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Encyclopedia > Novgorod

Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: Вели́кий Но́вгород) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg. "Novgorod" is the Russian word for "new city", whereas "Velikiy" means "the Great". The administrative centre of Novgorod Oblast, the city lies along the Volkhov River just below its outflow from Lake Ilmen. Its population is estimated at 290,000 (216,856 as of 2002 census), geographical location is 58°32′N 31°16′E Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: (help· info)) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Novgorod Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Volkhov River, also called Olhava river (Russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ... Lake Ilmen (Russian: Озеро Ильмень, Finnish: Ilmajärvi), a lake in Novgorod Oblast of Russia. ...

Contents


History

Main article: Novgorod Republic

Novgorod is the most ancient Slavic city recorded in Russia. The chronicle first mentions it in 859, when it was already a major station on the trade route from the Baltics to Byzantium. The Varangian name of the city Holmgard (also Holmgarðr, Hólmgarður, Holmgaard, Holmegård) is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, but historical facts cannot here be disentangled from legend. Originally, Holmgard referred only to the stronghold southeast of the present-day city, Riurikovo Gorodishche (named in comparatively modern time after Rurik, who supposedly made it his "capital"). Archeological data suggests that the Gorodische, the residence of the Knyaz (Prince), dates from the middle of 9th century, whereas the town itself dates only from the end of the 9th century, hence the name Novgorod, "new city". By the mid-10th century, however, Novgorod had become a fully developed medieval city. Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика in Russian, or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Events Battle of Abelda: Asturias beats the Muslims. ... The Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» in Russian) was a trade route, which connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus and the Byzantine Empire. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: sögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... Rurik or Riurik (Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Rurikovo Gorodische) in Novgorod. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...

Bronze monument to the Millennium of Russia (1862)
Bronze monument to the Millennium of Russia (1862)

In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, captured Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus. In that state Novgorod was the second city in importance. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan prince was sent to rule Novgorod even as a minor. In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki (e.g., the East Slavic lands). Four Viking kings - Olav I of Norway, Olav II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, and Harald Haardraade - sought refuge in Novgorod from enemies at home. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 1662 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Novgorod ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 1662 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Novgorod ... Events Carloman, King of the West Franks becomes sole king upon the death of his brother. ... Prince Oleg (Old Norse name Helgi, Khazarian form: Helgu) was a Varangian ruler who moved the capital of Rus from Novgorod the Great to Kiev. ... A monument to St. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: sögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... Gardariki (compare Icl. ... The name Viking is a loanword from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... Olav Tryggvason (969 - September 9, 1000) was a great-grandson of Harald Hairfair He began his meteoric career in exile as his ancestors fled from the executions of the royal family by Eric Bloodaxe. ... Olav II Haraldsson ( 995 – 1030), king from 1015–1028, called during his lifetime the Fat and afterwards known as Saint Olaf, was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. ... Magnus I (1024 - October 25, 1047) was a King of Norway (1035 - 1047) and king of Denmark (1042 - 1047). ... Harald III (1015–September 25, 1066) was the king of Norway from 1046 together with the son of Olaf Haraldsson (St. ...


Of all their princes, Novgorodians cherished most the memory of Yaroslav the Wise, who promulgated first written code of laws (later incorporated into Russkaya Pravda) and sponsored the construction of the great St Sophia Cathedral, standing to this day. As a sign of gratitude for helping him to defeat his elder brother and obtain the Kievan throne, Yaroslav conferred numerous privileges on the city. On the other hand, Novgorodians named their central square after Yaroslav. Yaroslav I the Wise (978?-1054) (Christian name: Yury, or George) was thrice prince of Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. ... Copy of Short edition Russkaya Pravda or Ruska Pravda (Russian: ), Ukrainian: ) was the legal code of later Kievan Rus and the subsequent East Slavic principalities during the times of feudal division. ...

12-century Novgorod icon called Angel with Golden Locks.
12-century Novgorod icon called Angel with Golden Locks.

