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Encyclopedia > Norway
Kongeriket Norge
Kongeriket Noreg
Kingdom of Norway
Flag of Norway Coat of arms of Norway
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Royal: Alt for Norge / Alt for Noreg
(All for Norway)

1814 Eidsvoll oath:
Enige og tro til Dovre faller
(United and loyal until the mountains of Dovre crumble)
AnthemJa, vi elsker dette landet
Royal anthemKongesangen
Location of Norway
Location of  Norway  (orange)

on the European continent  (white) Look up Norway in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up nord, Nord in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Norway. ... Flag of Norway redirects here. ... The Coat of Arms of Norway is one of the oldest in Europe. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... The Royal mottos or valgsprÃ¥k/valsprÃ¥k of the Norwegian monarchs are an old tradition. ... The Constitution of Norway was first adopted on May 16, 1814 by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll (a small town north of the countrys capital, Christiania), then signed and dated May 17. ... Dovrefjell is a mountain range in central Norway that forms a natural barrier between the southern regions of Norway and the area around Trondheim. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Listen to anthem (MIDI) (audio help) //   (or: Ja, vi elsker) (In eng: Yes, we love this country) is the national anthem of Norway. ... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... Kongesangen is Norways Royal anthem. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Oslo
59°56′N, 10°41′E
Official languages Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk) Sami1
Demonym Norwegian
Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Harald V
 -  Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg (Ap)
Establishment
 -  Unification 872 
 -  Constitution 17 May, 1814 
 -  Independence from union with Sweden
declared 7 June, 1905 
Area
 -  Total 385,252 km² (61st2)
148,746 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 7.0
Population
 -  2008 estimate 4,752,735 (114th)
 -  Density 12/km² (202nd)
31/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $257.4 billion[1] (40th)
 -  Per capita $55,600[1] (3rd)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $335.3 billion[2] (25th)
 -  Per capita $95.460,8 (486.335 NOK) [3] (2nd)
Gini (2000) 25.8 (low) (6th)
HDI (2007) 0.968 (high) (2nd)
Currency Norwegian krone (NOK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .no5.sj and .bv
Calling code +47
1 Northern Sami is used in the municipal administration of six municipalities, Lule Sami in one, and Finnish/Kven in one.
2 Includes Svalbard and Jan Mayen.
3 This percentage is for the mainland and also includes glaciers[4]
4 Statistics Norway estimation (September 5, 2006) using variant MMMM from Table 10[5]
5 Two more TLDs have been assigned, but to date not used: .sj for Svalbard and Jan Mayen; .bv for Bouvet Island.

Norway (Norwegian: Norge (bokmål) or Noreg (nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a country and constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe that occupies the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. It is bordered by Sweden, Finland, and Russia, while United Kingdom and the Faroe Islands lies to its west across the North Sea. The country's extensive coastline along the North Atlantic Ocean is home to its famous fjords. Not to be confused with capitol. ... // Ethnically, the residents of Norway are predominantly ethnic Norwegians who are of North Germanic / Nordic descent, although in the far north there are communities of the Scandanivian native people Sami who settled the area around 8,000 years ago, probably from central Siberia. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... Harald V, KG (born February 21, 1937) is the King of Norway. ... This is a list of Viceroys (Rigsstatholder) and Prime Ministers (statsminister) of Norway. ...   (born March 16, 1959) is a Norwegian economist, leader (since 2002) of the Norwegian Labour Party and the current Prime Minister of Norway. ... The Norwegian Labour Party (Det norske Arbeiderparti, Arbeiderpartiet or DNA) is a left-wing political party in Norway. ... // [edit] Etymology Modern etymologists believe the countrys name means the northward route (the way north), which in Old Norse would be nor veg or *norð vegr. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map of the Gini coefficient This is a list of countries or dependencies by Income inequality metrics, sorted in ascending order according to their Gini coefficient. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code NOK User(s) Norway Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .no is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Norway. ... .sj is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands. ... .bv is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bouvet Island, which is uninhabited. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Country Code: 47 International Call Prefix: 00 Since 1992, land-line and mobile telephone numbers in Norway consist of eight digits, without any area codes. ... Northern or North Sami (also written Sámi or Saami; formerly Lappish or Lapp) is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The municipality Tysfjord in the county of Nordland, Norway, has 2,283 inhabitants as of January 1, 2002. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image:NO 2020 Porsanger Porsángu Porsanki. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... .sj is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands. ... .bv is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bouvet Island, which is uninhabited. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ...


