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Encyclopedia > Novgorod Republic
History of Russia
Early East Slavs
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
Novgorod Republic
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Russian Empire
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1917
Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation
Medieval walls of Novgorod City
Medieval walls of Novgorod City

The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodal'naya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel. ... Map of the the extent of Kievan Rus through the 11th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество) was one of major principalities within the Kievan Rus and after its collapse. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... The Golden Horde was a Mongol state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ... Image File history File links Medieval towers of Novgorod kremlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Medieval towers of Novgorod kremlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Уральские горы = Урал) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Novgorod’s tendencies towards isolation from Kiev manifested themselves as early as the beginning of the 11th century. The Novgorod boyars were the exponents of these tendencies with the support from the urban population, which had had to pay tribute to Kiev and supply it with soldiers for its military campaigns. In the early 12th century, Novgorod began inviting different knyazs to rule the city without prior consultations with the grand prince of Kiev. In 1136, the boyars and leading merchants gained political independence. Cities like Staraya Russa, Ladoga, Torzhok and Oreshek, which had been home to influential posads, enjoyed political independence and were considered the suburbs (vassals) of Novgorod the Great. The city of Pskov was a part of the Novgorod Feudal Republic (NFR) in the 12th–13th century, but it began to isolate itself in the mid-13th century. Pskov’s de jure independence was acknowledged by the Treaty of Bolotovo in 1348 (see Pskov Feudal Republic). In the 12th–15th century, the NFR was expanding towards east and northeast. The Novgorodians were exploring the areas around Lake Onega, along the Northern Dvina, and coastlines of the White Sea. In the beginning of 14th century the Novgorodians crossed Arctic Ocean, Barents sea and Kara sea, explored the West-Siberian river Ob. Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Map of the the extent of Kievan Rus through the 11th century. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... A boyar (also spelt bojar; Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Ruthenian (Russian) and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... An urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages. ... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Staraya Russa (Russian: ) is an old Russian town located 99 km south of Veliky Novgorod. ... Ladoga may refer to one of the following. ... General view of the town in the 1910s. ... Orechovets is an island with the fortress Oreshek (Nöteborg in Swedish, given the name Schlisselburg/Schlüsselburg after its re-conquest by Peter the Great in 1702). ... A posad (посад) was a settlement, often rounded by bulwarks and a moat, by a town or a kremlin, but outside the town/kremlin, or by a monastery in the 10th to 15th centuries. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The terms de jure and de facto are used instead of in principle and in practice, respectively, when one is describing political situations. ... Events April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Pskov Feudal Republic (Псковская феодальная республика in Russian) was a Russian medieval state between the second half of the 13th century and early 16th century. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... Northeast is the ordinal direction halfway between north and east. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... The Northern Dvina (Се́верная Двина́) is a river in Northern Russia flowing through the Vologda Oblast and Arkhangelsk Oblast into the Dvina Bay of the White Sea. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ...


The Ugric tribes, which inhabited the Northern Urals, had to pay tribute to Novgorod the Great. The lands to the north of the city, rich with furs, sea fauna, salt etc., were of great economic importance to the NFR. The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ...

