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Encyclopedia > Norwegian language
Norwegian
norsk
Spoken in: Norway (including Svalbard and Jan Mayen) and some parts of United States and Canada
Total speakers: 6.3 million [citation needed] 
Ranking: 111
Language family: Indo-European
 Germanic
  North Germanic
   West Scandinavian[1]
    Norwegian 
Official status
Official language of: Flag of Norway Norway
Nordic Council
Regulated by: Norwegian Language Council
Language codes
ISO 639-1: no — Norwegian
nbBokmål
nnNynorsk
ISO 639-2: nor — Norwegian
nobBokmål
nnoNynorsk
ISO 639-3: variously:
nor — Norwegian
nob — Bokmål
nno — Nynorsk

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language. Norwegian is closely related to and generally mutually intelligible with Swedish and Danish. Together with these, as well as Faroese, Icelandic and a number of extinct languages, Norwegian belongs to the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages). Due to isolation, Faroese and Icelandic are no longer mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form, because mainland Scandinavian has diverged from them. This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Nordic_Council. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... Norsk språkråd (The Norwegian Language Council) is the Norwegian governments advisory body in matters pertaining to the Norwegian language and language planning. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... A pair of languages is said to be mutually intelligible if speakers of one language can readily understand the other language. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ...


Spoken Norwegian forms a continuum of local and regional variants that are all mutually intelligible. There is no officially sanctioned standard of spoken Norwegian, but there is a de facto spoken standard of Bokmål known as Standard Østnorsk (Standard East Norwegian), spoken mainly by the urban upper and middle class in East Norway. Standard Østnorsk is the form generally taught to foreign students.[2] A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Dano-Norwegian (in Norwegian Dansk-norsk) is the name that users of Nynorsk sometimes use to refer (almost always pejoratively) to Norwegian BokmÃ¥l. ...


As established by law and governmental policy, there are two mutually intelligible official forms of written Norwegian — Bokmål (literally "book language") and Nynorsk (literally "new Norwegian"). The Norwegian Language Council recommends the terms "Norwegian Bokmål" and "Norwegian Nynorsk" in English. BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... Norsk språkråd (The Norwegian Language Council) is the Norwegian governments advisory body in matters pertaining to the Norwegian language and language planning. ...


From the 16th to the 19th centuries, Danish was the standard written language of Norway. As a result, the development of modern written Norwegian has been subject to strong controversy related to nationalism, rural versus urban discourse, and Norway's literary history. Historically, Bokmål is a Norwegianized variety of Danish, while Nynorsk is a language form based on Norwegian dialects and puristic opposition to Danish. The now abandoned official policy to merge Bokmål and Nynorsk into one common language called Samnorsk through a series of spelling reforms has created a wide spectrum of varieties of both Bokmål and Nynorsk. The unofficial form known as Riksmål is considered more conservative than Bokmål, and the unofficial Høgnorsk more conservative than Nynorsk. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Norwegian is a Germanic language spoken in Norway. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Høgnorsk is a form of written Norwegian that is considered a more pure version of the minority language, Nynorsk. ...


Norwegians are educated in both Bokmål and Nynorsk. A 2005 poll indicates that 86.3% use primarily Bokmål as their daily written language, 5.5% use both Bokmål and Nynorsk, and 7.5% use primarily Nynorsk.[3] Thus only 13% are frequently writing nynorsk, although the majority speak dialects that resemble Nynorsk more closely than Bokmål. Broadly speaking, Bokmål and Riksmål are more commonly seen in urban and suburban areas; Nynorsk in rural areas, particularly in Western Norway. The Norwegian broadcasting corporation (NRK) broadcasts in both Bokmål and Nynorsk, and all governmental agencies are required to support both written languages. Bokmål is used in 92% of all written publications, Nynorsk in 8% (2000). In spite of concern that Norwegian dialects would eventually give way to a common, spoken, Norwegian language close to Bokmål, dialects find significant support in local environments, popular opinion, and public policy. Norsk rikskringkasting (NRK) - the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation - is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company. ...


Norwegian is one of the working languages of the Nordic Council. Under the Nordic Language Convention, citizens of the Nordic countries speaking Norwegian have the opportunity to use their native language when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable to any interpretation or translation costs.[4][5] Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... The Nordic Language Convention (Nordiska språkkonventionen) is an convention of linguistic rights which came into force in March 1, 1987, under the auspices of the Nordic Council. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Interpretation, or interpreting, is an activity that consists of establishing, either simultaneously or consecutively, oral or gestural communications between two or more speakers who are not speaking (or signing) the same language. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

History

From Old Norse to distinct Scandinavian languages

This is the approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century. The red area is the distribution of the dialect Old West Norse; the orange area is the spread of the dialect Old East Norse. The pink area is Old Gutnish and the green area is the extent of the other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility
This is the approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century. The red area is the distribution of the dialect Old West Norse; the orange area is the spread of the dialect Old East Norse. The pink area is Old Gutnish and the green area is the extent of the other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility

