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Encyclopedia > Nuclear Engineering

Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. It includes, but is not limited to, the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components— specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, and/or nuclear weapons. The field may also include the study of nuclear fusion, medical and other applications of (generally ionizing) radiation, nuclear safety, heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel and/or other related (e.g., waste disposal) technology, nuclear proliferation, and the effect of radioactive waste or radioactivity in the environment. The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A nuclear power station. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Typical training

The following is the typical coursework included in most U.S. nuclear engineering degree programs. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

College preparation

As with any engineering discipline, college preparation should include mathematics training through the beginnings of calculus, as well as introductory courses in physics and chemistry. For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ...

Undergraduate coursework

Undergraduate coursework should begin with a foundation in mechanics and dynamics of particle motion, thermodynamics, introductory computer programming, college level physics and chemistry, and a rigorous training in mathematics through differential equations. For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... “Programming” redirects here. ... In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation in which the derivatives of a function appear as variables. ...

Midway through undergraduate training a nuclear engineer must choose a specialization within his or her field that he or she will further study. Further coursework in a nuclear engineering program includes but is not limited to fluid mechanics, reactor physics, quantum mechanics, thermal hydraulics, linear circuits, radiation effects, and neutron transport. Fluid mechanics is the subdiscipline of continuum mechanics that studies fluids, that is, liquids and gases. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Thermal hydraulics is the study of hydraulic flow in thermal systems. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles. ... Beams of free neutrons are obtained by extracting neutrons from neutron sources. ...

Specialization in fission includes the study of nuclear reactors, fission systems, and nuclear power plants, the primary teachings deal with neutronics and thermal-hydraulics for nuclear generated electricity. A firm foundation in thermodynamics and fluid mechanics in addition to hydrodynamics is a must. An induced nuclear fission event. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Beams of free neutrons are obtained by extracting neutrons from neutron sources. ... Thermal hydraulics is the study of hydraulic flow in thermal systems. ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ...

Specialization in nuclear fusion includes electrodynamics and plasmas. This area is very much research oriented and training often terminates with a graduate level degree. Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ...

Specialization in nuclear medicine includes courses dealing with doses and absorption of radiation in bodily tissues. Those who get competency in this area usually move into the medical field. Many nuclear engineers in this specialization go on to become board licensed medical physicists or go to medical school and become a radiation oncologist. Research is also a common choice for graduates. Dose can refer to: Dose (album), an album by the jam band Govt Mule Dose (song), a song by the band Filter Dose (magazine), a free daily Canadian magazine In medicine: Effective dose, the smallest amount of a substance required to produce a measurable effect on a living organism... Medical physics is a branch of applied physics concerning the application of physics to medicine. ... A radiation oncologist is a doctor who specialises in the treatment of cancer patients, using radiation as the main modality of treatment as opposed to a medical oncologist who is a doctor who uses chemotherapy as the preferred modality of treatment. ...

Naval Nuclear Power School

The US Navy runs a program called Naval Nuclear Power School to train both officers and enlisted sailors for nuclear plant operation. While some officers have undergraduate backgrounds in nuclear engineering, any officers who take the requisite math and science classes are also accepted, whereas most of the enlisted students hold no college degrees at all. Despite this, they are prepared, through a rigorous training program (lasting between 65 weeks for Machinist's Mates and eighteen months for Electronics Technicians and Electrician's Mates), to operate the nuclear and steam plants aboard the navy's submarines and aircraft carriers. This training carries Department of Energy certification, and many sailors choose to work at civilian power plants after their six-year obligations are completed. Naval Nuclear Power School is a nuclear engineering school operated by the U.S. Navy to train both enlisted sailors and officers for shipboard nuclear power plant operation and maintenance on surface ships and submarines in todays nuclear navy. ... Militaries are composed of two main types of personnel: enlisted men and women and officers. ... In military service, an enlisted rank is generally any rating below that of a commissioned officer. ... Machinists Mate (or MM) is a rating in the United States Navys engineering community. ... Alternative meaning: Can refer to a civilian industrial occupation, testing or troubleshooting electronic systems. ... Electricians Mate rating insignia Electricians Mate (abbreviated as EM) is a United States Navy occupational rating. ...

