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Encyclopedia > Novell NetWare
Novell NetWare

The NetWare console screen
Website www.novell.com
Company/
developer
Novell, Inc.
Source model Closed source
Latest stable release 6.5 SP7 / October 9, 2007
Kernel type Hybrid kernel
Default user interface CLI
License Proprietary
Working state Current

NetWare is a network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. It initially used cooperative multitasking to run various services on a PC, and the network protocols were based on the archetypal Xerox XNS stack. Image File history File links NetWare_console_screenshot. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... The term software company could be applied to: a) a company that produces software, distributes software from a third party, or provides services such as custom software development. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... Novell was also the name of a road bicycle racing team. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Network operating system (NOS): Software that (a) controls a network and its message (e. ... Novell was also the name of a road bicycle racing team. ... In computing, cooperative multitasking (or non-preemptive multitasking) is a form of multitasking in which multiple tasks execute by voluntarily ceding control to other tasks at programmer-defined points within each task. ... A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... Xeroxs former headquarters in Stamford (now headquartered in Norwalk) Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Xerox network services (XNS) is a protocol stack which provided routing and packet delivery developed by Xerox at Xerox PARC in the later 1970s and early 1980s. ... A protocol stack (sometimes communications stack) is a particular software implementation of a computer networking protocol suite. ...


NetWare has been superseded by Open Enterprise Server (OES). The latest version of NetWare is v6.5 Support Pack 7, which is identical to OES 2, NetWare Kernel. Novell Open Enterprise Server (OES) is a network software product by Novell, Inc. ...

Contents

History

NetWare evolved from a very simple concept: file sharing instead of disk sharing. In 1983 when the first versions of NetWare were designed, all other competing products were based on the concept of providing shared direct disk access. Novell's alternative approach was validated by IBM in 1984 and helped promote their product. For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ...


With Novell NetWare, disk space was shared in the form of NetWare volumes, comparable to DOS volumes. Clients running MS-DOS would run a special Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) program that allowed them to map a local drive letter to a NetWare volume. Clients had to log in to a server in order to be allowed to map volumes, and access could be restricted according to the login name. Similarly, they could connect to shared printers on the dedicated server, and print as if the printer was connected locally. NetWare established the dominant position in the market in the early and middle 1990s by developing its XNS-derived IPX/SPX protocol as the local area network (LAN) standard. Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) is a system call in DOS operating systems that returned control to the system as if the program had quit, but kept the program in memory. ... IPX/SPX stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. ... LAN redirects here. ...


At the end of the 1990s, with Internet connectivity booming, the Internet's TCP/IP protocol became dominant on LANs. Novell had introduced limited TCP/IP support in NetWare v3.x (circa 1992) and v4.x (circa 1995), consisting mainly of FTP services and UNIX-style LPR/LPD printing (available in NetWare v3.x), and a Novell-developed webserver (in NetWare v4.x). Native TCP/IP support for the client file and print services normally associated with NetWare was introduced in NetWare v5.0 (released in 1998). The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ...


While some attribute Novell's delay in adopting TCP/IP as its native protocol to the loss of NetWare's dominance, it's more accurate to say that Novell allowed itself to be outmarketed.[citation needed] During the early-to-mid 1980s Microsoft introduced their own LAN system in LAN Manager based on the competing NBF protocol. Early attempts to muscle in on NetWare were not successful, but this changed with the inclusion of improved networking support in Windows for Workgroups, and then the hugely successful Windows NT and Windows 95. NT, in particular, offered services similar to those offered by NetWare, but on a system that could also be used on a desktop, and connected directly to other Windows desktops where NBF was now almost universal. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... The LAN Manager (not to be confused with NTLM) was an advanced Network Operating System (NOS) from Microsoft developed in cooperation with 3Com. ... NetBIOS Frames or NBF protocol is an unrouted (non-routable) network- and transport-level data protocol most commonly used as one of the layers of Microsoft Windows networking. ... A typical Windows 3. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ...


The rise of NetWare

The popular use and growth of Novell NetWare began in 1985 with the simultaneous release of NetWare 286 2.0a and the Intel 80286 16-bit processor. The 80286 CPU featured a new 16-bit protected mode that provided access to up to 16 MB RAM as well as mechanisms to support multi-tasking. Prior to the 80286 CPU, servers were based on the Intel 8086/8088 8/16-bit processors limited to an address space of 1MB with not more than 640 KB usable RAM which did not support multi-tasking. AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ...


The combination of a higher 16 MB RAM limit, 80286 processor feature utilization, and 256 MB NetWare volume size limit allowed reliable, cost-effective server-based local area networks to be built for the first time. The 16 MB RAM limit was especially important, since it made enough RAM available for disk caching to significantly improve performance. This became the key to Novell's performance while also allowing larger networks to be built.


Another significant difference of NetWare 286 was that it was hardware-independent, unlike competing server systems from 3Com. Novell servers could be assembled using any brand system with an Intel 80286 or higher CPU, any MFM, RLL, ESDI, or SCSI hard drive and any 8- or 16-bit network adapter for which Netware drivers were available. Modified Frequency Modulation, commonly MFM, is a line coding scheme used to encode information on most floppy disk formats, which include the floppy disk formats used in most CP/M machines as well as PCs running DOS. MFM is a modification to the original FM (frequency modulation) scheme for encoding... Run Length Limited codes, or RLL codes are widely used in hard disk drives (and notably digital optical discs, such as CD, DVD and BluRay disc) to prevent long stretches of no transitions, and therefore decoding uncertainty, from creeping in. ... Enhanced Small Disk Interface (ESDI) was a disc interface designed by Maxtor Corporation in the early 1980s to be a follow-on to the ST-506 interface. ... Scuzzy redirects here. ...