The languages now spoken in Scandinavia developed from the Old Norse language, which did not differ greatly between what are now Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish areas. In fact, Viking traders spread the language across Europe and into Russia, making Old Norse one of the most widespread languages for a time. According to tradition, King Harald Fairhair united Norway in 872. Around this time, a runic alphabet was used. According to writings found on stone tablets from this period of history, the language showed remarkably little deviation between different regions. Runes had been in limited use since at least the 3rd century. Around 1030, Christianity came to Norway, bringing with it the Latin alphabet. Norwegian manuscripts in the new alphabet began to appear about a century later. The Norwegian language began to deviate from its neighbors around this time as well. Download high resolution version (1235x909, 75 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Old Norse language User:Wiglaf User:Wiglaf/maps ... Download high resolution version (1235x909, 75 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Old Norse language User:Wiglaf User:Wiglaf/maps ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:   Old West Norse dialect   Old East Norse dialect   Old Gutnish dialect   Crimean Gothic   Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Harald I (b. ... Events Battle of Hafrsfjord in Norway, Harald Finehair first king of Norway. ... For other uses, see Rune (disambiguation). ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Events July 29 - Battle of Stiklestad in Norway. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Viking explorers had begun to settle Iceland in the 9th century, carrying with them the Old Norse language. Over time, Old Norse developed into "Western" and "Eastern" variants. Western Norse covered Norway (including its overseas settlements in Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Shetland Islands), while Eastern Norse developed in Denmark and south-central Sweden. The languages of Iceland and Norway remained very similar until about the year 1300, when they became what are now known as Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... The Old Icelandic language was the most prominent of the Old Norse languages. ... West Norse is also called Old Icelandic or Old Norwegian. ...


In the period traditionally dated to 13501525, Norwegian went through a Middle Norwegian transition toward Modern Norwegian. The major changes were simplification of the morphology, a more fixed syntax, and a considerable adoption of Middle Low German vocabulary. Similar development happened in Swedish and Danish, keeping the dialect continuum in continental Scandinavia intact. This did however not happen in Faroese and Icelandic so these languages lost mutual intelligibility with continental Scandinavia. Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Modern Norwegian is the Norwegian language spoken and written in Norway after the Middle Norwegian transition period (1350-1536). ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...


Under Danish and Swedish rule

In 1397, the Kalmar Union unified Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and from 1536 Norway was subordinated under the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway. Danish became the commonly written language among Norway's literate class. Spoken Danish was gradually adopted by the urban elite, first at formal occasions, and gradually a more relaxed variety was adopted in everyday speech. The everyday speech went through a koinéization process, involving grammatical simplification and Norwegianized pronunciation. When the union ended in 1814 the Dano-Norwegian koiné had become the mother tongue of a substantial part of the Norwegian élite, but the more Danish-sounding solemn variety was still used on formal occasions. Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... In linguistics, a koiné language (common language) is a standard language or dialect, specifically one that has arisen as a result of language contact much as pidgins or creoles, but where the original dialects are mutually intelligible. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Dano-Norwegian (in Norwegian Dansk-norsk) is the name that users of Nynorsk sometimes use to refer (almost always pejoratively) to Norwegian BokmÃ¥l. ... In linguistics, a koiné language (common language) is a standard language or dialect, specifically one that has arisen as a result of language contact much as pidgins or creoles, but where the original dialects are mutually intelligible. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ...


Norway was forced to enter a new personal union with Sweden, shortly after the end of the former one with Denmark. However, Norwegians began to push for true independence by embracing democracy and attempting to enforce the constitutional declaration of being a sovereign state. Part of this nationalist movement was directed to the development of an independent Norwegian language. Three major paths were available: do nothing (Norwegian written language, i.e. Danish, was already different from Swedish), Norwegianize the Danish language, or build a new national language based on Modern Norwegian dialects. All three approaches were attempted.


From Danish to Norwegian

From the 1840s, some writers experimented with a Norwegianized Danish by incorporating words that were descriptive of Norwegian scenery and folk life, and adopting a more Norwegian syntax. Knud Knudsen proposed to change spelling and inflection in accordance with the Dano-Norwegian koiné, known as "cultivated everyday speech." A small adjustment in this direction was implemented in the first official reform of Danish language in Norway in 1862 and more extensively after his death in two official reforms in 1907 and 1917. The Norwegian language struggle (sprÃ¥kstriden) is an ongoing controversy within Norwegian culture and politics related to spoken and written Norwegian. ... // First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. ... Knud Knudsen (1812 in Tvedestrand - 1895 in Kristiania) was a Norwegian linguist. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


Meanwhile, a nationalistic movement strove for the development of a new written Norwegian. Ivar Aasen, a self-taught linguist, began his work to create a new Norwegian language at the age of 22. He traveled around the country, comparing the dialects in different regions, and examined the development of Icelandic, which had largely escaped the influences Norwegian had come under. He called his work, which was published in several books from 1848 to 1873, Landsmål, meaning national language. The name "Landsmål" is sometimes interpreted as "rural language" or "country language," but this was clearly not Aasen's intended meaning. Ivar Andreas Aasen (August 5, 1813 - September 23, 1896) was a Norwegian philologist and lexicographer. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... LandsmÃ¥l was the name of one of the two official standards for writing the Norwegian language between 1885 and 1929 (the other one being first Danish, later RiksmÃ¥l). ...


