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Encyclopedia > Nova laser
View down Nova's laser bay between two banks of beamlines. The blue boxes contain the amplifiers and their flashtube "pumps", the tubes between the banks of amplifiers are the spatial filters.

Nova was a high-power laser built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 1984 which conducted advanced inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments until its dismantling in 1999. Nova was the first ICF experiment built with the intention of reaching "ignition", a chain reaction of nuclear fusion that releases a large amount of energy. Although Nova failed in this goal, the data it generated clearly defined the problem as being mostly a result of magnetohydrodynamic instability, leading to the design of the National Ignition Facility, Nova's successor. Nova also generated considerable amounts of data on high-density matter physics, regardless of the lack of ignition, which is useful both in fusion power and nuclear weapons research. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 452 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2253 × 2989 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 452 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2253 × 2989 pixels, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy (per pulse) to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... An important field of plasma physics is the stability of the plasma. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...

Contents

Background

The basic idea of any ICF device is to rapidly heat the outer layers of a "target", normally a small plastic sphere containing a few milligrams of fusion fuel, typically a mix of deuterium and tritium. The heat burns the plastic into a plasma, which explodes off the surface. Due to Newton's Third Law, the remaining portion of the target is driven inwards, eventually collapsing into a small point of very high density. The rapid blowoff also creates a shock wave that travels towards the center of the compressed fuel. When it meets itself in the center of the fuel, the energy in the shock wave further heats and compresses the tiny volume around it. If the temperature and density of that small spot is raised high enough, fusion reactions will occur. Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy (per pulse) to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... Newtons laws of motion are the three scientific laws which Isaac Newton discovered concerning the behaviour of moving bodies. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ...


The fusion reactions release high-energy particles, which collide with the high density fuel around it and slow down. This heats the fuel further, and can potentially cause that fuel to undergo fusion as well. Given the right overall conditions of the compressed fuel –high enough density and temperature– this heating process can result in a chain reaction, burning outward from the center where the shock wave started the reaction. This is a condition known as "ignition", which can lead to a significant portion of the fuel in the target undergoing fusion, and the release of significant amounts of energy. A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ...


To date most ICF experiments have used lasers to heat the targets. Calculations show that the energy must be delivered quickly in order to compress the core before it disassembles, as well as creating a suitable shock wave. The laser beams must also be focussed evenly across the target's outer surface in order to collapse the fuel into a symmetric core. Although other "drivers" have been suggested, lasers are currently the only devices with the right combination of features.


History

Prior to the construction of Nova, LLNL had designed and built a series of ever-larger lasers that explored the problems of basic ICF design. LLNL was primarily interested in the Nd:glass laser, which, at the time, was one of a very few high-energy laser designs known. Building large Nd:glass lasers had not been attempted before, and LLNL's early research focussed primarily on how to make these devices.


One problem was the homogeneity of the beams. Even minor variations in intensity of the beams would result in "self-focusing" in the air and glass optics in a process known as Kerr lensing. The resulting beam included small "filaments" of extremely high light intensity, so high it would damage the glass optics of the device. This problem was solved in the Cyclops laser with the introduction of the spatial filtering technique. Cyclops was followed by the Argus laser of greater power, which explored the problems of controlling more than one beam and illuminating a target more evenly. All of this work culminated in the Shiva laser, a proof-of-concept design for a high power system that included 20 separate "laser amplifiers" that were directed around the target to illuminate it. The Kerr effect or the quadratic electro-optic effect is a change in the refractive index of a material in response to the intensity of an external electric field. ... The single beam Cyclops laser at LLNL around the time of its completion in 1975. ... A spatial filter is an optical device which uses the principles of Fourier optics to alter the structure of a beam of coherent light or other electromagnetic radiation. ... Argus laser overhead view. ... The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. ...