Novell also designed a compact and simple DOS client software program that allowed DOS stations to connect to a server and access the shared server hard drive. While the NetWare server file system introduced a new, proprietary, file system design, it looked like a standard DOS volume to the workstation, ensuring compatibility with all existing DOS programs.


Early years

NetWare was based on the consulting work by SuperSet Software, a group founded by the friends Drew Major, Dale Neibaur, Kyle Powell and later Mark Hurst. This work was based on their classwork at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, starting in October 1981. A is a subset of B, and B is a superset of A. In mathematics, especially in set theory, a set A is a subset of a set B, if A is contained inside B. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion. ... Drew Major was one of the founders of Novell and the lead architect and developer of NetWare operating system for over 15 years. ... , Brigham Young University (BYU), located in Provo, Utah, is a private coeducational school completely owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church) and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System. ... Provo is a city in and the county seat of Utah County, Utah, United States, located about 45 miles south of Salt Lake City along the Wasatch Front. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1983 Raymond Noorda engaged the work by the SuperSet team. The team was originally assigned to create a CP/M disk sharing system to help network the CP/M hardware that Novell was selling at the time. The team was privately convinced that CP/M was a doomed platform and instead came up with a successful file sharing system for the newly introduced IBM-compatible PC. They also wrote an application called Snipes, a text-mode game and used it to test the new network and demonstrate its capabilities. Snipes was the first network application ever written for a commercial personal computer, and it is recognized as one of the precursors of many popular multiplayer games such as Doom and Quake. [1] For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Raymond Noorda (born 1924) was a U.S. computer businessman. ... CP/M is an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ... In computing, a shared resource is a device or other resource on a computer that is accessed from another computer via a network, as if it were a local resource. ... A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... Snipes (Diminutive for Snipers) is a text-mode networked computer game that was created in 1983 by SuperSet software. ... Doom (or DOOM)[1] is a 1993 computer game by id Software that is a landmark title in the first-person shooter genre. ... This article is about the original video game. ...


This network operating system (NOS) was later called Novell NetWare. NetWare was based on the NetWare Core Protocol (NCP), which is a packet-based protocol that enables a client to send requests to and receive replies from a NetWare server. Initially NCP was directly tied to the IPX/SPX protocol, and NetWare communicated natively using only IPX/SPX. Network operating system (NOS): Software that (a) controls a network and its message (e. ... The NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) is a network protocol used in some products from Novell, Inc. ...


The first product to bear the NetWare name was released in 1983. It was called Netware 68 (aka S-Net); it ran on the Motorola 68000 processor and used a star network topology. It was replaced in 1985 with NetWare 86 version 1.5, which was written for the Intel 8086. In 1986, after the Intel 80286 processor became available, Novell released NetWare 286. In 1989, with the Intel 80386 available, Novell released NetWare 386. Later Novell consolidated the numbering of their NetWare releases, with NetWare 286 becoming NetWare 2.x, and NetWare 386 becoming NetWare 3.x. S-Net was a network operating system and the set of network protocols it used to talk to client machines on the network. ... Motorola Inc. ... The Motorola 68000 is a CISC microprocessor, the first member of a successful family of microprocessors from Motorola, which were all mostly software compatible. ... For other uses of topology, see topology (disambiguation). ... The 8086[1] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel and introduced on the market in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... 386 DX redirects here. ...


NetWare 286 2.x

NetWare version 2 was notoriously difficult to configure, since the operating system was provided as a set of compiled object modules that required configuration and linking. Compounding this inconvenience was that the process was designed to run from multiple diskettes, which was slow and unreliable. Any change to the operating system required a re-linking of the kernel and a reboot of the system, requiring at least 20 diskette swaps. An additional complication in early versions was that the installation contained a proprietary low-level format program for MFM hard drives, which was run automatically before the software could be loaded, called COMPSERF. This often took many hours, and was incompatible with newer hard drive interfaces, such as RLL. In computer science, object code, or an object file, is the representation of code that a compiler or assembler generates by processing a source code file. ... The term link can refer to: // Computer-related A connection between two components of a network. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that comprises a circular piece of thin, flexible (hence floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic wallet. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Modified Frequency Modulation, commonly MFM, is a line coding scheme used to encode information on most floppy disk formats, which include the floppy disk formats used in most CP/M machines as well as PCs running DOS. MFM is a modification to the original FM (frequency modulation) scheme for encoding... Run Length Limited codes, or RLL codes are widely used in hard disk drives (and notably digital optical discs, such as CD, DVD and BluRay disc) to prevent long stretches of no transitions, and therefore decoding uncertainty, from creeping in. ...


NetWare was administered using text-based utilities such as SYSCON. The file system used by NetWare 2 was NetWare File System 286, or NWFS 286, supporting volumes of up to 256 MB. NetWare 286 recognized 80286 protected mode, extending NetWare's support of RAM from 1 MB to the full 16 MB addressable by the 80286. A minimum of 2 MB was required to start up the operating system; any additional RAM was used for FAT, DET and file caching. Since 16-bit protected mode was implemented the i80286 and every subsequent Intel x86 processor, NetWare 286 version 2.x would run on any 80286 or later compatible processor. NetWare File System (NWFS), is a file system, based on a heavily-modified version of FAT. It was used in the Novell NetWare operating system. ... Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ...