Contents


Internal organization

The veche (popular assembly) was the highest authority in the NFR, which could comprise urban population, as well as free rural population. This governmental body had the power to elect posadniks, tys'atskys ("thousand's", military commanders), and even archbishops (starting from 1156) from among the boyars. Archbishop was the head of the executive branch of the government and the richest feudal lord of Novgorod, who possessed most of the lands and sources of income, transferred to him from the Kievan prince. The archbishop was in charge of the republican treasury and foreign relations and even had the right to prosecute. Regular tradespeople and craftsmen also participated in the political affairs of Novgorod the Great. They had their own "unions" and were divided into konchans (кончане, or those living at the edge of the city), ulichans (уличанe, or those living on the city streets), and sotnyas (сотни, or hundreds) (see also Ivan’s Hundred, the first Russian guild). Starting from the 12th century, the heads of these unions began to exercise their right to ratify the most important republican documents. A ruler of Novgorod was invited by the veche from other principalities, which would then sign a contract with him, called ryad (ряд). This contract protected the interests of the Novgorodian boyars. The duties of the ruler of the NFR were limited. First and foremost, he was a military leader. He couldn’t exercise the right to prosecute. The city life was governed by electable posadnik, who was the mediator between the public and the Novgorodian prince (kniaz'). The latter's residence was moved from the city kremlin (called Детинец, or Detinets) to the outskirts of Novgorod (Городище, or Gorodische). Starting with Alexander Nevsky, the rulers of Novgorod had been chosen from among the princes of Vladimir since the mid-13th century. Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... A government is a body that has the authority to make and the power to enforce laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group. ... Posadnik (Посадник in Russian) was a deputy of Kniaz in some East Slavic places assigned to rule a city or a land. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ... The term is used to describe the interaction taking place among governments, when striving to establish mutual contacts, another word for diplomacy. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ... Ivan’s Hundred (Russian: Иванское сто) was the first Russian guild, which existed in the 12th-15th centuries in Novgorod. ... A guild is an association of people of the same trade or pursuits (with a similar skill or craft), formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ... Ratification is the process of adopting an international treaty, or a constitution or other nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple subnational entities. ... A contract is a promise or an agreement that is enforced or recognized by the law. ... Posadnik (Посадник in Russian) was a deputy of Kniaz in some East Slavic places assigned to rule a city or a land. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz (князь in Russian and Ukrainian; knez in Serbian; cneaz in Romanian fem. ... Kremlin (Кремль) is the Russian word for citadel or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities. ... Statue in Pereslavl, just in front of the cathedral Alexander was baptised in. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude 56°09´N 40°25´E Vladimir (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Vladimir Oblast. ...

Frescoes from a church built by Novgorodians in Ladoga (1167).
Frescoes from a church built by Novgorodians in Ladoga (1167).

St. ... St. ... Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas. ... Ladoga may refer to one of the following. ...

Economy

The economy of the NFR was mainly based on farming and cattle breeding. Hunting, beekeeping, and fishing were also widely spread. In most of the regions of the republic, these different "industries" were combined with farming. Iron was mined on the coast of the Gulf of Finland. Staraya Russa and other localities of the NFR were known for their saltworks. Flax and hop cultivation were also of significant importance. Countryside products, such as furs, beeswax, honey, fish, lard, flax, and hop, were sold on the market and exported to other Russian cities or abroad. The Novgorodian merchants traded with Swedish, German, and Danish cities. However the Hanseatic League did not allow to the Novgorod merchants to carry out sea trade independently and to deliver cargoes in the West-European ports by own ships. Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... A hunter on horseback shoots at deer or elk with a bow. ... It has been suggested that Honey flow be merged into this article or section. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ... Species Humulus lupulusL. Humulus japonicusSiebold& Zucc. ... Beeswax is a product from a bee hive. ... A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones. ... The Guppy, also known as guppie (Poecilia reticulata) is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world. ... A slice of bread spread with lard was a typical staple in traditional rural cuisine of many countries. ...


More than a half of all Novgorodian privately owned lands had been concentrated in the hands of some 30–40 noble boyar families by the 14th–15th century. These vast estates served as material resources, which secured political supremacy of the boyars. The House of St. Sophia of Novgorod (Дом святой Софии) — the main ecclesiastic establishment of Novgorod — was their chief rival in terms of landownership. Its votchinas were located in the most economically developed regions of the NFR. Yuriev Monastery, Arkazhsky Monastery, Antoniev Monastery and some other privileged monasteries are known to have been big landowners. There were also the so-called zhityi lyudi (житьи люди), who owned less land than the boyars, and unprivileged small votchina owners called svoyezemtsy (своеземцы, or private landowners). The most common form of labor exploitation — the system of metayage — was typical for the afore-mentioned categories of landowners. Their household economies were mostly serviced by the kholops, whose number had been constantly decreasing. Along with the metayage, monetary payments also gained significant importance by the 2nd half of the 15th century. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ... The Cathedral of St Sophia in Novgorod is the oldest preserved church in Russia. ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, or land which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called the tenant. ... Votchina (Russian: ) or otchina (о́тчина) was a land estate that could be inherited. ... The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ... Metayage System, the cultivation of land for a proprietor by one who receives a proportion of the produce. ... The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... Kholops (Холопы in Russian) were feudally dependant people in Russia between the 10th and early 18th centuries. ...