The Kingdom of Norway also includes the Arctic island territories of Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Norwegian sovereignty over Svalbard is based upon the Svalbard Treaty, but that treaty does not apply to Jan Mayen. Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic Ocean and Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land in Antarctica are external dependencies, but those three entities do not form part of the kingdom. For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The Traité concernant le Spitsberg of February 1920 placed the arctic islands of Spitsbergen as an overseas part of Kingdom of Norway (article I). ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Fabian von Bellingshausen discovered Peter I Island (in Norwegian ) off West Antarctica on January 21, 1821. ... Queen Maud Land (Norwegian: Dronning Maud Land) is the part of Antarctica lying between the terminus of Stancomb-Wills Glacier, at 20°W, and Shinnan Glacier, at 44° 38E. It has a land area of approximately 2,500,000 km², mostly covered by the Antarctic ice sheet. ... Dependent areas are territories that for some reason do not enjoy full independence or sovereignty as states. ...


Since World War II, Norway has experienced rapid economic growth, and is now amongst the wealthiest countries in the world,[6][7][8] with a Scandinavian welfare system. Norway is the world's third largest oil exporter after Russia and Saudi Arabia and the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of GDP.[9] It has also rich resources of gas fields, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway was the second largest exporter of seafood (in value, after China) in 2006. [10] Other main industries include food processing, shipbuilding, metals, chemicals, mining, fishing and pulp and paper products. Norway was ranked highest of all countries in human development from 2001 to 2006, and came second in 2007 (to fellow Nordic country Iceland).[11] It also rated the most peaceful country in the world in a 2007 survey by Global Peace Index.[12] It is a founding member of NATO. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Social welfare redirects here. ... The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... World map of the Global Peace Index The Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...

Contents

Name

Many etymologists believe the country's name comes from the North Germanic languages and that it means "the northern route" (the way to the north), which in Old Norse would be nord veg or *norð vegri.[citation needed] The Old Norse name for Norway was Nóreegr, in Anglo-Saxon Norþ weg, and in Medieval Latin Nhorvegia. The present name of Norway is Norge in Norwegian bokmål and Noreg in Norwegian nynorsk. The Old Norse and nynorsk forms are quite similar to an ancient Sami word that means "along the coast" or "along the sea" — realized as nuorrek in contemporary Lule Sami. The presence of the archaic prosecutive case marker (sometimes also called prolative in Finno-Ugric language research) supports the claim that the Sami word is indigenous and not a borrowing from North Germanic languages. The earliest known written occurrence of the name "Norway" is in the late 9th century, Old English translation of Orosius' Seven Books of History Against The Pagans, written by King Alfred the Great of Wessex, and adapted by him to include an account of the travels of Ohthere of Hålogaland.[13] Etymologies redirects here. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Old English redirects here. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The prosecutive case is a declension found in Tundra Nenets language. ... The prolative case is a declension of a noun or pronoun that has the basic meaning of by way of. The prolative is widely used in Estonian. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... A map in Norwegian of the voyage of Ohthere. ...


In the other native languages of Norway, the name is: Northern Sami: Norga; Lule Sami: Vuodna; Southern Sami: Nøørje; Finnish/Kven: Norja. The official name is: Norwegian: Kongeriket Norge (bokmål), Kongeriket Noreg (nynorsk); Other names are; Northern Sami: Norgga gonagasriika; Lule Sami: Vuona gånågisrijkka; Southern Sami: Nøørjen gånkarijhke; Finnish/Kven: Norjan kuningaskunta. Northern Saami (also, Sámi or Sami, formerly Lapp) can be divided into a three major dialect groups: Torne, Finnmark and Sea Sami. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Southern Saami is divided into two main dialects: Southern Saami sensu stricto and Ume Saami. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... Northern Saami (also, Sámi or Sami, formerly Lapp) can be divided into a three major dialect groups: Torne, Finnmark and Sea Sami. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Southern Saami is divided into two main dialects: Southern Saami sensu stricto and Ume Saami. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