NetWare 2 implemented a number of features inspired by mainframe and minicomputer systems that were not available in other operating systems of the day. The System Fault Tolerance (SFT) features included standard read-after-write verification (SFT-I) with on-the-fly bad block re-mapping (at the time, disks did not have that feature built in) and software RAID1 (disk mirroring, SFT-II). The Transaction Tracking System (TTS) optionally protected files against incomplete updates. For single files, this required only a file attribute to be set. Transactions over multiple files and controlled roll-backs were possible by programming to the TTS API. Mainframe may refer to one of the following: Mainframe computer, large data processing systems Mainframe Entertainment, a Canadian computer animation and design company. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... In computing, a redundant array of independent disks, also known as redundant array of inexpensive disks (commonly abbreviated RAID) is a system of using multiple hard drives for sharing or replicating data among the drives. ... API may refer to: In computing, application programming interface In petroleum industry, American Petroleum Institute In education, Academic Performance Index This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


NetWare 286 2.x supported two modes of operation: dedicated and non-dedicated. In dedicated mode, the server used DOS only as a boot loader to execute the operating system file net$os.exe. All memory was allocated to NetWare; no DOS ran on the server. For non-dedicated operation, DOS 3.3 or higher would remain in memory, and the processor would time-slice between the DOS and NetWare programs, allowing the server computer to be used simultaneously as network file server and as a user workstation. All extended memory (RAM above 1 MB) was allocated to NetWare, so DOS was limited to only 640kB; an expanded memory manager would not work because NetWare 286 had control of 80286 protected mode and the upper RAM, both of which were required for DOS to use expanded memory. Time slicing was accomplished using the keyboard interrupt. This feature required strict compliance with the IBM PC design model, otherwise performance was affected. Non-dedicated NetWare was popular on small networks with up to users,, although it was more susceptible to lockups due to DOS program problems. In some implementations, users would experience significant network slowdown when someone was using the console as a workstation. NetWare 386 3.x and later supported only dedicated operation. In computing, booting is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ... Extended memory refers to memory above the first megabyte of address space in an IBM PC with an 80286 or later processor. ... Expanded Memory was a trick invented around 1984 that provided more memory to byte-hungry, business-oriented MS-DOS programs. ... Expanded Memory was a trick invented around 1984 that provided more memory to byte-hungry, business-oriented MS-DOS programs. ... In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ...


Server licensing on early versions of NetWare 286 was accomplished by using a key card. The key card was designed for an 8-bit ISA bus, and had a serial number encoded on a ROM chip. The serial number had to match the serial number of the NetWare software running on the server. To broaden the hardware base, particularly to machines using the IBM MCA bus, later versions of NetWare 2.x did not require the key card; serialised license floppy disks were used in place of the key cards.


NetWare 3.x

Starting with NetWare 3.x, support for 32-bit protected mode was added, eliminating the 16 mb memory limit of NetWare 286. This allowed larger hard drives to be supported, since NetWare 3.x cached (copied) the entire file allocation table (FAT) and directory entry table (DET) into memory for improved performance. Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ...


NetWare version 3 eased development and administration by modularization. Each functionality was controlled by a software module called a NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) loaded either at startup or when it was needed. It was then possible to add functionality such as anti-virus software, backup software, database and web servers, long name support (standard filenames were limited to 8 characters plus a three letter extension, matching MS-DOS) or Macintosh style files. A NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) is a binary code module that can be loaded into Novells NetWare operating system for execution. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ...


NetWare continued to be administered using console-based utilities. The file system introduced by NetWare 3.x and used by default until NetWare 5.x was NetWare File System 386, or NWFS 386, which significantly extended volume capacity (1 TB, 4 GB files) and could handle up to 16 volume segments spanning multiple physical disk drives. Volume segments could be added while the server was in use and the volume was mounted, allowing a server to be expanded without interruption. NetWare File System (NWFS), is a file system, based on a heavily-modified version of FAT. It was used in the Novell NetWare operating system. ...


Initially, NetWare used Bindery services for authentication. This was a stand-alone database system where all user access and security data resided individually on each server. When an infrastructure contained more than one server, users had to log-in to each of them individually, and each server had to be configured with the list of all allowed users.


"NetWare Name Services" was a product that allowed user data to be extended across multiple servers, and the Windows "Domain" concept is functionally equivalent to NetWare v3.x Bindery services with NetWare Name Services added on (e.g. a 2-dimensional database, with a flat namespace and a static schema).


For a while, Novell also marketed an OEM version of NetWare 3, called Portable NetWare, together with OEMs such as Hewlett-Packard, DEC and Data General, who ported Novell source code to run on top of their Unix operating systems. Portable NetWare did not sell well. Original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, is a term that refers to containment-based re-branding, namely where one company uses a component of another company within its product, or sells the product of another company under its own brand. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... Data General was one of the first minicomputer firms from the late 1960s. ...