The name of the Danish language in Norway was a topic of hot dispute through the 19th century. Its proponents claimed that it was a language common to Norway and Denmark, and no more Danish than Norwegian. The proponents of Landsmål thought that the Danish character of the language should not be concealed. In 1899, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson proposed the neutral name Riksmål, meaning national language like Landsmål, and this was officially adopted along with the 1907 spelling reform. The name "Riksmål" is sometimes interpreted as "state language," but this meaning is secondary at best, compare to Danish rigsmål from where the name was borrowed. Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson (December 8, 1832–April 26, 1910). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Danish (dansk) is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages), a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. ...


After the personal union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, both languages were developed further and reached what is now considered their classic forms after a reform in 1917. Riksmål was in 1929 officially renamed Bokmål (literally "Book language"), and Landsmål to Nynorsk (literally "New Norwegian"). A proposition to substitute Dano-Norwegian for Bokmål lost in parliament by a single vote. The name Nynorsk, the linguistic term for Modern Norwegian, was chosen for contrast to Danish and emphasis on the historical connection to Old Norwegian. Today this meaning is often lost, and it is commonly mistaken as a "new" Norwegian in contrast to the "real" Norwegian Bokmål. 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... Modern Norwegian is the Norwegian language spoken and written in Norway after the Middle Norwegian transition period (1350-1536). ...


Bokmål and Nynorsk were made closer by a reform in 1938. This was a result of a state policy to merge Nynorsk and Bokmål into one language, called "Samnorsk" (Common Norwegian). A 1946 poll showed that this policy was supported by 79% of Norwegians at the time. However, opponents of the official policy still managed to create a massive protest movement against Samnorsk in the 1950s, fighting in particular the use of "radical" forms in Bokmål text books in schools. In the reform in 1959, the 1938 reform was partially reversed in Bokmål, but Nynorsk was changed further towards Bokmål. Since then Bokmål has reverted even further toward traditional Riksmål, while Nynorsk still adheres to the 1959 standard. Therefore a small minority of Nynorsk enthusiasts uses a more conservative standard called Høgnorsk. The Samnorsk policy had little influence after 1960, and was officially abandoned in 2002. Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Høgnorsk is a form of written Norwegian that is considered a more pure version of the minority language, Nynorsk. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Phonology

Main article: Norwegian phonology

This article is part of the series on:
Norwegian language Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ...

Variants:
Official: Bokmål | Nynorsk
Unofficial: Riksmål |
Landsmål/Høgnorsk
Norwegian language struggle
Norwegian dialects
Bokmål (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Landsmål was the name of one of the two official standards for writing the Norwegian language between 1885 and 1929 (the other one being first Danish, later Riksmål). ... Høgnorsk is a form of written Norwegian that is considered a more pure version of the minority language, Nynorsk. ... The Norwegian language struggle (språkstriden) is an ongoing controversy within Norwegian culture and politics related to spoken and written Norwegian. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Use:
Alphabet
Phonology
The Danish and Norwegian alphabet consists of 29 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, Æ, Ø, Å The letter Å was introduced in Norwegian in 1917, replacing Aa. Similarly, Å was introduced in Danish... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Other topics:
Norwegian literature
Norwegian Sign Language
Norwegian Language Council
Norwegian literature is literature composed in Norway or by Norwegian people. ... Norwegian Sign Language is the preferred sign language amongst deaf Norwegians. ... Norsk språkråd (The Norwegian Language Council) is the Norwegian governments advisory body in matters pertaining to the Norwegian language and language planning. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

The sound system of Norwegian is similar to Swedish. There is considerable variation among the dialects, but the variant generally taught to foreign students is Standard Østnorsk.


Consonants

Consonant phonemes of Eastern Norwegian
Bilabial/
Labiodental
Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex/
Postalveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosives p b t d ʈ ɖ k g
Nasals m, ɱ n ɳ ŋ
Fricatives f v s ʃ ʂ ç h
Liquids ɾ, l ɽ, ɭ
Approximants ʋ j

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

Vowels

Vowel phonemes of Standard Østnorsk
Orthography IPA Description
a /ɑ/ Open back unrounded
ai /ɑɪ/
au /æʉ/
e (short) /ɛ/, /æ/ open mid front unrounded
e (long) /e/, /æ/ close-mid front unrounded
e (weak) /ə/ schwa (mid central unrounded)
ei /æɪ/, /ɛɪ/
i (short) /ɪ/ close front unrounded
i (long) /i/ close front unrounded
o /u, o, ɔ/ close back rounded
oi /ɔʏ/
u /ʉ/, /u/ close central rounded (close front extra rounded)
y (short) /ʏ/ close front rounded (close front less rounded)
y (long) /y/ close front rounded (close front less rounded)
æ /æ/, /ɛ/ near open front unrounded
ø /ø/ close-mid front rounded
øy /øʏ/
å /ɔ/ open-mid back rounded

The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... n. ... // The Ø (minuscule: ø), is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. ... // The Ø (minuscule: ø), is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. ... The letter Å represents various o sounds in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, North Frisian, Walloon, Chamorro and Istro-Romanian language alphabets. ...

