FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Notes from Underground
Notes from Underground
Author Fyodor Dostoevsky
Original title Записки из подполья
Translator Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky OR Constance Garnett OR Jessie Coulson
Country Russia
Language Russian; English
Genre(s) Novella
Publisher Vintage; Reprint edition
Publication date 1864
Published in
English
1972
Media type Print (Paperback)
Pages 136
ISBN ISBN 067973452X

Notes from Underground (Russian: Записки из подполья, Zapìski iz pòdpol'ja, also translated in English as Notes from the Underground or Letters from the Underworld while Notes from Underground is the most literal translation) (1864) is a short novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky. It is considered by many to be the world's first existentialist novel. It presents itself as an excerpt from the rambling memoirs of a bitter, isolated, unnamed narrator (generally referred to by critics as the Underground Man) who is a retired civil servant living in St. Petersburg. Notes from the Underground is the debut album by experimental jazz fusion trio Medeski Martin & Wood. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... Richard Pevear is an American-born poet and translator who frequently collaborates with his wife, Larissa Volokhonsky, on translations of Russian novels. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISBN redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...

Contents

Plot summary

The novel is divided into two rough parts.


Part 1

Part 1 falls into an introduction, three main sections and a conclusion. (i) The short introduction propounds a number of riddles whose meanings will be further developed. (1) Chapters two, three and four deal with suffering and the enjoyment of suffering; (2) chapters five and and six with intellectual and moral vacillation and with conscious "inertia"-inaction; (3) chapters seven through nine with theories of reason and advantage; (c) the last two chapters are a summary and a transition into Part 2.


War is described as people's rebellion against the assumption that everything needs to happen for a purpose, because humans do things without purpose, and this is what determines human history. For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


Secondly, the narrator's desire for pain and paranoia is exemplified by his liver pain and toothache. This parallels Raskolnikov's behavior in Dostoevsky's later novel,Crime and Punishment. He says that, due to the cruelty of society, human beings only moan about pain in order to spread their suffering to others. He builds up his own paranoia to the point he is incapable of looking his co-workers in the eye. Rodion Romanovitch Raskolnikov is the protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Dostoevsky. ... For other uses, see Crime and Punishment (disambiguation). ...


The main issue for the Underground Man, is that he has reached a point of inactivity. Unlike most people, who typically act out of revenge because they believe justice is the end, he is conscious of this problem. Though he feels the desire for revenge, he does not find it virtuous; this incongruity leads to spite and spite towards the act itself with its concomitant circumstances. He feels that others like him exist, yet he continuously concentrates on his spitefulness instead of on action that avoids the problems he is so concerned with. He even admits at one point that he’d rather be inactive out of laziness.


The first part also gives a harsh criticism of determinism and intellectual attempts at dictating human action, which the Underground Man mentions in terms of a simple math problem two times two makes four (see also necessitarianism). He states that despite humanity’s attempt to create the "Crystal Palace," a reference to a famous symbol of utopianism in Nikolai Chernyshevsky’s What Is to Be Done?. The real Crystal Palace, a vast exhibition hall of glass and iron, was built in London for the Great Exhibition of 1851. The structure used the most advanced materials and technology available at the time. Utopian socialists and other architects of the "Crystal Palace" cannot avoid the simple fact that anyone at any time can decide to act against what is considered good, and some will do so simply to validate their existence and/or to protest that they exist as individuals. This type of rebellion is critical to later works of Dostoevsky as this type of rebellion is used by adolescents to validate their own existence, uniqueness and independence (see Dostoevsky's The Adolescent) in the face of the disorder one inherits under the understanding of tradition and society. This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... The phrase two plus two makes five (or 2 + 2 = 5) is sometimes used as a succinct and vivid representation of an illogical statement, especially one made and maintained to suit an ideological agenda. ... Necessitarianism (Principle in metaphysics) — Necessitarianism is determinism applied to human beings: the doctrine that human beings do not have free will but are determined in their actions by antecedent, external causes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into utopia. ... Chernyshevsky redirects here. ... What is to be Done? (orig. ... The Raw Youth or The Adolescent (Russian: Подросток), is a novel of Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky. ...


In other works Dostoevsky constructs a negative argument to validate free will against determinism in the character Kirillov's suicide in his novel the Demons (that sumbebekos is supernatural). Notes from Underground being the marked starting point of Dostoevsky moving from his psychological and sociological themed novels to novels based on existential and or human experience in crisis. For the theatrical adaptation by Albert Camus, see The Possessed (play). ... Aristotle made a distinction between the essential and accidental properties of a thing. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... An existential crisis is a state of panic or feeling of intense psychological discomfort about questions of existence. ...