While Netware 3.x was current Novell introduced its first high-availability clustering system, named NetWare SFT-III, which allowed a logical server to be completely mirrored to a separate physical machine. Implemented as a shared-nothing cluster, under SFT-III the OS was logically split into an interrupt-driven I/O engine and the event-driven OS core. The I/O engines serialized their interrupts (disk, network etc.) into a combined event stream that was fed to two identical copies of the system engine through a fast (typically 100 Mbit/s) inter-server link. Because of its non-preemptive nature, the OS core, stripped of non-deterministic I/O, behaves deterministically, like a large finite state machine. A shared nothing architecture is a distributed database architecture without a single point of failure. ... Fig. ...


The outputs of the two system engines were compared to ensure proper operation, and two copies fed back to the I/O engines. Using the existing SFT-II software RAID functionality present in the core, disks could be mirrored between the two machines without special hardware. The two machines could be separated as far as the server-to-server link would permit. In case of a server or disk failure, the surviving server could take over client sessions transparently after a short pause since it had full state information and did not, for example, have to re-mount the volumes - a process at which NetWare was notoriously slow. SFT-III was the first NetWare version able to make use of SMP hardware - the I/O engine could optionally be run on its own CPU. The modern incarnation of NetWare's clustering, Novell Cluster Services (introduced in NetWare v5.0), is very different from SFT-III. NetWare SFT-III, ahead of its time in several ways, was a mixed success. Symmetric multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ...


NetWare 386 3.x was designed to run all applications on the server at the same level of processor memory protection, known as "ring 0". While this provided the best possible performance, it sacrificed reliability. The result was that crashing (known as abends, short for abnormal ends) were possible and would result in stopping the system. Starting with NetWare 5.x, software modules (NetWare Loadable Modules or NLM's) could be assigned to run in different processor protection rings, ensuring that a software error would not crash the system. Memory protection is a system that prevents one process from corrupting the memory of another process running on the same computer at the same time. ... Ring 0 is the most privileged of four privilege levels in the x86 processor architecture, and is treated as kernel mode. ... ABEND (or abend) may stand for one of the following hacker slang terms: in computing, an abnormal end Around 9:30 tonight the server abended. ...


Many Netware intallations ran for months and even years without rebooting. By comparison, as late as Windows NT v4.0, many "best practices" recommendations included monthly or even weekly reboots due to memory leaks.


NetWare 4.x

Version 4 in 1993 also introduced the Novell Directory Services (NDS), based on X.500, which replaced the Bindery with a global directory service, in which the infrastructure was described and managed in a single place. Additionally, NDS provided an extensible schema, allowing the introduction of new object types. This allowed a single user authentication to NDS to govern access to any server in the directory tree structure. Users could therefore access network resources no matter on which server they resided, although user license counts were still tied to individual servers. (Large enterprises could opt for a license model giving them essentially unlimited per-server users if they let Novell audit their total user count) Novell eDirectory (formerly called Novell Directory Services) is an X.500 compatible directory service software product released in 1993 by Novell, Inc. ... X.500 is the set of ITU-T computer networking standards covering electronic directory services such as white pages, Knowbot and whois. ... A directory service (DS) is a software application — or a set of applications — that stores and organizes information about a computer networks users and network resources, and that allows network administrators to manage users access to the resources. ... The word schema comes from the Greek word σχήμα (skhēma) that means shape or more generally plan. ...


Version 4 also introduced a number of useful tools and features, such as transparent compression at file system level and RSA public/private encryption. In cryptography, RSA is an algorithm for public-key cryptography. ... Encrypt redirects here. ...


Another new feature was the NetWare Asynchronous Services Interface (NASI). It allowed network sharing of multiple serial devices, such as modems. Client port redirection occurred via an MS-DOS or Microsoft Windows driver allowing companies to consolidate modems and analog phone lines.[2] A modem (a portmanteau word constructed from modulator and demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal (sound), to encode digital information, and that also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Windows redirects here. ... Plain old telephone service, or POTS, are the services available from analogue telephones prior to the introduction of electronic telephone exchanges into the public switched telephone network. ...


Strategic mistakes

Novell's strategy with NetWare 286 2.x and 3.x was very successful; before the arrival of Windows NT Server, Novell claimed 90% of the market for PC based servers. Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ...


While the design of NetWare 3.x and later involved a DOS partition to load NetWare server files, this feature became a liability as new users preferred the Windows graphical interface to learning DOS commands necessary to build and control a NetWare server. Novell could have eliminated this technical liability by retaining the design of NetWare 286, which installed the server file into a Novell partition and allowed the server to boot from the Novell partition without creating a bootable DOS partition. Novell finally added support for this in a Support Pack for NetWare 6.5.


As Novell used IPX/SPX instead of TCP/IP, they were poorly positioned to take advantage of the Internet in 1995. The first implementation of TCP/IP for NetWare 3.x was not compatible with IPv4.[citation needed] This resulted in Novell servers being bypassed for routing and Internet access, in favor of hardware routers and Unix-based operating systems such as FreeBSD and Linux for web servers.[citation needed] IPX/SPX stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


NetWare 4.1x and NetWare for Small Business: Novell begins to recover

Novell priced NetWare 4.10 similarly to NetWare 3.12, allowing customers who resisted NDS (typically small businesses) were able to try it at no cost. Netware 4 could use either the bindery used by version 3, or the later NDS.