Accent

Norwegian is a pitch accent language with two distinct pitch patterns. They are used to differentiate two-syllable words with otherwise identical pronunciation. For example in many East Norwegian dialects, the word "bønder" (farmers) is pronounced using tone 1, while "bønner" (beans or prayers) uses tone 2, just like in Danish. Though the difference in spelling occasionally allow the words to be distinguished in written language, in most cases the minimal pairs are written alike, since written Norwegian has no explicit accent marks. In most eastern low-tone dialects, accent 1 uses a low flat pitch in the first syllable, while accent 2 uses a high, sharply falling pitch in the first syllable and a low pitch in the beginning of the second syllable. In both accents, these pitch movements are followed by a rise of intonational nature (phrase accent), the size (and presence) of which signals emphasis/focus and which corresponds in function to the normal accent in languages that lack lexical tone, such as English. That rise culminates in the final syllable of an accentual phrase, while the utterance-final fall that is so common in most languages is either very small or absent. Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ...


There are significant variations in pitch accent between dialects. Thus, in most of western and northern Norway (the so-called high-pitch dialects) accent 1 is falling, while accent 2 is rising in the first syllable and falling in the second syllable or somewhere around the syllable boundary. The pitch accents (as well as the peculiar phrase accent in the low-tone dialects) give the Norwegian language a "singing" quality which makes it fairly easy to distinguish from other languages. Interestingly, accent 1 generally occurs in words that were monosyllabic in Old Norse, and accent 2 in words that were polysyllabic. Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...


Written language

The alphabet

The Norwegian alphabet is as follows: The Danish and Norwegian alphabet consists of 29 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, Æ, Ø, Å The letter Å was introduced in Norwegian in 1917, replacing Aa. Similarly, Å was introduced in Danish...

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å (29 letters)
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z æ ø å

The letters c, q, w, x and z are only used in loanwords. Some also spell their otherwise Norwegian family names using these letters. For other uses of A, see A (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the emoticon :D, see Emoticon. ... Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up F, f in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... J# redirects here for technical reasons; see J Sharp. ... Look up K, k in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up L, l in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up M, m in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up N, n in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up P, p in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Q, q in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Its name in English is tee . ... Look up U, u in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up W, w in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up X, x in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... n. ... // The Ø (minuscule: ø), is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. ... The letter Å represents various o sounds in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, North Frisian, Walloon, Chamorro and Istro-Romanian language alphabets. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Some letters may be modified by diacritics: é, è, ê, ó, ò, â, and ô. In Nynorsk, ì and ù and are occasionally seen as well. The diacritics are not compulsory, but may in a few cases distinguish between different meanings of the word, e.g.: for (for/to), fór (went), fòr (furrow) and fôr (fodder). Loanwords may be spelled with other diacritics, most notably ü, á and à. Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...


Bokmål and Nynorsk

Main articles: Bokmål and Nynorsk

Like some other European countries, Norway has an official "advisory board" — Språkrådet (Norwegian Language Council) — that determines, after approval from the Ministry of Culture, official spelling, grammar, and vocabulary for the Norwegian language. The board's work has been subject to considerable controversy through the years, and much work lies ahead. BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... Norsk språkråd (The Norwegian Language Council) is the Norwegian governments advisory body in matters pertaining to the Norwegian language and language planning. ...


Both Nynorsk and Bokmål have a great variety of optional forms, particularly Bokmål. The Bokmål that uses the forms that are close to Riksmål is called moderate or conservative, depending on one's viewpoint, while the Bokmål that uses the forms that are close to Nynorsk is called radical. Nynorsk has forms that are close to the original Landsmål and forms that are close to Bokmål.


Riksmål

Main article: Riksmål

Opponents of the spelling reforms aimed at bringing Bokmål closer to Nynorsk have retained the name Riksmål and employ spelling and grammar that predate the Samnorsk movement. Riksmål and conservative versions of Bokmål have been the de facto standard written language of Norway for most of the 20th century, being used by large newspapers, encyclopedias, and a significant proportion of the population of the capital Oslo, surrounding areas, and other urban areas, as well as much of the literary tradition. Since the reforms of 1981 and 2003 (effective in 2005), the official Bokmål can be adapted to be almost identical with modern Riksmål. The differences between written Riksmål and Bokmål are today comparable to American and British English differences. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ...


Riksmål is regulated by the Norwegian Academy, which determines acceptable spelling, grammar, and vocabulary. The Norwegian Academy for Language and Literature (Det Norske Akademi for Sprog og Litteratur) was founded in 1953 by several notable Norwegian authors and poets, among them Arnulf Øverland, Sigurd Hoel, A. H. Winsnes, Cora Sandel and Francis Bull, who disagreed with the official language policy aiming to merge the...