It was during experiments with Shiva that another serious unexpected problem appeared. The infrared light generated by the Nd:glass lasers was found to interact very strongly with the electrons in the plasma created during the initial heating through the process of stimulated Raman scattering. This process, referred to as "hot electron pre-heating", carried away a great amount of the laser's energy, and also caused the core of the target to heat before it reached maximum compression, thus ruining the implosion. Although it was known that shorter wavelengths would reduce this problem, it had earlier been expected that the IR frequencies used in Shiva would be "short enough". This proved not to be the case. For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon. ...


A solution to this problem was explored in the form of efficient frequency multipliers, optical devices that combine several photons into one of higher energy, and thus frequency. These devices were quickly introduced and tested experimentally on the OMEGA laser and others, proving effective. Although the process is only about 50% efficient, and half the original laser power is lost, the resulting ultraviolet light couples much more efficiently to the target plasma and is much more effective in collapsing the target to high density. A frequency multiplier is commonly used in a radio transmitters to multiply the base frequency of the oscillator by a predetermined number. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochesters south campus, located in Rochester, New York. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...


With these solutions in hand, LLNL decided to build a device with the power needed to produce ignition conditions. Design started in the late 1970s, with construction following shortly starting with the testbed Novette laser to validate the basic beamline and frequency multiplier design. This was a time of repeated energy crises in the U.S. and funding was not difficult to find given the large amounts of money available for alternative energy and nuclear weapons research. The Novette target chamber with two laser chains visible in background. ... This article is about energy crises in general. ... Alternative energy is energy derived from sources that do not harm the environment or deplete the Earths natural resources. ...


Design

Maintenance on the Nova target chamber. The various devices all point towards the center of the chamber where the targets are placed during experimental runs. The targets are held in place on the end of the white-colored "needle" at the end of the arm running vertically down into the chamber.
Maintenance on the Nova target chamber. The various devices all point towards the center of the chamber where the targets are placed during experimental runs. The targets are held in place on the end of the white-colored "needle" at the end of the arm running vertically down into the chamber.
The Nova laser target chamber during alignment and initial installation (ca. early 1980s). Some of the larger diameter holes hold various measurement devices, which are designed to a standard size to fit into these ports while others are used as beam ports.
The Nova laser target chamber during alignment and initial installation (ca. early 1980s). Some of the larger diameter holes hold various measurement devices, which are designed to a standard size to fit into these ports while others are used as beam ports.

Nova emerged as a system with ten laser amplifiers, or "beamlines". Each beamline consisted of a series of Nd:glass amplifiers separated by spatial filters and other optics for "cleaning up" the resulting beams. Although techniques for "folding" the beamlines were known as early as Shiva, they were not well developed at this point in time. Nova ended up with a single fold in its layout, and the "laser bay" containing the beamlines was 300 feet long. To the casual observer it appears to contain twenty 300 foot long beamlines, but due to the fold each of the ten is actually almost 600 feet long in terms of optical path length.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 681 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 880 pixels, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Maintenance on the NOVA laser target chamber. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 681 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 880 pixels, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Maintenance on the NOVA laser target chamber. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2868x2256, 2989 KB) Alignment during installation of the Nova laser target chamber. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2868x2256, 2989 KB) Alignment during installation of the Nova laser target chamber. ...


Prior to firing the Nd:glass amplifiers are first pumped with a series of Xenon flash lamps surrounding them. Some of the light produced by the lamps is captured in the glass, leading to a population inversion that allows for amplification via stimulated emission. This process is quite inefficient, and only about 1 to 1.5% of the power fed into the lamps is actually turned into laser energy. In order to produce the sort of laser power required for Nova the lamps had to be very large, fed power from a large bank of capacitors located under the laser bay. The flash also generates a large amount of heat which distorts the glass, requiring time for the lamps and glass to cool before they can be fired again. This limits Nova to about six firings a day at the maximum. Laser pumping is the act of energy transfer from an external source into the laser gain medium. ... Xenon flash lamp being fired. ... In physics, specifically statistical mechanics, the concept of population inversion is of fundamental importance in laser science because the production of a population inversion is a necessary step in the workings of a laser. ... In optics, stimulated emission is the process by which, when perturbed by a photon, matter may lose energy resulting in the creation of another photon. ... See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ...