History

Main article: History of Norway

Archaeological findings indicate that Norway was inhabited at least since early 10th millennium BC. Most historians agree that the core of the populations colonizing Scandinavia came from the present-day Germany.[14] In the first centuries AD, Norway consisted of a number of petty kingdoms. According to tradition, Harald Fairhair unified them into one, in 872 AD after the Battle of Hafrsfjord, thus becaming the first king of a united Norway. // [edit] Etymology Modern etymologists believe the countrys name means the northward route (the way north), which in Old Norse would be nor veg or *norð vegr. ... Petty kingdoms were prominent before the formation of many of todays nation states. ... Harald I (b. ... The Battle of Hafrsfjord has been a very central event in the history of the unification of Norway. ...

The Viking age, 8-11th centuries AD, was characterized by expansion and immigration. Many Norwegians left the country to live in Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and parts of Britain and Ireland. The modern-day Irish cities of Limerick, Dublin, and Waterford were founded by Norwegian settlers. [15] Norse traditions were slowly replaced by Christianity in the 9th and 10th centuries, and this is largely attributed to the missionary kings Olav Tryggvasson and St. Olav. Haakon the Good was Norway's first Christian king, in the mid tenth century, though his attempt to introduce the religion was rejected. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 492 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken by Bjørn Christian Tørrissen ([email protected]) in August 2004 in Alta, Norway. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 492 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken by Bjørn Christian Tørrissen ([email protected]) in August 2004 in Alta, Norway. ... Detail from the rock carvings at Alta The Rock carvings at Alta are an archaeological site near the town of Alta in the county of Finnmark in northern Norway. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – July 29, 1030), king from 1015–1028, (known during his lifetime as the Stout (Olav Digre) and after his canonization as Saint Olaf), was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvason came to Norway. ... Haakon I (c. ...


In 1349, the Black Death killed between 40% and 50% of the population, [16] resulting in a period of decline, both socially and economically. Ostensibly, royal politics at the time resulted in several personal unions between the Nordic countries, eventually bringing the thrones of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden under the control of Queen Margrethe I of Denmark when the country entered into the Kalmar Union. Although Sweden broke out of the union in 1523, Norway remained till 1814, a total of 434 years. The National romanticism of the 19th century, the centralization of the kingdom's royal, intellectual, and administrative powers in Copenhagen, Denmark, the dissolution of the archbishopric in Trondheim with the introduction of Protestantism in 1537, as well as the distribution of the church's incomes to the court in Copenhagen meant that Norway lost the steady stream of pilgrims to the relics of St. Olav at the Nidaros shrine, and with them, much of the contact with cultural and economic life in the rest of Europe. The steady decline was highlighted by the loss of the provinces Båhuslen, Jemtland, and Herjedalen to Sweden, as a result of wars. This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Queen Margaret I for Queens Margaret of Denmark, see Queen Margaret of Denmark, and for a namesake queen consort of Scotland, see Margaret of Denmark Margaret Valdemarsdotter (1353 – October 28, 1412) was Queen of Norway, Regent of Denmark and of Sweden, and founder of the so-called Kalmar Union which... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Liberty leading the people, embodying the Romantic view of the French Revolution of 1830; its painter Eugène Delacroix also served as an elected deputy Romantic nationalism (also organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of a... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... County District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2003-) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Olav II Haraldsson ( 995 – 1030), king from 1015–1028, called during his lifetime the Fat and afterwards known as Saint Olaf, was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. ... Nidaros was the old name of Trondheim, Norway, in the middle ages. ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... â–¶ (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ...