Høgnorsk

Main article: Høgnorsk

There is also an unofficial form of Nynorsk, called Høgnorsk, discarding the post-1917 reforms, and thus close to Ivar Aasen's original Landsmål. It is supported by Ivar Aasen-sambandet, but has found no widespread use. Høgnorsk is a form of written Norwegian that is considered a more pure version of the minority language, Nynorsk. ... Ivar Aasen-sambandet (The Ivar Aasen Union) is an umbrella organization of associations and individuals promoting the use of the Høgnorsk variant of the Norwegian language. ...


Current usage

About 86.2% of the pupils in the primary and lower secondary schools in Norway receive education in Bokmål, while about 13.8% receive education in Nynorsk. From the eighth grade onwards pupils are required to learn both. Out of the 433 municipalities in Norway, 161 have declared that they wish to communicate with the central authorities in Bokmål, 116 (representing 12% of the population) in Nynorsk, while 156 are neutral. Of 4,549 state publications in 2000 8% were in Nynorsk, and 92% in Bokmål. The large national newspapers (Aftenposten, Dagbladet and VG) are published in Bokmål. Some major regional newspapers (including Bergens Tidende and Stavanger Aftenblad), many political journals, and many local newspapers use both Bokmål and Nynorsk. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ... Dagbladet is Norways third largest newspaper with a circulation of 191,164 copies in 2002. ... Verdens Gang, commonly known as VG, is Norways largest newspaper with a circulation of 365 000 copies in 2004. ... Bergens Tidende. ... Stavanger Aftenblad (evening paper of Stavanger) is a daily newspaper in Stavanger, Norway. ...


Dialects

Main article: Norwegian dialects

There is general agreement that a wide range of differences makes it difficult to estimate the number of different Norwegian dialects. Variations in grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation cut across geographical boundaries and can create a distinct dialect at the level of farm clusters. Dialects are in some cases so dissimilar as to be unintelligible to unfamiliar listeners. Many linguists note a trend toward regionalization of dialects that diminishes the differences at such local levels; but there is renewed interest in preserving distinct dialects. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Examples

Below are a few sentences giving an indication of the differences between Bokmål and Nynorsk, compared to the conservative (nearer to Danish) form Riksmål, Danish, as well as Old Norse, Swedish and Icelandic, the living language closest to Old Norse:


Bokmål/Riksmål/Danish: Jeg kommer fra Norge
Nynorsk/Høgnorsk: Eg kjem frå Noreg.
Old Norse: Ek kem frá Noregi.
Icelandic: Ég kem frá Noregi.
Swedish: Jag kommer från Norge.
English: I come from Norway.
Faroese: Eg komi frá Noregi.
German: Ich komme aus Norwegen.
Dutch: Ik kom uit Noorwegen.


Bokmål/Riksmål: Hva heter han?
Danish: Hvad hedder han?
Nynorsk/Høgnorsk: Kva heiter han?
Old Norse: Hvat heitir hann?
Icelandic: Hvað heitir hann?
Swedish: Vad heter han?
English: What is his name?
Faroese: Hvat eitur hann?
German: Wie heißt er?
Dutch: Hoe heet hij?


Bokmål/Riksmål/Danish: Dette er en hest.
Nynorsk/Høgnorsk: Dette er ein hest.
Old Norse: Þetta er hross/Þetta er hestr.
Icelandic: Þetta er hross/hestur.
Swedish: Detta är en häst.
English: This is a horse.
Faroese: Hetta er eitt ross/ein hestur.
German: Das ist ein Roß/ Pferd.
Dutch: Dit is een paard.


Bokmål: Regnbuen har mange farger.
Riksmål/Danish: Regnbuen har mange farver.
Nynorsk: Regnbogen har mange fargar.
Høgnorsk: Regnbogen hev mange fargar. (Or better: Regnbogen er manglìta).
Old Norse: Regnboginn er marglitr.
Icelandic: Regnboginn er marglitur.
Swedish: Regnbågen har många färger.
English: The rainbow has many colours.
Faroese: Ælabogin er litríkur/ er marglitur.
German: Der Regenbogen hat eine Menge Farben.
Dutch: De regenboog heeft vele kleuren.


Morphology

Nouns

Norwegian nouns are inflected or declined in definiteness (indefinite/definite) and number (singular/plural). In some dialects, definite nouns are furthermore declined in case (nominative/dative). In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... In grammatical theory, definiteness is a feature of noun phrases, distinguishing between entities which are specific and identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases). ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ...


As in most Indo-European languages (English language being one of a few exceptions), nouns are classified by gender, which has consequences for the declension of agreeing adjectives and determiners. Norwegian dialects have three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter, except the Bergen dialect which has only two genders: common and neuter. Bokmål and Standard Østnorsk traditionally have two genders like Danish (and the Bergen dialect), but so called radical varieties have three genders. The two-gender form is now mostly replaced by the three-gender form in spoken Standard Østnorsk, but it is sometimes used in conservative Bokmål. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Determiners are words which quantify or identify nouns. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2006) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ...