13th-century Novgorod as represented in Sergei Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky (1938).
13th-century Novgorod as represented in Sergei Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky (1938).

The feudal lords tried to legally tie down the peasants to their land. Certain categories of feudally dependent peasants, such as davniye lyudi (давние люди), polovniki (половники), poruchniki (поручники), dolzhniki (должники), were deprived of the right to leave their masters. The boyars and monasteries also tried to restrict other categories of peasants from switching their feudal lords. Such state of affairs in the NFR was often accompanied by relentless "class" struggle. There have been around 80 major citizen uprisings in the republic, which often turned into armed rebellions. Most notable among these took place in 1136, 1207, 122829, 1270, 1418, and 144647 and involved peasantry, as well. Escapes, refusal to pay dues, separate local revolts and other forms of anti-feudal protest were a frequent phenomenon in the NFR in the 12th–15th century. Novgorod is considered to be the birthplace of the first heresies in Russia. Image File history File links Nevsky. ... Image File history File links Nevsky. ... Sergei Eisenstein in 1920s Sergei Eisenstein Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, Latvian: Sergejs EizenÅ¡teins) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet theatrical scenic designer-turned-film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober, which vastly influenced early documentary... Alexander Nevsky is a film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and Dmitry Vasiliev released in 1938, during the Stalin era, with Nikolai Cherkasov in the title role. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: the 16th century was a good time for European peasants A peasant, from 15th... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Events Stephen Langton consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury June 17 by Pope Innocent III Births September 8 - King Sancho II of Portugal October 1 - King Henry III of England (d. ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... Events February 18 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ...


Foreign relations

The NFR struggled against the aggression of the Swedish and then German feudalism. During the Swedish-Novgorodian Wars, the Swedes had been invading the Finnish lands where some of the population had on previous occasions paid tribute to Novgorod. The Germans had been trying to conquer the Baltic region since the late 12th century. Novgorod had to go to war 26 times with Sweden and 11 times with the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. Taking advantage of the Mongol invasion, the German knights along with the Danish and Swedish feudal lords increased their military activity in 1240-1242, transferring their operations to the Novgorod territories. Their campaigns, however, failed after the Battle of the Neva (1240) and Battle on the Ice (1242). On August 12, 1323, the Treaty of Nöteborg, a treaty between Sweden and Novgorod regulating their border, was signed. This was the first time the border between what was to become Russia and Sweden-Finland was regulated. To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... The Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden waged a number of wars for control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital for the lucrative Hanseatic trade. ... The Baltic Sea The Baltic region (sometimes briefly The Baltics) is an ambiguous term used to denominate an arbitrary region connected to the Baltic Sea (also called The Baltics). ... Livonian Brothers The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order organized in 1202 by Albert of Buxhoeveden, bishop of Riga (or... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... The Battle of the Neva (Невская битва in Russian, or Nevskaya bitva), a Swedish armies on the Neva River on July 15, 1240. ... The Battle of the Ice also known as the Battle on Lake Peipus (Russian: Ледовое побоище, German: Schlacht auf dem Peipussee, Estonian: Jäälahing), took place in 1242. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Pharos of Alexandira Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world) is destroyed by a series of earthquakes... The Treaty of Nöteborg, also known as Treaty of Orekhovo signed at Orechovets (Pähkinäsaari) on August 12, 1323, was a treaty between Sweden and Novgorod regulating their border. ... The traditional lands of Sweden. ...


The army of Novgorod successfully repelled their subsequent attacks, as well. The NFR managed to escape the horrors of the Mongol invasion, but though it declared its independence from the Golden Horde, the Republic began to pay tribute to its khans. In the 14th century, the raids of Novgorod's pirates (or ushkuiniki), who sowed fear as far as Kazan and Astrakhan, would contribute to the economic stagnation and downfall of the Horde. The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... The Golden Horde was a Mongol state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han) is a title with many meanings, originally commander, leader or ruler, in Mongolian and Turkish. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The ushkuiniks (Russian: ушкуйники) were medieval Novgorodian pirates who led the Viking-like life of fighting, killing, and robbery. ... Kazan (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan, Казан) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russias largest cities. ... Astrakhan coat of arms features the Khans crown and a sabre Astrakhan (Russian: ; Tatar: Ästerxan), a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. ...


