First deployable "staged" thermonuclear weapon; fallout accident where some people were radiation-poisoned
22 Nov 1955 RDS-37 1,600 Flag of the Soviet Union USSR First "staged" thermonuclear weapon test by the USSR (deployable)
8 Nov 1957 Grapple X 1,800 Flag of the United Kingdom UK First (successful) "staged" thermonuclear weapon test by the UK
13 Feb 1960 Gerboise Bleue 70 Flag of France France First fission weapon test by France
31 Oct 1961 Tsar Bomba 50,000 Flag of the Soviet Union USSR Largest thermonuclear weapon ever tested
16 Oct 1964 596 22 Flag of the People's Republic of China PR China First fission weapon test by the People's Republic of China
17 Jun 1967 Test No. 6 3,300 Flag of the People's Republic of China PR China First "staged" thermonuclear weapon test by the People's Republic of China
24 Aug 1968 Canopus 2,600 Flag of France France First "staged" thermonuclear test by France
18 May 1974 Smiling Buddha 12 Flag of India India First fission nuclear explosive test by India
11 May 1998 Shakti I 43 Flag of India India First potential fusion/boosted weapon test by India
(exact yields disputed, between 25kt and 45kt)
11 May 1998 Shakti II 12 Flag of India India First deployable fission weapon test by India
28 May 1998 Chagai-I 9-12 Flag of Pakistan Pakistan First fission weapon test by Pakistan.
9 Oct 2006 Hwadae-ri <1 Flag of North Korea North Korea First fission device tested by North Korea; resulted as a fizzle

"Deployable" refers to whether the device tested could be hypothetically used in actual combat (in contrast with a proof-of-concept device). "Staging" refers to whether it was a "true" hydrogen bomb of the so-called Teller-Ulam configuration or simply a form of a boosted fission weapon. For a more complete list of nuclear test series, see List of nuclear tests. Some exact yield estimates, such as that of the Tsar Bomba and the tests by India and Pakistan in 1998, are somewhat contested among specialists. // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Little Boy was the codename of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945 by the 12-man crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets (Tibbets, age 92, died Nov. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joe One, the first Soviet atomic test. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The explosion cloud resulting from the Operation Hurricane detonation Operation Hurricane was the test of the first British atomic bomb. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The first (not true) Soviet Hydrogen (Super) Test, dubbed Joe 4 Joe 4 was an American nickname for the first Soviet test of a hydrogen bomb and was on August 12, 1953. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... RDS-37 was a Soviet name for their first nuclear test of a true hydrogen bomb. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Operation Grapple, and operations Grapple X, Grapple Y and Grapple Z, were series of British nuclear testing operations which sought to test a hydrogen bomb. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gerboise Bleue (blue jerboa) was the name of the first French nuclear test. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tsar Bomba (, literally Emperor Bomb) is the Western name for the RDS-220 hydrogen bomb (codenamed Иван (Ivan) by its developers) — the largest, most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... 596 is the codename of the Peoples Republic of Chinas first nuclear weapons test. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... The Peoples Republic of China is estimated to have an arsenal of about 400 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999, although this number is questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding nuclear weapons other than stating that China possesses the smallest nuclear arsenal amongst the five nuclear... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Peoples Republic of China is estimated to have an arsenal of about 400 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999, although this number is questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding nuclear weapons other than stating that China possesses the smallest nuclear arsenal amongst the five nuclear... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... The Peoples Republic of China is estimated to have an arsenal of about 400 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999, although this number is questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding nuclear weapons other than stating that China possesses the smallest nuclear arsenal amongst the five nuclear... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mushroom Cloud from the Canopus explosion rises above Fangataufa Canopus was the code name for Frances first two-stage thermonuclear test, conducted on August 24, 1968 at Fangataufa atoll. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Smiling Buddha was the first nuclear test explosion by India on May 18, 1974 at Pokhran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Chagai-I refers to the nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan in 1998. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted on October 9, 2006 by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The basics of the Teller-Ulam configuration: a fission bomb suspended above fusion fuel. ... Boosted fission weapons are a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction. ... Main article: Nuclear testing The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ... Tsar Bomba (, literally Emperor Bomb) is the Western name for the RDS-220 hydrogen bomb (codenamed Иван (Ivan) by its developers) — the largest, most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated. ...


References

See also

For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , Slovak: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: , Slovak: ) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... THE CUBAN REVOLUTION The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... The Kitchen Debate was an impromptu debate (through interpreters) between Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, on July 24, 1959. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Belligerents MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] Soviet Union UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire United States Commanders Agostinho Neto José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Holden Roberto Casualties and losses Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began in... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
::The Nuclear Arms Race:: (579 words)
The nuclear arms race was central to the Cold War.
However, it is possible that the sheer power of these weapons and the fear that they evoked, may have stopped a nuclear war.
By 1986, it is estimated that throughout the world there were 40,000 nuclear warheads - the equivalent of one million Hiroshima bombs.
Reference for Nuclear arms race - Search.com (2770 words)
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear weapons between the United States and Soviet Union during the Cold War.
During the Cold War, the French nuclear deterrent was centered around the Force de frappe, a nuclear triad consisting of Dassault Mirage IV bombers carrying such nuclear weapons as the AN-22 gravity bomb and the ASMP stand-off attack missile, Pluton and Hades ballistic missiles, and the Redoutable class submarine armed with strategic nuclear missiles.
Their arms race is somewhat analogous to the US/USSR race, except that both the amount of resources which each can devote to weapons and the distances to be traversed are far less.
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