Once pumped and ready for firing, a small pulse of laser light is fed into the beamlines. The Nd:glass disks each dump additional power into the beam as it passes through them. After passing through a number of amplifiers the light pulse is "cleaned up" in a spatial filter before being fed into another series of amplifiers. In total, Nova contained fifteen amplifiers and five filters of increasing size in the beamlines, with an option to add an additional amplifier on the last stage, although it is not clear if these were used in practice.


From there all ten beams pass into the experiment area at one end of the laser bay. Here a series of mirrors reflects the beams to impinge in the center of the bay from all angles. Optical devices in some of the paths slow the beams so that they all reach the center at the same time (within about a picosecond), as some of the beams have longer paths to the center than others. Frequency multipliers upconvert the light to green and blue (UV) just prior to entering the "target chamber". Nova is arranged so any remaining IR or green light is focused short of the center of the chamber.


The Nova laser as a whole was capable of delivering approximately 100 kilojoules of infrared light at 1054 nm, or 40-45 kilojoules of frequency tripled light at 351 nm (the third harmonic of the Nd:Glass fundamental line at 1054 nm) in a pulse duration of about 2 to 4 nanoseconds and thus was capable of producing a UV pulse in the range of a few tens of terawatts. This article is about the components of sound. ... A nanosecond is an SI derived unit of time equal to 10-9 of a second. ... This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various different sources of energy. ...


Fusion in Nova

Research on Nova was focussed on the "indirect drive" approach, where the laser shine on the inside surface of a thin metal foil, typically made of gold, lead, or another "high-z" metal. When heated by the laser, the metal re-radiates this energy as diffuse x-rays, which are more efficient than UV at compressing the fuel pellet. In order to emit x-rays, the metal must be heated to very high temperatures, which uses up a considerable amount of the laser energy. So while the compression is more efficient, the overall energy delivered to the target is nevertheless much smaller. The reason for the x-ray conversion is not to improve energy delivery, but to "smooth" the energy profile; since the metal foil spreads out the heat somewhat, the anisotropies in the original laser are greatly reduced. A heavy metal is any of a number of higher atomic weight elements, which has the properties of a metallic substance at room temperature. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


The foil shells, or "hohlraums", are generally formed as small open-ended cylinders, with the laser arranged to shine in the open ends at an oblique angle in order to strike the inner surface. In order to support the indirect drive research at Nova, a second experimental area was built "past" the main one, opposite the laser bay. The system was arranged to focus all ten beams into two sets of five each, which passed into this second area and then into either end of the target chamber, and from there into the hohlraums.[2] In radiation thermodynamics, a hohlraum (in literal German, a hollow area or cavity, a term of art synonymous with radiation case) is a cavity whose walls are in radiative equilibrium with the radiant energy within the cavity. ...


Confusingly, the indirect drive approach was not made "widely public" until 1993. Documents from the era published in general science magazines and similar material either gloss over the issue, or imply that Nova was using the direct drive approach, lacking the hohlraum. It was only during the design of NIF that the topic become public, so Nova was old news by that point.

Fusion target implosion on Nova. The green coloring of the target holder is due to the leftover laser light that was upconverted only "half way" to UV, stopping at green. The optics are arranged to focus this light "short" of the target, and here it strikes the holder. A small amount of IR light is also leftover, but this cannot be seen in this visible-light photograph. An estimate of the size of the implosion can be made by comparing the size of the target holder here with the image above.
Fusion target implosion on Nova. The green coloring of the target holder is due to the leftover laser light that was upconverted only "half way" to UV, stopping at green. The optics are arranged to focus this light "short" of the target, and here it strikes the holder. A small amount of IR light is also leftover, but this cannot be seen in this visible-light photograph. An estimate of the size of the implosion can be made by comparing the size of the target holder here with the image above.