In 1136, Novgorod merchants and boyars seceded from Kiev, banished their prince and proclaimed the Novgorod Republic. The powerful city state controlled most of Europe's North-East, from today's Estonia to the Ural Mountains. The most important figure in Novgorod was the Posadnik, an official elected by the popular assembly (called Veche) from the city's aristocracy. The Novgorod court was formally presided over by the Prince (also elected by the Veche), but his verdicts had to be confirmed by the Posadnik to become binding. In the 13th century, the city joined Hanseatic League. Image File history File links 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod, called Golden-Locked Angel, currently exhibited in the State Russian Museum. ... Image File history File links 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod, called Golden-Locked Angel, currently exhibited in the State Russian Museum. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar; Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... A monument to St. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика in Russian, or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, and usually having sovereignty. ... Posadnik (Посадник in Russian) was a deputy of Kniaz in some East Slavic places assigned to rule a city or a land. ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... -1... Carta marina of Baltic Sea (1539) The Hanseatic League (German: die Hanse, Dutch: de Hanze, Polish: Hanza) consisted of an alliance of trading cities that established and maintained a trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea and most of Northern Europe for a time in the later Middle Ages and the...


Throughout the Middle Ages, the city throve culturally. Most of the population was literate and used birch bark letters for communication. When Paris and London were drowning in mud, Novgorod was praised by foreigners for its paved embankments and clean streets. Some of the most ancient Russian chronicles were written in the city. The Novgorod merchant Sadko became a popular hero of Russian folklore. A Birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. ... The Eiffel Tower, the tallest structure in Paris is an international symbol of Paris Paris is the capital and largest city of France and the capital of the ÃŽle-de-France région which encompasses Paris and its suburbs. ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation) and Defining London (below). ... Sadko in the Underwater Kingdom, a painting by Ilya Repin (1876) Sadko (Садко in Russian) is an opera by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. ... Folklore is the body of verbal expressive culture, including tales, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs current among a particular population, comprising the oral tradition of that culture, subculture, or group. ...


The city's downfall was a result of its inability to feed its large population, making it dependent on the Vladimir-Suzdal region for grain. The main cities in this area, Moscow and Tver, used this dependence to gain control over Novgorod. Eventually Ivan III annexed the city to Muscovy in 1478. Novgorod remained the third largest Russian city, however, until Ivan the Terrible sacked the city and slaughtered thousands of its inhabitants in 1570. Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество) was one of major principalities within the Kievan Rus and after its collapse. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: (help· info)) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 – October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of the Russian... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ...


In 1727, Novgorod was made a capital of the Novgorod government. On August 15, 1941 it was occupied by the Nazi army. Its historic monuments were systematically annihilated. When the Red Army liberated the city on January 19, 1944, out of 2536 stone buildings less than 40 were still standing. After the WWII, the downtown has been gradually restored. Its chief monuments are declared the World Heritage Site. In 1998, the city was officially renamed Velikiy Novgorod, thus partly reverting to its medieval title "Lord Novgorod the Great". Events June 11 - George, Prince of Wales becomes King George II of Great Britain. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Combatants Allies: • Poland, • UK & Commonwealth, • France, • Soviet Union, • USA, • China, ...and others Axis: • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, ...and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total: 50 million Full list Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total: 12 million Full list World War II, also, The... Site #86: Memphis and its Necropolis, including the Pyramids of Giza (Egypt). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


Sights

Cathedral of St. Sophia (1045) was regarded by medieval Novgorodians as symbolic of their independence.
Cathedral of St. Sophia (1045) was regarded by medieval Novgorodians as symbolic of their independence.