Noun forms
båt (boat) in Bokmål
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
en båt båten båter båtene

The declension of regular nouns depends on gender. Some dialects and variants of Nynorsk furthermore have different declension of weak and strong feminines and neuters.

Bokmål
m. en gutt
(a boy)
gutten
(the boy)
gutter
(boys)
guttene
(the boys)
f. ei/en dør
(a door)
døra/døren
(the door)
dører
(doors)
dørene
(the doors)
n. et hus
(a house)
huset
(the house)
hus
(houses)
husene/husa
(the houses)

As of July 1st 2005, all feminine nouns can be written as masculine nouns.

Nynorsk
m. ein gut
(a boy)
guten
(the boy)
gutar
(boys)
gutane
(the boys)
f. ei sol
(a sun)
sola/soli
(the sun)
soler
(suns)
solene
(the suns)
ei kyrkje/kyrkja
(a church)
kyrkja
(the church)
kyrkjer/kyrkjor
(churches)
kyrkjene/kyrkjone
(the churches)
n. eit hus
(a house)
huset
(the house)
hus
(houses)
husa/husi
(the houses)
eit hjarta/hjarte
(a heart)
hjarta/hjartet
(the heart)
hjarto/hjarte
(hearts)
hjarto/hjarta/hjarti
(the hearts)

Adjectives

Norwegian adjectives have two inflectional paradigms. The weak inflection is applicable when the argument is definite, the strong inflection is used when the argument is indefinite. In both paradigms the adjective is declined in comparison (positive/comparative/superlative). Strong, positive adjectives are furthermore declined in gender and number in agreement with their argument. In some southwestern dialects, the weak positive is also declined in gender and number, with one form for feminine and plural, and one form for masculine and neuter. In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... An inflectional paradigm is a table illustrating the forms of an inflected word. ... In grammatical theory, definiteness is a feature of noun phrases, distinguishing between entities which are specific and identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases). ... In grammatical theory, definiteness is a feature of noun phrases, distinguishing between entities which are specific and identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases). ... A comparison is an evaluation of similarities and differences - described by Gregory Bateson in his book Mind and Nature as the two quanta of experience. ... Positive is the form of an adjective or adverb on which comparative and superlative are formed. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ...

Weak adjective forms
grønn (green) in Bokmål
Positive Comparative Superlative
grønne grønnere grønneste
Strong adjective forms
(grønn (green) in Bokmål)
Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
grønn grønn grønt grønne grønnere grønnest

Positive is the form of an adjective or adverb on which comparative and superlative are formed. ... In grammar the comparative is the form of an adjective or adverb which denotes the degree or grade by which a person, thing, or other entity has a property or quality greater or less in extent than that of another. ... For the noun case, see superlative case. ... Positive is the form of an adjective or adverb on which comparative and superlative are formed. ... In grammar the comparative is the form of an adjective or adverb which denotes the degree or grade by which a person, thing, or other entity has a property or quality greater or less in extent than that of another. ... For the noun case, see superlative case. ...

Verbs

Norwegian finite verbs are inflected or conjugated in mood: indicative/imperative/optative. The optative mood is constrained to a handful of verbs. The indicative verbs are conjugated in tense, present / past. In Bokmål and Standard Østnorsk, the present tense also has a passive form. In some dialects, indicative verbs are also conjugated in number. Conjugation in gender is lost in Norwegian. A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages it occurs in. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... It has been suggested that prohibitive mood be merged into this article or section. ... The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... The present tense is the tense (form of a verb) that is often used to express: Action at the present time A state of being A habitual action An occurrence in the near future An action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present There are two... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ...


There are four non-finite verb forms: infinitive, passive infinitive, and the two participles perfective/past participle and imperfective/present participle. A non-finite verb is not limited by the person, tense and number of the subject. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ... The perfective aspect is a grammatical aspect. ... The perfective aspect is a grammatical aspect. ...


The participles are verbal adjectives. The imperfective participle has no further declension, but the perfective participle is declined in gender (not in Bokmål and Standard Østnorsk) and number like strong, positive adjectives. The definite form of the participle is identical to the plural form. It has been suggested that Non-finite verb be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In grammatical theory, definiteness is a feature of noun phrases, distinguishing between entities which are specific and identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases). ...


As with other Germanic languages, Norwegian verbs can be either weak or strong. In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm, though historically they are not the oldest or most original group. ... In the Germanic languages, strong verbs are those which mark their past tenses by means of ablaut. ...