As had happened with the earlier Shiva, Nova failed to meet expectations in terms of fusion output. In this case the problem was tracked to instabilities that "mixed" the fuel during collapse and upset the formation and transmission of the shock wave. The maximum fusion yield on NOVA was about 1013 neutrons per shot. Image File history File links Fusion_target_implosion_on_NOVA_laser. ... Image File history File links Fusion_target_implosion_on_NOVA_laser. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ...


The problem was caused by Nova's inability to closely match the output energy of each of the beamlines, which meant that different areas of the pellet received different amounts of heating across its surface. This led to "hot spots" on the pellet which were imprinted into the imploding plasma, seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and thereby mixing the plasma so the center did not collapse uniformly. RT fingers evident in the Crab Nebula Hydrodynamics simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability[1] The Rayleigh-Taylor instability, or RT instability (after Lord Rayleigh and G. I. Taylor), occurs any time a dense, heavy fluid is being accelerated by light fluid. ...


Nevertheless, Nova remained a useful instrument even in its original form, and the main target chamber and beamlines were used for many years even after it was modified as outlined below. These experiments added considerably not only to the understanding of ICF, but also to high-density physics in general, and even the evolution of the galaxy and supernovas. A description of the effects of the many fusion events on the target chamber can be found here. For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ...


Early modifications

Shortly after completion of Nova, modifications were made to improve it as an experimental device. One problem was that the experimental chamber took a long time to refit for another "shot", longer than the time needed to cool down the lasers. In order to improve utilization of the laser, a second experimental chamber was built "past" the original, with optics that combined the ten beamlines into two. These beamlines extended beyond the original experimental area into a second area, with its own experimental chamber.


Nova had been built up against the older Shiva buildings. Both consisted of a long and low building housing the beamlines, and then a larger cube housing the experimental area. The buildings were arranged with the experimental areas back to back, so the Two Beam system was installed by passing the beamguides and related optics through the Shiva experimental area and placing the smaller experimental chamber in Shiva's beam bay.


Petawatt

Staring in the late 1980s a new method of creating very short but very high power laser pulses was developed, known as chirped pulse amplification, or CPA. Starting in 1992, LLNL staff modified one of Nova's existing arms to built an experimental CPA laser that produced up to 1.25 PW. Known simply as Petawatt, it operated until 1999 when Nova was dismantled to make way for NIF.[3] Chirped pulse amplification (CPA) or optical parametric chirped pulse amplification, is a technique for amplifying an ultrashort laser pulse up to the petawatt level with the laser pulse being stretched out temporally and spectrally prior to amplification. ...


The basic amplification system used in Nova and other high-power lasers of its era was limited in terms of power density and pulse length. One problem was that the amplifier glass responded over a period of time, not instantaneously, and very short pulses would not be strongly amplified. Another problem was that the high power densities led to the same sorts of self-focusing problems that had caused problems in earlier designs, but at such a magnitude that even measures like spacial filtering would not be enough, in fact the power densities were high enough to cause filaments for form in air.


CPA avoids both of these problems by spreading out the laser pulse in time. It does this by reflecting a relatively multi-chromatic (as compared to most lasers) pulse off a series of two diffraction gratings, which splits them spatially into different frequencies, essentially the same thing a simple prism does with visible light. These individual frequencies have to travel different distances when reflected back into the beamline, resulting in the pulse being "stretched out" in time. This longer pulse is fed into the amplifiers as normal, which now have time to respond normally. After amplification the beams are sent into a second pair of gratings "in reverse" to recombine them into a single short pulse with high power. In order to avoid filamentation or damage to the optical elements, the entire end of the beamline is placed in a large vacuum chamber. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... If a shaft of light entering a prism is sufficiently narrow, a spectrum results. ... A large vacuum chamber. ...


