FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Nuclear Engineer

Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the principles of nuclear physics and the interaction between radiation and matter. This field of engineering includes the design, analysis, development, testing, operation and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components, specifically, nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. The field can also include the study of nuclear fusion, medical applications of radiation, heat transport, nuclear fuels technology, nuclear proliferation, and the effect of radioactive waste or radioactivity in the environment. Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Radiation generally means the transmission of objects or information from a source into a surrounding medium or destination. ... Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. ... Engineering is the application of science to the needs of humanity. ... Sketch of induced nuclear fission, a neutron (n) strikes a uranium nucleus which splits into daughter products, and releases more neutrons to continue the process, and energy in the form of gamma and other radiation In physics, fission is a nuclear process, meaning it occurs in the nucleus of an... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy. ... Nuclear medicine is the branch of medicine that uses unsealed radioactive substances in diagnosis and therapy. ... Heat (abbreviated Q, also called heat change) is the transfer of thermal energy between two bodies which are at different temperatures. ... The nuclear fuel cycle consists of front end steps that lead to the preparation of uranium for use as fuel for reactor operation and back end steps that are necessary to safely manage, prepare, and dispose of the highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel. ... Nuclear proliferation is the spread from nation to nation of nuclear technology, including nuclear power plants but especially nuclear weapons. ... A Russian fissile material storage facility Radioactive waste is waste material containing radioactive chemical elements which does not have a practical purpose. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Environment - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

Contents

Overview

Nuclear engineering is the study of engineering the transfer of useful work using knowledge of the atomic nucleus gleaned from nuclear physics which researches the theories about the forces that bind the nucleus. A nuclear engineer is first trained in basic physics followed by quantum mechanics which then leads into atomic physics and nuclear physics. From here, a nuclear engineer takes courses dealing with radiation protection and detection. The nucleus (atomic nucleus) is the center of an atom. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), Nature) is the science of Nature in the broadest sense. ... Fig. ...


Whereas nuclear fusion specialization echoes nuclear physics, nuclear fission and nuclear medicine are very much with us today. The USA gets about 20% of its electricity from nuclear power, and medicine would be medieval without nuclear medicine. From x-ray machines to MRI to PET among many others, nuclear medicine provides most of modern medicines diagnostic capability along with providing many treatment options. Bertha Röntgens hand, one of the first x-rays The x-ray machine is a machine used to produce x-rays. ... Magnetic Resonance Image Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of creating images of the inside of opaque organs in living organisms as well as detecting the amount of bound water in geological structures. ... Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ...


The nucleus is the center of the atom and can consist of neutrons and protons. The strong nuclear force is what keeps the nucleus bound together, while the weak nuclear force is responsible for certain types of radioactive decay. Just like the electrons in the atomic shell model, the nucleus exibits quanta which also result in a nuclear shell model. That is, there are specific energy levels in the nucleus where certain reactions are likely to occur. Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ... The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule or other body. ... A quantum is the smallest increment into which many physical properties are subdivided. ... In nuclear physics, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus. ...


Radiation is anything which "radiates" away from the atom. We commonly classify the most common types as alpha, beta and gamma radiation, although I have heard of delta radiation before. Alpha radiation consists of alpha particles which are basically just fully ionized helium nuclei. They contain 2 protons and 2 neutrons. Beta radiation consists of beta particles which are either an electron or a positron (the anti-mattter equivelent of an electron). Gamma radiation is a very high energy photon. Where I've heard of delta radiation, it has refered to proton beams (i.e. hydrogen nuclei). An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles or alpha rays are a form of particle radiation which are highly ionizing and have low penetration. ... Beta particles are high-energy electrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei such as potassium-40. ... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ... A positron is the antiparticle of the electron. ...


Few references have been found referring to 'delta radiation' outside of some few Star Trek(tm) episodes. A small number of online web references have been found referring to 'delta particles', but they all seem to ultimately refer to abnormally high-energy beta particles. The Enterprise boldly going where no man had gone before. ... Beta particles are high-energy electrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei such as potassium-40. ...


Neutrons are most important in fission-based nuclear reactions since they are neutral and will not lose their energy except through collisions. The cross-section of the target nucleus is also vitally important. Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ...