Professional areas

Nuclear fission

Nuclear fission is the disintegration of a fissionable atom nucleus into two different elements nucleus. An approximate number of ~2.4 neutrons are scattered around per fission. There are two types of nuclear fission. 1-Fast Fission 2-Thermal fission An induced nuclear fission event. ...

Generally, thermal fission is used in commercial reactors, if we disregard the Fast Breeder Type of Nuclear Reactors.

The United States gets about 20% of its electricity from nuclear power. This is a massive industry and keeping the supply of nuclear engineers plentiful will ensure its stability. Nuclear engineers in this field generally work, directly or indirectly, in the nuclear power industry or for government labs. Current research in industry is directed at producing economical, proliferation resistant reactor designs with passive safety features. Although government labs research the same areas as industry, they also study a myriad of other issues such as: nuclear fuels and nuclear fuel cycles, advanced reactor designs, and nuclear weapon design and maintenance. A principal pipeline for trained personnel for US reactor facilities is the Navy Nuclear Power Program. Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ...

Nuclear fusion and plasma physics

Research areas in nuclear fusion and plasma physics include high-temperature, radiation-resistant materials, and plasma dynamics. Internationally, research is currently directed at building a prototype tokamak called ITER. The research at ITER will primarily focus on instabilities and diverter design refinement. Researchers in the USA are also building an inertial confinement experiment called the National Ignition Facility or NIF. NIF will be used to refine neutron transport calculations for the US stockpile stewardship initiative. The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... ITER is an international tokamak (magnetic confinement fusion) research/engineering project designed to prove the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ...

Nuclear medicine and medical physics

An important field is nuclear medicine. From x-ray machines to MRI to PET,among many others, nuclear medicine provides most of modern medicine's diagnostic capability along with providing many treatment options. Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... Mrs. ... “MRI” redirects here. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ...

Nuclear materials and nuclear Fuels

Nuclear materials research focuses on two main subject areas, nuclear fuels and irradiation-induced modification of materials. Improvement of nuclear fuels is crucial for obtaining increased efficiency from nuclear reactors. Irradiation effects studies have many purposes, from studying structural changes to reactor components to studying nano-modification of metals and semiconductors using ion-beams or particle accelerators. Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... Focused ion beam, also known as FIB, is a scientific instrument that resembles a scanning electron microscope. ... A particle accelerator uses electric fields to propel charged particles to great energies. ...

Radiation measurements and imaging

Nuclear engineers and radiological scientists are interested in the development of more advanced ionizing radiation measurement and detection systems, and using these to improve imaging technologies. This includes detector design, fabrication and analysis, measurements of fundamental atomic and nuclear parameters, and radiation imaging systems, among other things.

Nuclear engineering organizations

The American Nuclear Society is a non-profit, educational organization established by a group of individuals who recognized the need to bring together professional activities within the fields of nuclear science and technology. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...

List of U.S. colleges offering nuclear engineering degrees

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Air Force Institute of Technology Engineering Physics MS,PhD
Kansas State University Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Georgia Institute of Technology Nuclear and Radiological Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Idaho State University [1] BS
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Nuclear Science and Engineering BS,MS,PhD
North Carolina State University Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Ohio State University Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
Oregon State University Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics BS,MS,PhD
Pennsylvania State University Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Pennsylvania State University Distance Learning Program in Nuclear Engineering Meng
Purdue University Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Mechanical, Aerospace & Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of California, Berkeley Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Cincinnati Mechanical, Industrial and Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Florida Nuclear and Radiological Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Idaho [2] MS,PhD
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Maryland, College Park Materials and Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
University of Massachusetts Lowell Chemical Engineering BS
University of Michigan Ann Arbor Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences BS,MS,PhD
University of Missouri–Columbia Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute MS,PhD
University of Missouri–Rolla Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of New Mexico Chemical and Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Tennessee at Knoxville Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of South Carolina Nuclear Engineering ME,MS,PhD
University of Texas at Austin Nuclear and Radiation Engineering MS,PhD
University of Wisconsin-Madison Engineering Physics BS,MS,PhD
United States Naval Academy Nuclear Engineering BS
United States Military Academy Nuclear Engineering BS

The Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) is located at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio in Area B. The Institute includes a School of Systems and Logistics, and a School of Engineering. ... Kansas State University, officially called Kansas State University of Fashion and Design [2] but commonly shortened to K-State, is an institution of higher learning located in Manhattan, Kansas, in the United States. ... The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, is a public, coeducational research university, part of the University System of Georgia, and located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, with satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia, Metz, France and Singapore. ... Idaho State University (ISU) is a public university operated by the U.S. state of Idaho. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... North Carolina State University is a public, coeducational, extensive research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. ... The Ohio State University (OSU) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Ohio. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon in the United States. ... The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related, land-grant university. ... The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related, land-grant university. ... Purdue redirects here. ... Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a nonsectarian, coeducational private research university in Troy, New York, a city lying just outside the state capital of Albany. ... Texas A&M University redirects here. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The University of Cincinnati is a coeducational public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... The University of Florida (Florida, UFL, or UF) is a public land-grant, space-grant, research university located in Gainesville, Florida. ... The University of Idaho is the states prominent institution of higher learning, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public university located in the city of College Park, in Prince Georges County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... The University of Massachusetts Lowell (UMass Lowell) is one of five University of Massachusetts campuses. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor is a public coeducational university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. ... The University of Missouri–Columbia is a public land-grant university and is Missouris largest university and public research institution. ... UMR redirects here. ... The University of New Mexico (UNM) is a public university in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... The University of Tennessee (UT), sometimes called the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UT Knoxville or UTK), is the primary institution of the statewide land-grant University of Tennessee system, Tennessees flagship public university. ... The University of South Carolina, Columbia (USC or Carolina) is a public, co-educational, research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States. ... University of Texas redirects here. ... “University of Wisconsin” redirects here. ... The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ... “USMA” redirects here. ...

List of colleges in Canada offering nuclear engineering degrees

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa Nuclear Engineering B.Eng
McMaster, Hamilton Engineering Nuclear Physics B.Eng.Phys., Dipl.Nuc.Tech, M.Eng, M.A.Sc, Ph.D.
Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering M.Sc, M.A.Sc, M.Eng, PhD

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... McMaster may refer to: McMaster-Carr, a company specializing in convenient delivery of Maintenance, Repair and Operations (MRO) materials and supplies. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - Representatives 5 MPs and 5 MPPs Area [2]  - City 1,138. ... The Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), is the military academy of the Canadian Forces and is a full degree-granting university. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel. ...

List of colleges in India offering nuclear engineering degrees

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Nuclear Engg and Technology M.Tech,PhD

The Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (IIT Kanpur) is one of the Indian Institutes of Technology, set up in the then-industrial city of Kanpur in 1960. ...

List of colleges in Pakistan offering nuclear engineering degrees

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad Department of Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD

See also

Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems comprised of electrons and an atomic nucleus. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... Nuclear material consists of materials used in nuclear systems, such as nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Thermal hydraulics is the study of hydraulic flow in thermal systems. ... Nuclear criticality safety is a field of nuclear engineering dedicated to the prevention of an inadvertent, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ...

External links

  • Wikibooks
Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject:
  • Science and Technology of Nuclear Installation Open-Access Journal
  • Nuclear Engineering International magazine
  • Nuclear Science and Engineering technical journal
  • Electric Generation from Commercial Nuclear Power

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