After Denmark–Norway was attacked by Great Britain, it entered into an alliance with Napoleon, with the war leading to dire conditions and mass starvation in 1812. As the kingdom found itself on the losing side in 1814 it was forced to cede Norway to the kingdom of Sweden, while the old Norwegian provinces of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands remained with the Danish crown. Norway took this opportunity to declare independence, adopted a constitution based on American and French models, and elected the Danish crown prince Christian Fredrik as king on May 17, 1814. This caused the Norwegian-Swedish War to break out between Sweden and Norway but as Sweden's military was not strong enough to defeat the Norwegian forces outright, Norway agreed to enter a personal union with Sweden. Under this arrangement, Norway kept its liberal constitution and independent institutions, except for the foreign service. Denmark–Norway is the historiographical name for a former political entity, union, consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... Christian VIII Christian VIII (September 18, 1786–January 20, 1848), king of Denmark 1839-48 and of Norway 1814, the eldest son of the Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, was born in 1786 at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sweden and Norway 1888 The Union between Sweden and Norway refers to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of November 4. ... Artists rendition of the Norwegian constitutional assembly in 1814 1814 was a pivotal year in Norwegian history. ...

The 1814 constitutional assembly, painted by Oscar Wergeland.
The 1814 constitutional assembly, painted by Oscar Wergeland.

This period also saw the rise of the Norwegian romantic nationalism cultural movement, as Norwegians sought to define and express a distinct national character. The movement covered all branches of culture, including literature (Henrik Wergeland, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, Jørgen Moe, Henrik Ibsen), painting (Hans Gude, Adolph Tidemand), music (Edvard Grieg), and even language policy, where attempts to define a native written language for Norway led to today's two official written forms for Norwegian: Bokmål and Nynorsk. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A Norwegian movement between 1840 and 1867 in art, literature, and popular culture that emphasized the aesthetics of Norwegian nature and the uniqueness of the Norwegian national identity. ... Henrik Wergeland Henrik Wergeland (June 17, 1808–July 12, 1845) was a Norwegian poet and prose writer, born in Kristiansand. ... Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson (December 8, 1832–April 26, 1910). ... Peter Christian Asbjørnsen (1812-1885) was a Norwegian writer who together with Jørgen Moe compiled and edited an authoritative collection of Norwegian folk tales. ... Jørgen Moe (1813-1882) was, through his collaboration with Peter Christian Asbjørnsen, responsible for collecting and editing Norwegian folk tales, Norske Folkeeventyr. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... Hans Fredrik Gude Hans Fredrik Gude (1825 – 1903) was a Norwegian romanticist painter. ... Adolph Tidemand (1814-1876) was a Norwegian painter who was born in Mandal in 1814. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ...


Christian Michelsen, a Norwegian shipping magnate and statesman, Prime Minister of Norway from 1905 to 1907 played a central role in the peaceful separation of Norway from Sweden on June 7, 1905. After a national referendum confirmed the people's preference for a monarchy over a republic, the Norwegian government offered the throne of Norway to the Danish Prince Carl and Parliament unanimously elected him king. He took the name of Haakon VII, after the medieval kings of independent Norway. In 1898, all men were granted universal suffrage, followed by all women in 1913. Peter Christian Hersleb Kjerschow Michelsen (March 15, 1857 – June 29, 1925) was a Norwegian statesman. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... The Storting main building The Storting, or Stortinget, (the Great Assembly), is the parliament of Norway, and is located in Oslo. ... King Haakon VII King Haakon VII of Norway, Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel (August 3, 1872 - September 21, 1957) was the first King of Norway after the dissolution of the personal union with Sweden in 1905. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ...