Although Petawatt was instrumental in advancing the practical basis for the concept of "fast ignition fusion", by the time it was operational as a proof-of-concept device, the decision to move ahead with NIF had already been taken. Further work on the fast ignition approach continues, and will potentially reach a level of development far in advance of NIF at HiPER, an experimental system under development in the European Union. If successful, HiPER should generate fusion energy over twice that of NIF, while requiring a laser system of less than one-quarter the power and one-tenth the cost. Fast ignition is one of the more promising approaches to fusion power. HiPER is an experimental laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device currently undergoing preliminary design for possible construction in the European Union starting around 2010. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ...


"Death" of Nova

When Nova was being dismantled to make way for NIF, the target chamber was lent to France for temporary use during the development of Laser Megajoule, a system similar to NIF in many ways. This loan was controversial, as the only other operational laser at LLNL at the time, Beamlet (a single experimental beamline for NIF), had recently been sent to Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. This left LLNL with no large laser facility until NIF started operation, which was then estimated as being 2003 at the earliest. NIF is still not completely operational in 2007.[4] Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is an experimental inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device being built in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA. Laser Mégajoule plans to deliver about 1. ... Sandia National Laboratories is a major United States Department of Energy research and development national laboratory with two locations, one in Albuquerque, New Mexico and the other in Livermore, California. ...


References

  1. ^ Nova Laser Experiments and Stockpile Stewardship
  2. ^ A Virtual Reality Tour of Nova - opening diagram shows the modified beamline arrangement.
  3. ^ The Amazing Power of the Petawatt
  4. ^ US sends Livermore laser target chamber to France on loan
  • Kilkenny, J.D. et al., RECENT NOVA EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS,FUSION TECHNOLOGY 21 (3): 1340-1343 Part 2A, MAY 1992
  • Hammel, B.A., The NIF Ignition Program: progress and planning, PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION 48 (12B): B497-B506 Sp. Iss. SI, DEC 2006
  • Coleman L.W., RECENT EXPERIMENTS WITH THE NOVA LASER, JOURNAL OF FUSION ENERGY 6 (4): 319-327 DEC 1987


Fusion power
v  d  e

Atomic nucleus | Nuclear fusion | Nuclear power | Nuclear reactor | Timeline of nuclear fusion | Plasma physics | Magnetohydrodynamics | Neutron flux | Fusion energy gain factor | Lawson criterion Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Timeline of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion: 1929 - Atkinson and Houtermans used the measured masses of light elements and applied Einsteins discovery that E=mc² to predict that large amounts of energy could be released by fusing small nuclei together. ... A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... neutron flux n : the rate of flow of neutrons; the number of neutrons passing through a unit area in unit time via dictionary. ... The fusion energy gain factor, usually expressed with the symbol Q, is the ratio of fusion power produced in a nuclear fusion reactor to the power required to maintain the plasma in steady state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Methods of fusing nuclei