No other Russian or Ukrainian city may compete with Novgorod in the variety and age of its medieval monuments. The foremost among these is the St Sophia Cathedral, built in the 1040s at the behest of Yaroslav the Wise. It is the best preserved of 11th century churches, and the first one to represent original features of Russian architecture (austere stone walls, five helmet-like cupolas). Its frescoes were painted in the 12th century and renovated in the 1860s. The cathedral features famous bronze gates, made in Magdeburg in 1156 and reportedly snatched by Novgorodians from the Swedish capital Sigtuna in 1187. Image File history File links View of the Novgorod Kremlin on New Year Eve. ... Image File history File links View of the Novgorod Kremlin on New Year Eve. ... The Cathedral of St Sophia in Novgorod is the oldest preserved church in Russia. ... The Cathedral of St Sophia in Novgorod is the oldest preserved church in Russia. ... Yaroslav I the Wise (978?-1054) (Christian name: Yury, or George) was thrice prince of Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. ... View of Magdeburg with the cathedral, from the tower of the Johanniskirche Magdeburgs center has numerous Stalinist neo-classicist buildings Interior of the Cathedral of Magdeburg, looking towards the Grave of Otto I. The cathedrals twin spires, seen from the courtyard Unser Lieben Frauen Monastery Magdeburg, the capital... Events Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi in Finland. ... Sigtuna is a city in central Sweden in the metropolitan area of Stockholm. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ...


Novgorod kremlin, traditionally known as Detinets, also contains the oldest palace in Russia (the so-called Chamber of the Facets, 1433), the oldest Russian bell tower (mid-15th cent.), and the oldest Russian clock tower (1673). Among later structures, the most remarkable are a royal palace (1771) and a bronze monument to the Millennium of Russia, representing the most important figures from the country's history (unveiled in 1862). Kremlin (Кремль) is the Russian word for citadel or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 1662 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Novgorod ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Outside kremlin walls, there are three cathedrals constructed during the reign of Mstislav the Great, the last monarch of united Rus. St Nicholas Cathedral (1113-23), containing frescoes of Mstislav's family, graces Yaroslav's Court (formerly the chief square of Novgorod Republic). The Yuriev Monastery (probably the oldest in Russia, 1030) contains a gloomy Romanesque cathedral from 1119. A similar three-domed cathedral (1117), probably designed by the same masters, stands in the Antoniev Monastery. Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great (Мстислав Владимирович Великий in Russian) (June 1, 1076 — April 14, 1132), Grand Prince of Kiev (1125-1132), the eldest son of Vladimir Monomakh by Gytha of Wessex. ... Events February 2 - Callixtus II becomes Pope August 20 - Henry I of England routes Louis VI at the Battle of Bremule. ...


There are numerous ancient churches scattered throughout the city. Some of them were blown up by the Nazis and subsequently restored. The most ancient pattern is represented by those dedicated to Sts Peter and Pavel (on the Swallow's Hill, 1185-92), to Annunciation (in Myachino, 1179), to Assumption (on Volotovo Field, 1180s) and to St Paraskeva (at Yaroslav's Court, 1207). The greatest masterpiece of early Novgorod architecture is the Saviour church at Nereditsa (1198).

Nereditsa church formerly contained the finest 12th-century frescoes in Russia. The frescoes perished when the church was blown up by the Nazis in 1944.
Nereditsa church formerly contained the finest 12th-century frescoes in Russia. The frescoes perished when the church was blown up by the Nazis in 1944.

In the 13th century, there was a vogue for tiny churches of three-paddled design. These are represented by a small chapel in Peryn (1230s) and St Nicholas' on the Lipnya Islet (1292, also notable for its 14th-century frescoes). The next century saw development of two original church designs, one of them culminating in St Theodor's church (1360-61, fine frescoes from 1380s), and another one leading to the Saviour church on Ilyina street (1374, painted in 1378 by Feofan Grek). The Saviour' church in Kovalevo (1345) admittedly reflects Serban influence. Image File history File links Photo of the Saviour church at Nereditsa near Novgorod (1198), as taken in the 1960s. ... Image File history File links Photo of the Saviour church at Nereditsa near Novgorod (1198), as taken in the 1960s. ... Dormition of Mary (Uspenie Bogoroditsy) 1392 Biography Feofan Grek 1340?-1410? is one of Russian greatest icon painters or iconographer. ...