Later Novell released NetWare version 4.11 in 1996 which included many enhancements that made the operating system easier to install, easier to operate, faster, and more stable. It also included the first full 32-bit client for Microsoft Windows-based workstations, SMP support and the NetWare Administrator (NWADMIN or NWADMN32), a GUI-based administration tool for NetWare. Previous administration tools used the Cworthy interface, the character-based GUI tools such as SYSCON and PCONSOLE with blue text-based background. Some of these tools survive to this day, for instance MONITOR.NLM. Windows redirects here. ... Symmetric multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ...


Novell packaged NetWare 4.11 with its Web server, TCP/IP support and Netscape browser into a bundle dubbed IntranetWare (also written as intraNetWare). A version designed for networks of 25 or fewer users was named IntranetWare for Small Business and contained a limited version of NDS and tried to simplify NDS administration. The intranetWare name was dropped in NetWare 5. For the web browser produced by this corporation, see Netscape (web browser). ...


During this time Novell also began to leverage its directory service, NDS, by tying their other products into the directory. Their e-mail system, GroupWise, was integrated with NDS, and Novell released many other directory-enabled products such as ZENworks and BorderManager. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... GroupWise is a cross-platform collaborative software product from Novell, Inc. ... Novell ZENworks, a suite of software products developed and maintained by Novell, Inc. ... Novell BorderManager is a program made by Novell designed to restrict access to undersirable websites from within a Novell Network. ...


NetWare still required IPX/SPX as NCP used it, but Novell started to acknowledge the demand for TCP/IP with NetWare 4.11 by including tools and utilities that made it easier to create intranets and link networks to the Internet. Novell bundled tools, such as the IPX/IP gateway, to ease the connection between IPX workstations and IP networks. It also began integrating Internet technologies and support through features such as a natively hosted web server. The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are...


NetWare 5.x

With the release of NetWare 5 in October 1998, Novell finally acknowledged the prominence of the Internet by switching its primary NCP interface from the IPX/SPX network protocol to TCP/IP. IPX/SPX was still supported, but the emphasis shifted to TCP/IP. Novell also added a GUI to NetWare. Other new features were: 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... IPX/SPX stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ...

The Cluster Services were a major advance over SFT-III, as NCS does not require specialized hardware or identical server configurations. Novell Storage Services (NSS) is a file system used by Novells NetWare Operating system and recently ported to Linux. ... NetWare File System (NWFS), is a file system, based on a heavily-modified version of FAT. It was used in the Novell NetWare operating system. ... A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of computer software programs and data structures which implements a specific virtual machine model. ... Diagram of a public key infrastructure In cryptography, a public key infrastructure (PKI) is an arrangement that binds public keys with respective user identities by means of a certificate authority (CA). ... The Domain Name System (DNS) associates various sorts of information with domain names; most importantly, it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, e. ... DHCP redirects here. ... In computing, a storage area network (SAN) is an architecture to attach remote computer storage devices such as disk array controllers, tape libraries and CD arrays to servers in such a way that to the operating system the devices appear as locally attached devices. ... The term Oracle database may refer either to the database management system (DBMS) software released by Oracle Corporation as Oracle RDBMS, or to any of the individual databases managed by such software. ...


NetWare 5 was released during a time when NetWare market share dropped precipitously; many companies and organizations were replacing their NetWare servers with servers running Microsoft's Windows NT operating system. Novell also released their last upgrade to the NetWare 4 operating system, NetWare 4.2. Market share, in strategic management and marketing, is the percentage or proportion of the total available market or market segment that is being serviced by a company. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ...


NetWare 5.1 was released in January 2000, shortly after its predecessor. It introduced a number of useful tools, such as: 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: January 1- Millennium celebrations take place throughout the world. ...

IBM WebSphere Application Server (WAS), a software application server, is the flagship product within IBMs WebSphere brand. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... The Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP is an Internet application protocol used primarily for reading and posting Usenet articles, as well as transferring news among news servers. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... WebDAV, an abbreviation that stands for Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning, refers to the set of extensions to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) which allows users to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote World Wide Web servers. ...

NetWare 6.0

NetWare 6 was released in October 2001. This version has a simplified licensing scheme based on users, not servers. This allows unlimited connections per user. 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: October 2 - Bankruptcy of Swissair. ...


Other changes, new features and improvements included:

  • enhanced SMP support - up to 32 processors per server
  • iFolder - location- and platform-independent access to local files by automatic intelligent synchronization of the local iFolder directory with the iFolder server
  • NetStorage - access to personal files through a standard web browser
  • iPrint - ability to install printers from a web browser and submit print jobs over the Internet through the standard IPP protocol
  • iManager - web-based administration for NetWare and other Novell products
  • the Apache web server and the Jakarta Tomcat servlet container
  • Native File Access Protocols - support for the SMB, AFP and NFS protocols to provide Windows, Macintosh and Unix/Linux clients with access to files on a NetWare server without a Novell client

Symmetric multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ... iFolder is an open source application, developed by Novell, Inc. ... The Internet Printing Protocol or IPP, defines a standard protocol for printing as well as managing print jobs, media size, resolution, and so forth. ... The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to simply as Apache, is a web server notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. ... Tomcat Logo Tomcat functions as a servlet container developed at the Apache Software Foundation. ... In computer networking, Server Message Block (SMB) operates as an application-level network protocol mainly applied to shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. ... The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) is a layer 6 (presentation layer) network protocol that offers file services for Mac OS X and Classic Mac OS. In Mac OS X, AFP is one of several file services supported including Server Message Block (SMB), Network File System (NFS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP... For network file systems in general, see network file system. ...