The Fall of the Republic

Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478.
Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478.

Tver, Moscow, and Lithuania had been trying to subjugate the NFR since the 14th century. Upon becoming the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Mikhail Yaroslavich (prince of Tver) sent his deputies (наместники) to Novgorod without prior consultations with its citizens. This incident pushed Novgorod towards developing closer ties with Moscow. Ivan Kalita, Simeon Gordiy and other grand princes of Moscow tried to limit NFR’s independence, as well. In 1397, a critical conflict took place between Muscovy and the NFR, when Moscow annexed the lands surrounding the Northern Dvina. In 1398, however, this territory was returned to Novgorod. Resisting the Muscovite oppression, the government of Novgorod sought alliance with Lithuania and became an obstacle in Moscow’s campaign for elimination of feudal division in Rus. Refusing to give up their political privileges, some of the Novgorodian boyars wanted the Republic to become a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, then newly formed from the union of the old Lithuanian state with Poland. The proponent of this move was a group of boyars called the Lithuanian party. At the initiative of this party, the city officials invited prince Mikhail Olelkovich and asked him to become their ruler. The government of Novgorod signed an alliance with Casimir IV of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania. The prospects of changing allegiance in favor of the united Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania caused major commotion among the regular people of the republic. Muscovite authorities took advantage of this and, repudiating the Treaty of Yazhelbitsy, went to war with the NFR. The army of Moscow won a victory in the Battle of Shelon in 1471, which would predetermine the subsequent elimination of Novgorod’s political isolation. In 1478, Ivan III sent his army to siege Novgorod and finally annexed the whole NFR in favor of the centralized Russian state. The NFR ceased to exist. Download high resolution version (400x726, 41 KB)Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... Download high resolution version (400x726, 41 KB)Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Mikhail Yaroslavich before the Mongol khan, by Vasili Vereshchagin. ... Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Ivan the Moneybag) (Ива́н I Дани́лович Калита́ in Russian)(1288 - March 31, 1340), Prince of Moscow (since 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1328), son of Daniil Aleksandrovich (Prince of Moscow). ... Simeon Ivanovich Gordyi (the Proud) (Семён Иванович Гордый in Russian;) (1316 - 1353), Grand Prince of Moscow and Vladimir, oldest son of Ivan Kalita. ... Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of early Ruthenian (Eastern... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents WÅ‚adyslaw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o Zofia HolszaÅ„ska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka (1438-1505) Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagielloÅ„czyk Jadwiga Jagiellonka... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... The Treaty of Yazhelbitsy (Russian: Яжелбицкий мирный договор) was a peace treaty signed by Vasili II, Grand Prince of Moscow and Vladimir, and the people of Novgorod in a village of Yazhelbitsy in 1456. ... The Battle of Shelon (Шелонская битва in Russian) was a decisive battle between the Muscovite forces and the army of the Novgorod Republic, which took place on the Shelon River in July of 1471. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 – October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of the Russian...


See also

Pskov Feudal Republic (Псковская феодальная республика in Russian) was a Russian medieval state between the second half of the 13th century and early 16th century. ...

External links

  • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0860066.html
  • http://www.novgorod.intergrad.ru/index2.html (in Russian)
  • http://www.eccentrix.com/members/figge33/inkeri/viking.htm
  • http://arc.novgorod.ru/

  Results from FactBites:
 
Travel to Novgorod Travel to Novgorod (552 words)
Novgorod is an ancient Russian city with remarkable architecture, which is situated at the distance of 180 km from St Petersburg.
Novgorod republic was formed in 1136 and lived till 1478, when it became a part of Moscow state.
Novgorod - is one of the oldest cities in Russia.
Brief history of Novgorod in dates - WayToRussia.Net Guide to Novgorod, Russia (845 words)
Novgorod was considered to be the second main city after Kiev in Russia in the mid centuries.
Novgorod is situated in the north of Russia and was separated from the rest of country by the swamps, so tartars weren't able to reach the city.
Novgorod army was defeated and Novgorod was joined to the State of Moscow.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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