During the last century of republican government, some new temples were consecrated to Sts Peter and Paul (on Slavna, 1367; in Kozhevniki, 1406), to Christ's Nativity (at the Cemetery, 1387), to St John the Apostle's (1384), to the Holy Apostles (1455), to St Demetrius (1467), to St Simeon (1462), and other saints. Generally, they are not thought so innovative as the churches from the previous epoch. Several 12th-century shrines (i.e., in Opoki) were demolished brick by brick and then reconstructed exactly as they used to be.


Novgorod's conquest by Ivan III in 1478 decisively changed the character of local architecture. Large commissions were thenceforth executed by Muscovite masters and patterned after cathedrals of Moscow Kremlin: e.g., the Saviour Cathedral of Khutyn Monastery (1515), the Cathedral of the Sign (1688), the Nicholas Cathedral of Vyaschizhy Monastery (1685). Nevertheless, some parochial churches were still styled in keeping with traditions of local art: e.g., the churches of Holy Wives (1510) and of Sts Boris and Gleb (1586). Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin (Russian citadel). ... Khutyn Monastery of Saviours Transfiguration and of St. ...


In the village of Vitoslavlitsy, on the road from Novgorod to the Yuriev Monastery, a museum of ancient wooden art was established. Many wooden churches, houses and mills, some of the dating to the 14th century, were transported there from all around the Novgorod region.


Transportation

Novgorod has connections to Moscow (531 km) and St. Petersburg (189 km) by the federal highway M10 (E95). There are public shuttle buses to Moscow, Petersburg, and other directions.


The city has direct railway passenger connections to Moscow (to Leningradsky Rail Terminal, by night trains), St. Petersburg (by suburban trains) and major cities of northwestern Russia such as Pskov and Murmansk. View from Three Station Square. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean Murmansk coin Murmansk (Му́рманск) is a city in the extreme northwest of Russia (north of the Arctic circle) with a seaport on the Kola Gulf, 20 miles from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia...


The city's Yurievo airport does not serve regular flights since the middle 1990s. The nearest international aiport is Pulkovo. Pulkovo Airport (Аэропорт Пулково in Russian) ( IATA Airport Code: LED / ICAO Airport Code : ULLI) is located 16 km south of St Petersburg, Russia. ...


Sister cities

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Novgorod


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... City motto: – City proper (commune) Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Mayor Fabienne Keller (UMP) (since 2001) Land area 78. ... A portion of Rochesters skyline, looking north along the Genesee River from the Ford Street Bridge. ... Bielefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Watford is a town and district (styled as a borough due to the historical charter granted by Henry VIII) located 15. ... Zibo (Chinese: 淄博; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ...

Fortresses of Western Russia Koporye Fortress.