Part 2

The second part is the actual story proper and consists of three main segments that lead to a furthering of the Underground Man's super-consciousness.


The first is his obsession with a policeman who moves him out of the way like a piece of furniture while breaking up a brawl at a bar. He sees the officer on the street and thinks of ways to take revenge, eventually deciding to bump into him, which he does, finding to his surprise that the officer does not seem to even notice it happened.


The second segment is a dinner party with some old school friends to wish Zverkov, one of their number, goodbye as he leaves for the service. The underground man hated them when he was younger, but after a random visit to Simonov’s he decides to meet them at the appointed location. They fail to tell him that the time has been changed to six instead of five, so he arrives early. He gets into an argument with the three after a short time, declaring all of his hatred of society and using them as the symbol of it. At the end they go off without him to a secret brothel, and in his rage later that evening the underground man goes there to confront Zverkov once and for all, regardless if he is beaten or not. He arrives to find Zverkov and company has left but it is there that he meets Liza, a young prostitute.


After sitting in silence for a while, the underground man confronts Liza, who is unwavering at first, but eventually realizes the plight of her position and how she will slowly become useless and go lower and lower until she is no longer wanted by anyone. The thought of dying such a terribly disgraceful death brings her to realize her position, and she then finds herself enthralled by the underground man’s seemingly poignant grasp of society’s ills. He gives her his address and leaves. After this, he is overcome by the fear of her actually arriving at his dilapidated apartment, and in the middle of an argument with his servant, she arrives. He then curses her and takes back everything he said to her, saying he was in fact laughing at her and reiterates the truth of her miserable position. Near the end of his painful rage he wells up in tears after saying that he was only seeking to have power over her and a desire to humiliate her. He begins to criticize himself and states that he is in fact horrified by his own poverty and embarrassed by his situation. Liza realizes how pitiful he is and they embrace. The underground man cries out “They – they won’t let me – I – I can’t be good!” After this he still acts terribly towards her and before she leaves he stuffs something into her hand, which she throws onto the table. It was a five ruble note. He tries to catch her as she goes out onto the street but cannot find her and never hears from her again. He recalls this moment as making him unhappy whenever he thinks of it, yet again proving the fact from the first section that his spite for society and his inability to act like it makes him unable to act better than it.


Literary significance and criticism

The Underground Man became a common character type in many of the works that followed the novella. He is present in Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina in the milder form of the character Nikolai Levin, in Anton Chekhov's Ward No. 6, Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man, and in Joseph Heller's Catch-22 as Yossarian the 28-year-old Army Air Corps Captain. Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... This article refers to the novel by Tolstoy. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: , IPA: ) was a Russian short story writer and playwright. ... Ralph Ellison (March 1, 1913[1] – April 16, 1994) was a scholar and writer. ... For the H.G. Wells novel, see The Invisible Man. ... Joseph Heller (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American satirical novelist and playwright. ... Catch 22 can refer to: A book by Joseph Heller, or the movie based on the book; see Catch-22. ... Yossarian, as portrayed by Alan Arkin Captain John Yossarian is the 28-year-old protagonist of the 1961 novel Catch-22 by Joseph Heller. ...


Like many of Dostoevsky's novels, Notes from Underground was unpopular with Soviet literary critics due to its explicit rejection of socialist utopianism and its portrait of humans as irrational, uncontrollable, and uncooperative. His claim that human needs can never be satisfied even through technological progress, also goes against Marxist beliefs. Many existentialist critics, notably Jean-Paul Sartre, considered the novel to be a forerunner of existentialist thought and an inspiration to their own philosophies. Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ...


The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was very impressed with Dostoevsky, claiming that "Dostoevsky is one of the few psychologists from whom I have learned something," and that Notes from Underground "cried truth from the blood". In spite of this lavish praise the philosopher also wrote negatively of Dostoevsky in his Twilight of the Idols. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... The Twilight of the Idols (Götzen-Dämmerung) is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche, written in 1888, and published in 1889. ...


The novel has also been cited by Paul Schrader as an influence when he wrote the screenplay for the film Taxi Driver, which has existential themes. Paul Joseph Schrader (born July 22, 1946 in Grand Rapids, Michigan) is an American screenwriter and film director. ... This article is about the 1976 American film. ...