NetWare 6.5

NetWare 6.5 was released in August 2003. Some of the new features in this version were: 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for August, 2003. ...

  • more open-source products such as PHP, MySQL and OpenSSH
  • a port of the Bash shell and a lot of traditional Unix utilities such as wget, grep, awk and sed to provide additional capabilities for scripting
  • iSCSI support (both target and initiator)
  • Virtual Office - an "out of the box" web portal for end users providing access to e-mail, personal file storage, company address book, etc.
  • Domain controller functionality
  • Universal password
  • DirXML Starter Pack - synchronization of user accounts with another eDirectory tree, a Windows NT domain or Active Directory.
  • exteNd Application Server - a J2EE 1.3-compatible application server
  • support for customized printer driver profiles and printer usage auditing
  • NX bit support
  • support for USB storage devices
  • support for encrypted volumes

For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... MySQL (pronounced (IPA) , my S-Q-L[1]) is a multithreaded, multi-user SQL database management system (DBMS)[2] which has, according to MySQL AB, more than 10 million installations. ... OpenSSH (Open Secure Shell) is a set of computer programs providing encrypted communication sessions over a computer network using the SSH protocol. ... This article is about the Unix shell. ... GNU Wget is a free software program that implements simple and powerful content retrieval from web servers and is part of the GNU project. ... grep is a command line utility that was originally written for use with the Unix operating system. ... This article is about the programming language. ... The correct title of this article is . ... In computing, iSCSI (for Internet SCSI) is a protocol that allows clients (called initiators) to send SCSI commands (CDBs) to SCSI storage devices (targets) on remote servers. ... On Windows Server Systems, the domain controller (DC) is the server that responds to security authentication requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc. ... A Windows Server domain or Windows NT Domain is a logical group of computers running versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that share a central directory database. ... Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or J2EE is a Standard (albeit with no ISO or ECMA standard) for developing distributed Multi-tier architecture applications, based on modular components running on an application server. ... An application server is a software engine that delivers applications to client computers or devices, typically through the internet and using the http protocol. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... USB redirects here. ...

Open Enterprise Server

1.0
In 2003, Novell announced the successor product to NetWare: Open Enterprise Server (OES). First released in March 2005, OES completes the separation of the services traditionally associated with NetWare (e.g. Directory Services, file-and-print) from the platform underlying the delivery of those services. OES is essentially a set of applications (eDirectory, NetWare Core Protocol services, iPrint, etc.) that can run atop either a Linux or a NetWare kernel platform. Clustered OES implementations can even migrate services from Linux to NetWare and back again, making Novell one of the very few vendors to offer a multi-platform clustering solution. Novell Open Enterprise Server (OES) is a network software product by Novell, Inc. ... Novell Open Enterprise Server (OES) is a network software product by Novell, Inc. ... ← - 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in March • 31 – Terri Schiavo • 30 – Mitch Hedberg • 29 – Johnnie Cochran • 27 – Wilfred Bigelow • 26 – Paul Hester • 26 – James Callaghan • 21 – Jeff Weise • 21 – Bobby Short • 19 – John De Lorean • 18 – Gary Bertini • 17 – George F... The NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) is a network protocol used in some products from Novell, Inc. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


Consequent to Novell's acquisitions of Ximian and SuSE, a German Linux distributor, it is widely observed that Novell is moving away from NetWare and shifting its focus towards Linux. Much recent marketing seems to be focussed on getting faithful NetWare users to move to the Linux platform in future releases.[3] The clearest indication of this direction is Novell's controversial decision to release Open Enterprise Server in Linux form only. Novell later watered down this decision and stated that NetWare's 90 million users would be supported until at least 2015.[4] Some of Novell's more avid NetWare supporters have taken it upon themselves to petition Novell to keep NetWare in development.[5] Ximian was a company that provided open source desktop applications for Linux and Unix based on the GNOME platform. ... SUSE (properly pronounced , but often pronounced /suzi/) is a major retail Linux distribution, produced in Germany. ...


2.0
OES 2 was released on October 8, 2007. It includes NetWare 6.5 SP7, which supports running as a paravirtualized guest inside the Xen hypervisor and new Linux based version using SLES10.
New features include:
- 64bit support
- Virtualization
- Dynamic Storage Technology, which provide Shadow Volumes
- Domain services for Windows is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Xen is a free virtual machine monitor for IA-32, x86-64, IA-64 and PowerPC architectures. ...


Current NetWare situation

While Novell NetWare is still used by many organizations, especially in education and government, its decline in popularity has been ongoing and dramatic since the mid 1990's. At that time, NetWare was considered the de facto standard for file & print software for the Intel x86 compatible server platform. Nowadays (2007) Netware/OES solutions are typically used by large organisations, which need the flexibility of Novell solutions.


Although Windows-based networks were consistently less reliable and more expensive[citation needed], Microsoft began to shift market share away from NetWare towards their own products. Microsoft marketed directly to management through major magazines, whereas NetWare tended to be visible only to IT staff in specialist magazines. Novell was also slow to adapt their pricing models, and NetWare therefore seemed more expensive. Corporate decision makers were often influenced by initial licensing costs as opposed to long-term ownership costs, and NetWare was less cost-effective on this pricing basis.[citation needed]


As a result many organisations that still use NetWare, eDirectory and Novell software have a hybrid infrastructure of Netware / OES server, Linux servers and Windows Servers.