Radiation existed long before nuclear engineers. We are surrounded by it owing to the fact that the solar system itself is the remnants of a much earlier star. The fusion reactions inside the star created all the elements in the periodic table (in nuclear engineering we use the Chart Of The Nuclides which takes into account all the isotopes) and most of these were radioactive. It is estimated that life took as long as it took to appear because the Earth had to 'cool off' radioactively. Also, our part of the galaxy is far enough away from the turbulent galactic center to avoid the frequent gamma ray bursts which would destroy life. The Galactic Center is the rotational center of the Milky Way galaxy. ... Optical afterglow of gamma ray burst GRB-990123 (the bright dot within the white square and in the enlarged cutout) on 23 January 1999. ...


Specialties

Fission

If one is to specialize in fission, one must study nuclear reactors, fission systems, and nuclear power plants, the primary teschings deal with neutronics and thermal-hydraulics for nuclear generated electricity. A firm foundation in thermodynamics and fluid mechanics in addition to hydrodynamics is a must. Nuclear engineers in this field generally work, directly or indirectly, in the nuclear power industry or for government labs. Current research in industry is directed at producing economical, proliferation resistent reactor designs with passive safety features. Although government labs research the same areas as industry, they also study a mirid of other issues such as: nuclear fuels and cycles, advanced reactor designs, and nuclear weapon design and maintainence. Sketch of induced nuclear fission, a neutron (n) strikes a uranium nucleus which splits into daughter products, and releases more neutrons to continue the process, and energy in the form of gamma and other radiation In physics, fission is a nuclear process, meaning it occurs in the nucleus of an... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... A nuclear power plant (NPP) is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. ... Beams of free neutrons are obtained by extracting neutrons from neutron sources. ... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... Fluid mechanics is the study of the macroscopic physical behaviour of fluids. ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ... Nuclear weapon designs are often divided into two classes, based on the dominant source of the nuclear weapons energy. ...


Fusion

If one wants to specialize in nuclear fusion research, one would take several courses on electrodynamics and plasmas. This area is very much research oriented. Research areas include high-temperature, radiation-resistent materials, and plasma dynamics. Internationally, research is currently directed at building a prototype tokamak called ITER. The research at ITER will primarily focus on instabilities and diverter design refinement. Researchers in the USA are also building an inertial confinement experiment called the National Ignition Facility or NIF. NIF will be used to refine neutron transport calculations for the US stockpile stewardship innitative. In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... The word plasma has a Greek root which means to be formed or molded (the word plastic shares this root). ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... ITER is a proposed international experiment designed to show the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion power reactor. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... A Peacekeeper missile warhead is subjected to a wall of fire to determine how its aging components would react if used today. ...


Nuclear medicine

If one wants to specialize in nuclear medicine, one would take courses dealing with doses and absorption of radiation in bodily tissues. Those who get competency in this area usually move into the medical field. Nuclear medicine is the branch of medicine that uses unsealed radioactive substances in diagnosis and therapy. ... 1. ...


See also

Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... Atomic physics (or atom physics) is physics of the electron hull of atoms. ...

External links

  • Wikibooks  (http://wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikibooks_portal)
  • Nuclear Engineering (http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikiversity:Nuclear_Engineering)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Engineering - Electronics, nuclear, software telecommunication, industrial engineering (1471 words)
More specifically, engineering is a technological activity that uses professional imagination, judgement, integrity, and intellectual discipline in the application of science, technology, mathematics, and practical experience to design, produce, and operate useful objects or processes that meet the needs and desires of humanity.
Engineers as professionals take seriously their responsibility to produce designs that will perform as expected and will not cause unintended harm to the public at large.
Historically, engineering has been seen as a somewhat dry, uninteresting field in popular culture, and has also been thought to be the domain of nerds (with little of the romance that attaches to hacker culture).
Nuclear Engineering - The Unofficial Guide to Engineering (876 words)
Nuclear engineering is concerned with the science of nuclear processes and their application to the development of various technologies.
Nuclear processes are fundamental in the medical diagnosis and treatment fields, and in basic and applied research concerning accelerator, laser and superconducting magnetic systems.
The new Bionuclear Engineering Program within the Nuclear Engineering Department is designed to provide a solid foundation in aspects of nuclear physics and interaction of radiation with matter that are required for advanced study and applications in the general areas of radiology, nuclear medicine technology, and bionuclear engineering.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m