Oleg Liptsin has adapted Notes from Underground for the stage. The world premiere was at the Phoenix Theatre in San Francisco on September 28th, 2007. Oleg Liptsin, born in Kiev, Ukraine in 1960, is a theatre director and professor of drama. ...


The novel American Psycho quotes a passage from 'Notes from Underground'. For other uses, see American Psycho (disambiguation). ...


Canadian singer-songwriter Sarah Slean wrote a song titled "Notes From The Underground". It appears on her album The Baroness. Sarah Slean performing at De Helling in Utrecht, the Netherlands. ...


See also

This article is about state anxiety. ... In literature and film, an anti-hero is a central or supporting character that has some of the personality flaws and ultimate fortune traditionally assigned to villains but nonetheless also have enough heroic qualities or intentions to gain the sympathy of readers or viewers. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Narodniks was the name for Russian revolutionaries of the 1860s and 1870s. ... Vasily Vasilievich Rozanov (Василий Васильевич Розанов) (1856 - 1919) was one of the most controversial Russian writers and philosophers of the pre-revolutionary epoch. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Voluntarism is a descriptive term for a school of thought which regards the will as superior to the intellect and to emotion. ... In philosophical debates about free will and determinism, libertarianism is generally held to be the combination of the following beliefs: that free will is incompatible with determinism that human beings do possess free will, and that determinism is false All libertarians subscribe to the philosophy of incompatibilism which states that... We (Russian: )[1] is a dystopian novel by Yevgeny Zamyatin completed in 1921. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Notes from Underground
  • Notes from the Underground, available at Project Gutenberg.
  • Free audiobook available at LibriVox
  • Full text of Notes from Underground in the original Russian
  • SparkNotes
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... Poor Folk was first novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky, which he wrote over the span of nine months. ... The name Netochka Nezvanova, which can be translated roughly as nameless nobody, is widely believed to be a pseudonym taken from the name of the eponymous title character in Fyodor Dostoevskys early unfinished novel. ... The Village of Stepanchikovo is a book written by Fyodor Dostoevsky and first published in 1859. ... The Insulted and Humiliated (also known as The Insulted and the Injured) is a novella by Fyodor Dostoevsky, first published in 1861, is a book about the huge contradictions present in life. ... Penguin Edition of the House of the Dead The House of the Dead, Notes from the Dead House or Memoirs from the House of The Dead is a novel published in 1862 by Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky, which portrays the life of convicts in a Siberian prison camp. ... For other uses, see Crime and Punishment (disambiguation). ... The Gambler is a novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky about a young tutor in the employment of a formerly wealthy Russian General. ... The Idiot is a novel written by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky and first published in 1869. ... For the theatrical adaptation by Albert Camus, see The Possessed (play). ... The Raw Youth or The Adolescent (Russian: Подросток), is a novel of Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... For other uses, see The Brothers Karamazov (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Dostoevsky. ... This article is about the Dostoevsky short story. ... A Christmas Tree and a Wedding is a short story by Dostoevsky. ... An Honest Thief is an 1848 short story by Dostoevsky. ... The Peasant Marey is a short story by Fyodor Dostoevsky written in 1876. ... The Dream of a Ridiculous Man is a short story by Fyodor Dostoevsky written in 1877. ... A Gentle Creature, sometimes also translated as The Meek One, is a short story written by Fyodor Dostoevsky in 1876. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An English translation of A Writers Diary A Writers Diary is a novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Standalone copy of the chapter The Grand Inquisitor Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Grand Inquisitor The Grand Inquisitor is a parable told by Ivan to Alyosha in Fyodor Dostoevskys novel, The Brothers Karamazov (1879-1880). ... Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov (Russian: Родион Романович Раскольников) is the fictional protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Nastasya Filippovna is the principle heroine in Fyodor Dostoevskys novel The Idiot. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Notes from Underground - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (467 words)
Notes from Underground (also translated in English as Notes from the Underground or Letters from the Underworld) (1864) is a short novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky.
It presents itself as an excerpt from the rambling memoirs of a bitter, isolated, unnamed narrator (generally referred to by critics as Underground Man) who is a retired civil servant living in St.
Like many of Dostoevsky's novels, Notes from Underground was unpopular with Soviet literary critics due to its explicit rejection of socialist utopianism and its portrait of humans as irrational, uncontrollable, and uncooperative.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m