Open Enterprise Server is an active product, running Netware and Linux based services.


Netware Lite / Personal Netware

In 1991 Novell introduced a radically different product - Netware Lite[6][7]. This quite different from the main NetWare line. Rather than the specialist server operating systems, this was a peer to peer systems, where all PC's on the network could share their resources. It seems to have been a reaction to success of LANstastic.


The product line became Personal Netware in 1993.


Performance

NetWare dominated the network operating system (NOS) market from the mid-80s through the mid- to late-90s due to its extremely high performance relative to other NOS technologies. Most benchmarks during this period demonstrated a 5:1 to 10:1 performance advantage over products from Microsoft, Banyan, and others. One noteworthy benchmark NetWare 3.x running NFS services over TCP/IP (not NetWare's native IPX protocol) to a dedicated Auspex NFS server and a SCO Unix server running NFS service. NetWare NFS outperformed both 'native' NFS systems and claimed a 2:1 performance advantage over SCO Unix NFS on the same hardware. For network file systems in general, see network file system. ...


There were several reasons for NetWare's performance.


File service instead of disk service

At the time NetWare was first developed, nearly all LAN storage was based on the disk server model. This meant that if a client computer wanted to read a particular block from a particular file it would have to issue the following requests across the relatively slow LAN:

  1. Read first block of directory
  2. Continue reading subsequent directory blocks until the directory block containing the information on the desired file was found, could be many directory blocks
  3. Read through multiple file entry blocks until the block containing the location of the desired file block was found, could be many directory blocks
  4. Read the desired data block

NetWare, since it was based on a file service model, interacted with the client at the file API level:

  1. Send file open request (if this hadn't already been done)
  2. Send a request for the desired data from the file

All of the work of searching the directory to figure out where the desired data was physically located on the disk was performed at high speed locally on the server. By the mid-1980s, most NOS products had shifted from the disk service to the file service model. Today, the disk service model is making a comeback, see SAN. In computing, a storage area network (SAN) is an architecture to attach remote computer storage devices such as disk array controllers, tape libraries and CD arrays to servers in such a way that to the operating system the devices appear as locally attached devices. ...


Aggressive caching

From the start, NetWare was designed to be used on servers with copious amounts of RAM. The entire file allocation table (FAT) was read into RAM when a volume was mounted, thereby requiring a minimum amount of RAM proportional to online disk space; adding a disk to a server would often require a RAM upgrade as well. Unlike most competing network operating systems prior to Windows NT, NetWare automatically used all otherwise unused RAM for caching active files, employing delayed write-backs to facilitate re-ordering of disk requests (elevator seeks). An unexpected shutdown could therefore corrupt data, making an uninterruptible power supply practically a mandatory part of a server installation. Network operating system (NOS): Software that (a) controls a network and its message (e. ... The elevator algorithm (also SCAN/C-SCAN) is a disk scheduling algorithm to determine the motion of the disks arm and head in servicing read and write requests. ... An uninterruptible power supply (UPS), also known as an uninterruptible power source or a battery backup is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available. ...


The default dirty cache delay time was fixed at 2.2 seconds in NetWare 286 versions 2.x. Starting with NetWare 386 3.x, the dirty disk cache delay time and dirty directory cache delay time settings controlled the amount of time the server would cache changed ("dirty") data before saving (flushing) the data to a hard drive. The default setting of 3.3 seconds could be decreased to 0.5 seconds but not reduced to zero, while the maximum delay was 10 seconds. The option to increase the cache delay to 10 seconds provided a significant performance boost. Windows 2000 and 2003 server do not allow adjustment to the cache delay time. Instead, they use an algorithm that adjusts cache delay.


Efficiency of NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)

Most network protocols in use at the time NetWare was developed didn't trust the network to deliver messages. A typical client file read would work something like this:

  1. Client sends read request to server
  2. Server acknowledges request
  3. Client acknowledges acknowledgement
  4. Server sends requested data to client
  5. Client acknowledges data
  6. Server acknowledges acknowledgement

In contrast, NCP was based on the idea that networks worked perfectly most of the time, so the reply to a request served as the acknowledgement. Here is an example of a client read request using this model:

  1. Client sends read request to server
  2. Server sends requested data to client

All requests contained a sequence number, so if the client didn't receive a response within an appropriate amount of time it would re-send the request with the same sequence number. If the server had already processed the request it would resend the cached response, if it had not yet had time to process the request it would only send a "positive acknowledgement". The bottom line to this 'trust the network' approach was a 2/3 reduction in network traffic and the associated latency.


Non-preemptive OS designed for network services

One of the raging debates of the 90s was whether it was more appropriate for network file service to be performed by a software layer running on top of a general purpose operating system, or by a special purpose operating system. NetWare was a special purpose operating system, not a timesharing OS. It was written from the ground up as a platform for client-server processing services. Initially it focused on file and print services, but later demonstrated its flexibility by running database, email, web and other services as well. It also performed efficiently as a router, supporting IPX, TCP/IP, and Appletalk, though it never offered the flexibility of a 'hardware' router.