Magnetic confinement: – Tokamak – Spheromak – Stellarator – Reversed field pinch – Field-Reversed Configuration – Levitated Dipole
Inertial confinement: –
Laser driven – Z-pinch – Bubble fusion (acoustic confinement) – Fusor (electrostatic confinement)
Other forms of fusion: –
Muon-catalyzed fusion – Pyroelectric fusion – Migma – Polywell – Dense plasma focus The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) is a sustained nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ... This article is about the fusion reactor device. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Stellarator magnetic field and magnets A stellarator is a device used to confine a hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. ... Reversed-Field Pinch is a toroidal magnetic confinement scheme. ... A Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) is a device developed for magnetic fusion energy research that confines a plasma on closed magnetic field lines without a central penetration. ... A Levitated Dipole is a unique form of fusion reactor technology using a solid superconducting torus, magnetically levitated in the reactor chamber. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy (per pulse) to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by heating and compressing a target – a pellet that most often contains deuterium and tritium – by the use of intense laser or ion beams. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pinch (plasma physics). ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ... U.S. Patent 3,386,883 - fusor — June 4, 1968 The Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor, or simply fusor, is an apparatus designed by Philo T. Farnsworth to create nuclear fusion. ... Inertial electrostatic confinement (often abbreviated as IEC) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic field. ... Muon-catalyzed fusion is a process allowing nuclear fusion to take place at room temperature. ... Pyroelectric fusion is a technique for achieving nuclear fusion by using an electric field generated by pyroelectric crystals to accelerate ions of deuterium (tritium might also be used someday) into a metal hydride target also containing detuerium (or tritium) with sufficient kinetic energy to cause these ions to fuse together. ... Migma was a proposed inertial electrostatic confinement fusion reactor designed by Bogdan Maglich around 1973. ... WB-6, the latest experiment, assembled The Polywell is a gridless inertial electrostatic confinement fusion concept utilizing multiple magnetic mirrors. ... A Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) is a plasma machine that produces, by electromagnetic acceleration and compression, short-lived plasma that is so hot and dense that it becomes a copious multi-radiation source. ...

List of fusion experiments

Magnetic confinement devices
ITER (International) |
JET (European) | JT-60 (Japan) | Large Helical Device (Japan) | KSTAR (Korea) | EAST (China) | T-15 (Russia) | DIII-D (USA) | Tore Supra (France) | TFTR (USA) | NSTX (USA) | NCSX (USA) | UCLA ET (USA) | Alcator C-Mod (USA) | LDX (USA) | H-1NF (Australia) | MAST (UK) | START (UK) | ASDEX Upgrade (Germany) | Wendelstein 7-X (Germany) | TCV (Switzerland) | DEMO (Commercial) Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot. ... ITER is an international tokamak (magnetic confinement fusion) research/engineering project designed to prove the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... JT-60 (JT stands for Japan Torus) is the flagship of Japans magnetic fusion program, previously run by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and currently run by the Japan Atomic Energy Agencys (JAEA) Naka Fusion Institute[1] in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... Categories: Stub | Nuclear technology ... The KSTAR, or Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Reactor is a magnetic fusion device being built at the Korea Basic Science Institute in Daejon, South Korea. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... The T-15 is a Russian nuclear fusion research reactor, based on the (Russian-invented) tokamak design. ... DIII-D or D3-D is the name of a tokamak machine developed in the 1980s by General Atomics in San Diego, USA, as part of the ongoing effort to achieve magnetically confined fusion. ... Tore Supra is a tokamak français en activité après larrêt du TFR (Tokamak de Fontenay-aux-Roses) et de Petula (à Grenoble). ... The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was an experimental fusion test reactor built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (in Princeton, New Jersey) circa 1980. ... The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is an innovative magnetic fusion device that was constructed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Columbia University, and the University of Washington at Seattle. ... The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a plasma confinement experiment being conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. ... The UCLA Electric Tokamak is a low field (0. ... Alcator C-Mod is a tokamak, a magnetically confined nuclear fusion device, at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center. ... The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is a project devoted to researching a type of nuclear fusion which utilizes a floating superconducting torus to provide an axisymmetric magnetic field which is used to contain plasma. ... The H-1 flexible Heliac is a three field-period helical axis stellarator located in the Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering at the Australian National University. ... The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak, or MAST experiment is a nuclear fusion experiment in operation at Culham since December 1999. ... The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak, or START was a nuclear fusion experiment that used magnetic confinement to hold plasma. ... The ASDEX Upgrade divertor tokamak (Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment) went into operation at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching in 1991. ... Wendelstein 7-X is an experimental stellarator (nuclear fusion reactor) currently being built in Greifswald, Germany by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), which will be completed by 2012. ... Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV): inner view, with the graphite-claded torus. ... This article or section contains speculation and may try to argue its points. ...