Gdov | Ivangorod | Izborsk | Kirillov | Koporye | Korela | Kronstadt | Ladoga | New Dvina Fort | Novgorod | Oreshek | Porkhov |
Pskov | Smolensk | Solovki | St Petersburg | Vyborg | Yamburg Kremlin (Кремль) is the Russian word for citadel or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities. ... Koporye Fortress near St Petersburg Photo courtesy of www. ... Gdov (Гдов) is a Russian town in the Pskov Oblast, which stands on the river Gdovka, just 2 km from its outflow into Chudskoye Lake. ... Ivangorod Fortress is a castle constructed near the town of Ivangorod, Russia. ... Izborsk (И́зборск in Russian, Irboska in Estonian) is an old Russian town to the west of Pskov and just to the east from the Estonian border. ... Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, properly translated in English as The Assumption monastery of St Cyril, has always rivalled the Solovetsky Monastery as the strongest fortress and the richest landowner of the Russian North. ... Koporye Fortress near St Petersburg Koporye (Russian: Копорье) is a historic village in Russia, about 100 km to the west of St Petersburg, which contains some of the most impressive medieval ruins in Russia. ... Korela Fortress, at the town of Priozersk, was founded by the Karelians who named the place Novogorodian chronicles refer to it as It was first mentioned in a Novgorodian chronicle of 1143 and archeological digs have revealed a layer belonging to the 12th century. ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: Кронштадт; also Kronshtadt, Cronstadt) is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at , . It lies 20 miles west of Saint Petersburg, of which it is the chief port. ... Ladoga may refer to one of the following. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Orechovets is an island with the fortress Oreshek (Nöteborg in Swedish, given the name Schlisselburg/Schlüsselburg after its re-conquest by Peter the Great in 1702). ... Porkhov (Порхов in Russian) is a medieval fortress and town in the Pskov Oblast, Russia. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: ) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River at 54. ... Solovetsky Monastery Solovetsky Monastery (Соловецкий монастырь in Russian), a monastery on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... A view of Vyborg from the castle tower Vyborg (Cyrillic: Выборг, Finnish: Viipuri, Swedish: Viborg, German: Wiburg) is a town with 70,000 inhabitants on the Karelian Isthmus in Russia, near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, 130 km to the northwest of Saint Petersburg, 38 km south from Russia... St Catherine Cathedral of Yamburg was built in 1764-1782 to a late baroque design by Antonio Rinaldi. ...

See also

Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика in Russian, or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Old Novgorod dialect (Russian древненовгородский диалект, also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak (Андрей Анатольевич Зализняк) to account for the astonishingly distinct linguistic features of the East Slavic birch-bark writings from the 11th to 15th centuries excavated in Novgorod and... A Birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. ...

External links

  • Novgorod the Great site
  • Velikiy Novgorod for tourists
  • The Faceted Palace of the Kremlin in Novgorod the Great site
  • (Russian) Velikiy Novgorod's architecture and buildings history
  • (Russian) The Millenium of Russia memorial site
  • (Russian) Velikiy Novgorod city administration site
  • Novgorod the Great for a businessman
  • (Russian) Velikiy Novgorod news
  • (Russian) Velikiy Novgorod.ru news agency
  • (Russian) Novgorod State University
  • Photos tagged with novgorod on Flickr, photos likely of Novgorod the Great

References

  • Yanin. The Archaeology of Novgorod, by Valentin L. Yanin, in Ancient Cities, Special Issue, (Scientific American), pg 120-127, c 1994. Covers, History, Kremlin of Novgorod, Novgorod Museum of History, preservation dynamics of the soils, and the production of Birch bark documents.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Novgorod, Russia (Capital) - LoveToKnow 1911 (1300 words)
NOVGOROD (formerly known as Velikiy-Novgorod, Great Novgorod), a town of Russia, capital of the government of the same name, and the seat of an archbishop of the Orthodox Greek Church, situated 119 m.
The Novgorod traders penetrated at an early date to the shores of the White Sea, hunted on Novaya Zemlya in the 11th century, colonized the basins of the northern Dvina, descended the Volga, and as early as the 14th century extended their trading expeditions beyond the Urals into Siberia.
In the beginning of the 17th century Novgorod was taken and held for seven years by the Swedes; and in the 18th century the foundation of St Petersburg ultimately destroyed its trade.
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The efforts of Novgorod Bishops in spreading and promoting the Orthodoxy were given high credit in the mid-12th century when they were elevated to the ranks of Archbishops which made the Bishops Chair of Novgorod most powerful in the Russian Orthodoxy.
Novgorod is the cradle of Russian republican and democratic traditions.
You are welcome to admire the monuments of the twelfth century Novgorod architecture - the Cathedral of St. Nicholas in Yaroslav's Court and the Church of the Nativity of Our Lady in St. Anthony's Monastery, that have brought to us old fresco painting, carved iconostases, the necropolis of the 17th - 18th centuries.
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