Verb forms in Nynorsk
leva (to live)
Finite Non-finite
Indicative Optative Imperative Verbal nouns Verbal adjectives (Participles)
Present Past Infinitive Imperfective Perfective
Active Passive Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural/Def
lever levde leve lev leva levast levande levd levd levt levde
Verb forms in Bokmål
leve (to live)
Finite Non-finite
Indicative Optative Imperative Verbal nouns Verbal adjectives (Participles)
Present Past Infinitive Imperfective Perfective
Active Passive Active Passive Singular Plural/Def
lever leves levde leve lev leve leves levende levd levde

A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages it occurs in. ... A non-finite verb is not limited by the person, tense and number of the subject. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... A verbal noun is a noun formed directly as an inflexion of a verb or a verb stem, sharing at least in part its constructions. ... It has been suggested that Non-finite verb be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ... The present tense is the tense (form of a verb) that is often used to express: Action at the present time A state of being A habitual action An occurrence in the near future An action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present There are two... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... The perfective aspect is a grammatical aspect. ... The perfective aspect is a grammatical aspect. ... Voice, in grammar, is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages it occurs in. ... A non-finite verb is not limited by the person, tense and number of the subject. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... A verbal noun is a noun formed directly as an inflexion of a verb or a verb stem, sharing at least in part its constructions. ... It has been suggested that Non-finite verb be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ... The present tense is the tense (form of a verb) that is often used to express: Action at the present time A state of being A habitual action An occurrence in the near future An action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present There are two... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... The perfective aspect is a grammatical aspect. ... The perfective aspect is a grammatical aspect. ... Voice, in grammar, is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... Voice, in grammar, is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ...

Pronouns

Norwegian personal pronouns are declined in case, nominative / accusative. Some of the dialects that have preserved the dative in nouns, also have a dative case instead of the accusative case in personal pronouns, while others have accusative in pronouns and dative in nouns, effectively giving these dialects three distinct cases. In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ...


In the most comprehensive Norwegian grammar, Norsk referansegrammatikk, the categorization of personal pronouns by person, gender, and number is not regarded as inflection. As with nouns, adjectives must agree with the gender and number of pronoun arguments. Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ...


Other pronouns have no inflection.


The so called possessive, demonstrative and relative pronouns are no longer regarded to be pronouns. A possessive pronoun is a part of speech that attributes ownership to someone or something. ... A demonstrative pronoun in grammar and syntax is a pronoun that shows the place of something. ... A relative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause within a larger sentence. ...


Pronouns are a closed class. In linguistics, a closed class (or closed word class) is a word class to which no new items can normally be added, and that usually contains a relatively small number of items. ...

Pronouns in Bokmål
Nominative Accusative English equivalent
jeg meg I, me
du deg you (singular)
han ham/han he, him
hun henne she, her
den den it
det det it
vi oss we, us
dere dere you (plural)
de dem they, them

Bokmål, like English, has two sets of 3rd person pronouns. Han and hun refer to male and female individuals respectively, den and det refer to impersonal or inanimate nouns, of masculine/feminine or neutral gender respectively. In contrast, Nynorsk and most dialects use the same set of pronouns (han (m.), ho (f.) and det (n.)) for both personal and impersonal references. Det also has expletive and cataphoric uses like in the English examples it rains and it was known by everyone (that) he had travelled the world. The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The word expletive is currently used in three senses: syntactic expletives, expletive attributives, and bad language. The word expletive comes from the Latin verb explere, meaning to fill, via expletivus, filling out. It was introduced into English in the seventeenth century to refer to various kinds of padding — the padding... In linguistics, cataphora occurs when an expression co-refers with a later expression in the discourse. ...


Determiners

The closed class of Norwegian determiners are declined in gender and number in agreement with their argument. Not all determiners are inflected. In linguistics, a closed class (or closed word class) is a word class to which no new items can normally be added, and that usually contains a relatively small number of items. ... Determiners are words which quantify or identify nouns. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ...

Determiner forms
eigen (own) in Nynorsk
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
eigen eiga eige eigne

Particle classes

Norwegian has five closed classes without inflection, i.e. lexical categories with grammatical function and a finite number of members that may not be distinguished by morphological criteria. These are interjections, conjunctions, subjunctions, prepositions, and adverbs. The inclusion of adverbs here requires that traditional adverbs that are inflected in comparison be classified as adjectives, as is sometimes done. In linguistics, a closed class (or closed word class) is a word class to which no new items can normally be added, and that usually contains a relatively small number of items. ... In grammar, a lexical category (also word class, lexical class, or in traditional grammar part of speech) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behaviour of the lexical item in question. ... An interjection is a part of speech that usually has no grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker, although most interjections have clear definitions. ... In grammar, a conjunction is a part of speech that connects two words, phrases, or clauses together. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... An adverb is a part of speech that normally serves to modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, clauses, and sentences. ... A comparison is an evaluation of similarities and differences - described by Gregory Bateson in his book Mind and Nature as the two quanta of experience. ...


Compound words

In Norwegian compound words, the head, i.e. the part determining the compound's class, is the last part. Only the first part has primary stress. For instance, the compund tenketank (think tank) has primary stress on the first syllable and is a noun (some sort of tank). In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ... In linguistics, the head is the morpheme that determines the category of a compound or the word that determines the syntactic type of the phrase of which it is a member. ...