In 4.x and earlier versions, NetWare did not support preemption, virtual memory, graphical user interfaces, etc. Processes and services running under the NetWare OS were expected to be cooperative, that is to process a request and return control to the OS in a timely fashion. On the down side, this trust of application processes to manage themselves could lead to a misbehaving application bringing down the server. Preemption as used with respect to operating systems means the ability of the operating system to preempt or stop a currently scheduled task in favour of a higher priority task. ... This article is about the computer term. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ...


By comparison, general purpose operating systems such as Unix or Microsoft Windows were based on an interactive, time-sharing model where competing programs would consume all available resources if not held in check by the Operating System. Such environments operated by preemption, memory virtualization, etc., generating significant overhead because there were never enough resources to do everything every application desired. These systems improved over time as network services shed their “application” stigma and moved deeper into the kernel of the “general purpose” OS, but they never equaled the efficiency of NetWare. Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Windows redirects here. ...


Probably the single greatest reason for Novell's success during the 80's and 90's was the efficiency of NetWare compared to general purpose operating systems. However, as microprocessors increased in power, efficiency became less and less of an issue and with the introduction of the Pentium processor, NetWare's performance advantage began to be outweighed by the complexity of managing and developing applications for the NetWare environment.


See also

These tables compare general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available operating systems. ...

References

  1. ^ Text Mode Games - Snipes
  2. ^ Cisco IOS Release 12.0 Dial Solutions Configuration Guide - Configure Support for NASI Clients to Access Network Resources
  3. ^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J.. "Novell Announces Linux-Based Open Enterprise Server 2", eWeek, 2006-11-30. Retrieved on 2007-03-26. 
  4. ^ Galli, Peter. "Novell Pledges Support for NetWare 6.5 at BrainShare", eWeek, 2006-03-20. Retrieved on 2007-03-26. 
  5. ^ I Want NetWare!
  6. ^ For Small Businesses, a Simpler Approach to Networking
  7. ^ Netware Lite, a peer-to-peer product introduced last year by Novell, has not made a significant impact on Artisoft, but analysts said that was because the product was weak

eWeek:the Enterprise Newsweekly is a weekly magazine published by Ziff Davis Media, featuring editorials, reviews, labs and rumors. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... eWeek:the Enterprise Newsweekly is a weekly magazine published by Ziff Davis Media, featuring editorials, reviews, labs and rumors. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Harris, Jeffrey L. (2005). Novell Open Enterprise Server Administrator's Handbook, NetWare Edition. Novell Press. ISBN 978-0-672-32748-3. 
  • Harris, Jeffrey L. (2004). Novell NetWare 6.5 Administrator's Handbook. Novell Press. ISBN 978-0-7897-2984-2. 
  • Harris, Jeffrey L.; Kelley J.P. Lindberg (2002). Novell's NetWare 6 Administrator's Handbook. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-7645-4882-6. 
  • Bastiaansen, Rob; Sander van Vugt (2006). Novell Cluster Services for Linux and NetWare. Novell Press. ISBN 978-0-672-32845-9. 
  • Hughes, Jeffrey F.; Blair W. Thomas (2002). Novell's Guide to NetWare 6 Networks. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-7645-4876-5. 

Novell Inc. ... Novell Inc. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... Novell Inc. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ...

External links

For the road bicycle racing team previously known as Novell, see Rabobank (cycling). ... Novell eDirectory (formerly called Novell Directory Services [NDS]) is an X.500 compatible directory service software product released in 1993 by Novell, Inc. ... Novell ZENworks, a suite of software products developed and maintained by Novell, Inc. ... Novell Identity Manager (aka, IDM) is Novells implementation of Identity Management software. ... Novell BorderManager is a program made by Novell designed to restrict access to undersirable websites from within a Novell Network. ... openSUSE is a community project, sponsored by Novell, to develop and maintain a general purpose Linux distribution. ... SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) is a Linux distribution supplied by Novell, targeted at the business market. ... SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop (SLED), formerly Novell Linux Desktop is a desktop-oriented Linux distribution supplied by Novell and targeted at the business market. ... Novell Open Enterprise Server (OES) is a network software product by Novell, Inc. ... GroupWise is a cross-platform collaborative software product from Novell, Inc. ... AppArmor (Application Armor) is security software for Linux, released under the GNU General Public License. ... Evolution or Novell Evolution (formerly Ximian Evolution, prior to Novells 2003 acquisition of Ximian) is the official personal information manager and workgroup information management tool for GNOME. It combines e-mail, calendar, address book, and task list management functions. ... iFolder is an open source application, developed by Novell, Inc. ... Mono is a project led by Novell (formerly by Ximian) to create an Ecma standard compliant . ... YaST from SUSE 9. ... A Certified Novell Administrator (CNA) is a person that is professionally certified by Novell to administer NetWare-based based computer networks. ... Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) is a certification which is designed to certify that an individual possesses in-depth knowledge and skills related to administration and troubleshooting of the Novell NetWare operating system. ... Drew Major was one of the founders of Novell and the lead architect and developer of NetWare operating system for over 15 years. ... Dennis Fairclough is Deputy Chair/Professor at the Computing & Networking Sciences Department at Utah Valley State College. ... Raymond Noorda (born 1924) was a U.S. computer businessman. ... Ronald W. Hovsepian or Ron Hovsepian, President and Chief Executive Officer of Novell, Inc. ... Jeffrey Vernon Merkey is an American computer scientist and entrepreneur. ... Eric Emerson Schmidt, Ph. ...

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This is an archive of Novell AppNotes from 1990 to 2003.
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