Inertial confinement devices
Laser driven:NIF (USA) |
OMEGA laser (USA) | Nova laser (USA) | Novette laser (USA) | Nike laser (USA) | Shiva laser (USA) | Argus laser (USA) | Cyclops laser (USA) | Janus laser (USA) | Long path laser (USA) | 4 pi laser (USA) | LMJ (France) | Luli2000 (France) | GEKKO XII (Japan) | ISKRA lasers (Russia) | Vulcan laser (UK) | Asterix IV laser (Czech Republic) | HiPER laser (European)
Non-laser driven:Z machine (USA) |
PACER (USA)
A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochesters south campus, located in Rochester, New York. ... The Novette target chamber with two laser chains visible in background. ... Final amplifier of the Nike laser where laser beam energy is increased from 150 J to ~5 Kj by passing through a krypton/fluorine/argon gas mixture excited by irradiation with two opposing 670,000 volt electron beams. ... The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. ... Argus laser overhead view. ... The single beam Cyclops laser at LLNL around the time of its completion in 1975. ... The Janus laser as it appeared in 1975. ... The Long Path laser was an early high energy infrared laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory used to study inertial confinement fusion. ... Physicist Frank Rainer (inset), who was involved in laser research and development at LLNL since 1966, holds the target chamber seen at the center of the larger picture. ... Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is an experimental inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device being built in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA. Laser Mégajoule plans to deliver about 1. ... LULI2000 is a high-power laser system dedicated to scientific research. ... GEKKO XII is a high-power 12-beam neodymium doped glass laser at the Osaka Universitys Institute for Laser Engineering completed in 1983, which is used for high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion research. ... The ISKRA-4 and ISKRA-5 lasers are lasers which were built by the Russian federation at RFNC-VNIIEF in Arzamas-16() with the ~2Kj output ISKRA-4 laser being completed in 1979 and the ~30Kj output ISKRA-5 laser which was completed in 1989. ... The Vulcan laser is an 8 beam 2. ... The Asterix IV laser in Prague (commonly reffered to by the acronym PALS for Prague Asterix Laser System) is a high power photolytically pumped iodine gas laser which is capable of producing ~300 to 500 picosecond long pulses of light at the fundamental line of 1. ... HiPER is an experimental laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device currently undergoing preliminary design for possible construction in the European Union starting around 2010. ... Zork universe Zork games Zork Anthology Zork trilogy Zork I   Zork II   Zork III Beyond Zork   Zork Zero   Planetfall Enchanter trilogy Enchanter   Sorcerer   Spellbreaker Other games Wishbringer   Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis   Zork Grand Inquisitor Zork: The Undiscovered Underground Topics in Zork Encyclopedia Frobozzica Characters   Kings   Creatures Timeline   Magic   Calendar... The PACER project, carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the mid-1970s, explored the possibility of a fusion power system that would involve exploding small hydrogen bombs (fusion bombs)—or, as stated in a later proposal, fission bombs—inside an underground cavity. ...


See also: International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility The International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, also known as IFMIF, is an international scientific research program designed to test materials for suitability for use in a fusion reactor. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Inertial Confinement Fusion (443 words)
Laser fusion attempts to force nuclear fusion in tiny pellets or microballoons of a deuterium-tritium mixture by zapping them with such a high energy density that they will fuse before they have time to move away from each other.
Nova is the name given to the second generation laser fusion device at Lawrence Livermore Laboratories.
Nova makes use of ten lasers which are focused on a 1 mm diameter target area, dumping 100,000 joules of energy into the target in a nanosecond.
Nova (disambiguation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (296 words)
Nova, Hungary; a town in county Zala in Hungary
Nova, Ohio; a place in the state of Ohio in the USA
Nova (comics); a Marvel Comics character, briefly a member of the 'Fantastic Four', and later one of 'Galactus's Heralds'
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