Compound words are written together in Norwegian, which can cause words to become very long; for example sannsynlighetsmaksimeringsestimator (maximum likelihood estimator) and menneskerettighetsorganisasjoner (human rights organisations). Another example is the title høyesterettsjustitiarius (originally a combination of supreme court and the actual title, justiciar). Note also the translation En midtsommernattsdrøm (A Midsummer Night's Dream). Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a popular statistical method used to make inferences about parameters of the underlying probability distribution from a given data set. ... In statistics, an estimator is a function of the observable sample data that is used to estimate an unknown population parameter; an estimate is the result from the actual application of the function to a particular set of data. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... In medieval England and Scotland, the Chief Justiciar (latterly known simply as the Justiciar) was a rough equivalent to that of the modern Prime Minister: the Monarchs chief minister. ...


If they are not written together, each part will naturally be read with primary stress, and the meaning of the compound is lost. This is sometimes forgotten, occasionally with humorous results. Instead of writing, for example, lammekoteletter (lamb chops), people make the mistake of writing lamme koteletter (lame, or paralyzed, chops). The original message can even be reversed, as when røykfritt (no smoking, i.e. "free from smoking") becomes røyk fritt (smoke freely).


Other examples include:

  • Terrasse dør ("Terrace dies") instead of Terrassedør ("Terrace door")
  • Tunfisk biter ("Tuna bites", verb) instead of Tunfiskbiter ("Tuna bits", noun)
  • Smult ringer ("Lard rings", verb) instead of Smultringer ("Doughnuts")
  • Tyveri sikret ("Theft guaranteed") instead of Tyverisikret ("Theft proof")
  • Stekt kylling lever ("Fried chicken lives", verb) instead of Stekt kyllinglever ("Fried chicken liver", noun)
  • Pult ost ("Fucked cheese") instead of Pultost ("Soft cheese")

These misunderstandings occur because most nouns can be interpreted as verbs or other types of words. Similar misunderstandings can be achieved in English too. The following are examples of phrases that both in Norwegian and English mean one thing as a compound word, and something different when regarded as separate words:

  • stavekontroll (spellchecker) or stave kontroll (spell "checker")
  • kokebok (cookbook) or koke bok (cook a book)
  • ekte håndlagde vafler (real handmade waffles) or Ekte hånd lagde vafler. (a real hand made some waffles.)

Vocabulary

By far the largest part of the modern vocabulary of Norwegian dates back to Old Norse. The largest source of loanwords is Middle Low German, which had a huge influence on Norwegian vocabulary from the late Middle Ages onwards partially even influencing grammatical structures, such as genitive constructions. At present, the main source of new loanwords is English e.g. rapper, e-mail, catering, juice, bag (originally a loan word to English from Old Norse). Some loanwords have their spelling changed to reflect Norwegian pronunciation rules, but in general Norwegianised spellings of these words tend to take a long time to sink in: e.g. sjåfør (from French chauffeur) and revansj (from French revanche) are now the common Norwegian spellings, but juice is more often used than the Norwegianised form jus, catering more often than keitering, service more often than sørvis, etc. The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ...


See also

Although Danish and Norwegian are very similar languages, there are more differences between them than a cursory examination would lead one to believe. ... The Norwegian Academy for Language and Literature (Det Norske Akademi for Sprog og Litteratur) was founded in 1953 by several notable Norwegian authors and poets, among them Arnulf Øverland, Sigurd Hoel, A. H. Winsnes, Cora Sandel and Francis Bull, who disagreed with the official language policy aiming to merge the... Noregs MÃ¥llag (Unoffical translation: The Language Organisation of Norway) is the main organisation for Nynorsk (New Norwegian), one of the Norwegian languages. ... Norsk Ordbok may refer to: Norsk Ordbok (Nynorsk) Norsk ordbok (RiksmÃ¥l) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... RiksmÃ¥lsforbundet (unofficial translation: The Language Organisation of Norway) is the main organisation for RiksmÃ¥l, one of the Norwegian languages. ... Russenorsk (or Russonorsk) was a pidgin language combining elements of Russian and Norwegian, created by traders and whalers from the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago and the Russian Kola peninsula. ... The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The following is a table of the numbers 0 through 10 in a sample of the languages and writings of the world. ...

References

  1. ^ Henriksen, Petter (ed.); Aschehoug og Gyldendals Store norske leksikon, 11 Nar-Pd; Kunnskapsforlaget; Oslo; 1998; ISBN 82-573-0703-3
  2. ^ Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000). The Phonology of Norwegian. Oxford University Press, 6-11. ISBN 9780198237655. 
  3. ^ Ordet 4/2005 - Bare 7,5 % nynorsk. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  4. ^ Konvention mellan Sverige, Danmark, Finland, Island och Norge om nordiska medborgares rätt att använda sitt eget språk i annat nordiskt land, Nordic Council website. Retrieved on April 25, 2007.
  5. ^ 20th anniversary of the Nordic Language Convention, Nordic news, February 22, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Bibliography

  • Rolf Theil Endresen, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Andreas Sveen, Innføring i lingvistikk (2002), ISBN 82-00-45273-5

External links

Wikipedia
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