FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > NtRTI

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection. RTIs inhibit activity of reverse transcriptase, a viral enzyme that HIV needs to reproduce. Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act at different stages of the HIV life cycle. ... Human immunodeficiency virus (commonly known as HIV, and formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus) is a retrovirus that is the cause of the disease known as AIDS, or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, a syndrome where the immune system begins to fail, leading to many life-threatening opportunistic infections. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM. TIM is catalytically perfect, meaning its conversion rate is limited, or nearly limited to its substrate diffusion rate. ...

When a retrovirus infects a cell, reverse transcriptase transcribes the viral RNA onto the host cell's DNA. The host's own processes then reproduce the virus. RTIs block reverse transcriptase from transcribing retroviral genetic information onto a host cell's DNA, thus preventing HIV from multiplying. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of covalently bound nucleotides. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid —usually in the form of a double helix— that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and most viruses. ...

RTIs come in three forms:

Nucleosides are glycosylamines made by attaching a nucleobase (often reffered to simply as bases) to a ribose ring. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTIs or NRTIs) compose the first class of antiretroviral drugs developed.

Zidovudine, also called AZT, ZDV, and azidothymidine, has the trade name Retrovir®.
Didanosine, also called ddI, with the trade names Videx® and Videx EC®, was the second FDA-approved antiretroviral drug.
Zalcitabine, also called ddC and dideoxycytidine, has the trade name Hivid®.
Stavudine, also called d4T, has trade names Zerit® and Zerit XR®.
Lamivudine, also called 3TC, has the trade name Epivir®.
Abacavir, also called ABC, has the trade name Ziagen®, is an analog of guanosine.
Emtricitabine, also called FTC, has the trade name Emtriva® (formerly Coviracil).

Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (AZT) (also called ZDV) is an antiretroviral drug, the first one approved for treatment of HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir® and Retrovis®, and as an ingredient in Combivir® and Trizivir®. It is an analog of thymidine. ... Didanosine (2-3-dideoxyinosine, ddI) is sold under the trade names Videx® and Videx EC®. It is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, effective against HIV and usually used in combination with other antiviral drug therapy as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). ... Zalcitabine (2-3-dideoxycytidine, ddC), is a derivative of the naturally existing deoxycytidine, made by replacing the hydroxyl group in position 3 with a hydrogen. ... Stavudine (2-3-didehydro-2-3-dideoxythymidine, d4T, brand name Zerit®) is a thymidine analogue active against HIV. It is phosphorylated by cellular kinases into active triphosphate. ... Lamivudine (2,3-dideoxy-3-thiacytidine, 3TC) is a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor. ... Abacavir (ABC) is extremely potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor, meant for the treatment of AIDS. ABC is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. ... Emtricitabine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) for the treatment of HIV infection in adults. ...

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) compose the third class of antiretroviral drugs that were developed. In all cases, patents remain in force until beyond 2010.

Nevirapine has the trade name Viramune®.
Delavirdine has the trade name: Rescriptor®. It was approved by the FDA April 4, 1997 and is thus the eleventh approved antiretroviral. It is now rarely used, as it has no advantages and several disadvantages compared with Nevirapine or Efavirenz.
Efavirenz has trade names Sustiva® and Stocrin®.

This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Normally, nucleoside analogs are converted into nucleotide analogs by the body. Taking Nucleotide Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NtARTIs or NtRTIs) directly allows conversion steps to be skipped, causing less toxicity.

Tenofovir, also known as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, has the trade name Viread®.
Adefovir, also known as bis-POM PMPA, has trade names Preveon® and Hepsera®. It is not approved by the FDA for treatment of HIV.



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m