During both World wars Norway claimed neutrality but during World War II it was invaded by German forces on April 9, 1940 while the allies also had plans in mind for an invasion of the country. In April 1940, the British fleet mined Norwegian territorial waters. Norway was unprepared for the German surprise attack, but military resistance continued for two months. During the Norwegian Campaign, the Kriegsmarine lost many ships including the cruiser Blücher. The battles of Vinjesvingen and Hegra eventually became the last strongholds of Norwegian resistance in southern Norway in May, while the armed forces in the north launched an offensive against the German forces in the Battles of Narvik, until they were forced to surrender on June 10. On the day of the invasion, the collaborative leader of the small National-Socialist party Nasjonal SamlingVidkun Quisling — tried to seize power, but was forced by the German occupiers to step aside. Real power was wielded by the leader of the German occupation authority, Reichskommissar Josef Terboven. Quisling, as minister president, later formed a collaborationist government under German control.[17] At the time of the invasion, Norway had the fourth largest merchant marine in the world led by the shipping company Nortraship, which under the Allies took part in every war operation from the evacuation of Dunkirk to the Normandy landings. There have been two World Wars, now more commonly known as World War I or First World War (from 1914 to 1918), and World War II or Second World War (from 1939 to 1945). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polish wz. ... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign, lasting from 9 April to 10 June 1940, led to the first direct land confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France — against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... The German heavy cruiser Blücher ¹ was the German Kriegsmarines newest ship at the outbreak of World War II. The Blücher is most notable for being sunk on April 9, 1940, less than three years after her launch, on the first day of the invasion of Norway (Operation... The Battle of Vinjesvingen took place in May of 1940 in Telemark county, Norway. ... Combatants Norway Nazi Germany Commanders Major Hans Reidar Holtermann  ? Strength 200-300 volunteer soldiers  ? Casualties 6 KIA, ca. ... The Battles of Narvik were fought from April 9 until June 8, 1940 in the Ofotfjord and the mountains surrounding the North-Norwegian city of Narvik during the Norwegian Campaign of the Second World War. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Symbol of the Hirden, the stormtroopers or paramilitary organization of the Nasjonal Samling. ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian army officer and fascist politician. ... Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ... Josef Terboven Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (May 23, 1898 - May 8, 1945) was a Nazi leader most known for his brutal leadership during the Nazi occupation of Norway. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... The Norwegian Shipping and Trade Mission (Nortraship) was established in London in April 1940 to administer the Norwegian merchant fleet outside German controlled areas. ... French troops rescued by a British merchant ship at Dunkirk British evacuation on Dunkirk beach Operation Dynamo (or Dunkirk Evacuation, the Miracle of Dunkirk or just Dunkirk) was the name given to the World War II mass evacuation of Allied soldiers from May 26 to June 4, 1940, during the... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ...


Following the war, the Social Democrats came to power and ruled the country for much of the cold war. Norway joined NATO in 1949, and became a close ally of the United States. Two plebiscites to join the European Union failed by narrow margins in 1972 and 1994. Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the 1960s, which led to a continuing boom in the economy. This article is about the military alliance. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Geography, climate and environment

Main article: Geography of Norway
See also: Geology of Norway
Satellite image of continental Norway in winter
Satellite image of continental Norway in winter

Norway comprises the western part of Scandinavia in Northern Europe. The rugged coastline, broken by huge fjords and thousands of islands, stretches over 2,500 km as the crow flies and over 83,000 km including the fjords and islands. Norway shares a 2,542 km land border with Sweden, Finland, and Russia to the east. To the west and south, Norway is bordered by the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea, and Skagerak. The Barents Sea washes on Norway's northern coasts. Map of Norway. ... The geology of Norway encompasses the history of earth that can be interpreted by rock types found in Norway, and the sedimentological history of sediments and rock types in Norway. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 511 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4960 × 5820 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 511 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4960 × 5820 pixel, file size: 5. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is part of the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of Norway, located between the North Sea (i. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Categories: Sweden geography stubs | Norway geography stubs | Danish stubs ... Location of the Barents Sea. ...


At 385,252 km² (including Jan Mayen, Svalbard), Norway is slightly larger than Germany, but much of the country is dominated by mountainous or high terrain, with a great variety of natural features caused by prehistoric glaciers and varied topography. The most noticeable of these are the fjords: deep grooves cut into the land flooded by the sea following the end of the Ice Age. The longest is Sognefjorden. Norway also contains many glaciers and waterfalls. Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... Lysefjorden in Norway A fjord (pronounced FEE-ord or fyord, SAMPA: [fi:3:d] or [faI3:d]; sometimes written fiord) is a glacially overdeepened valley, usually narrow and steep-sided, extending below sea level and filled with salt water. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... An arm of the Sognefjord Sognefjorden (or Sognefjord, the suffix -en is a form of the definite article in the Norwegian language) is the second largest fjord in the world after Scoresby Sund on Greenland, and the largest in Norway. ... Tower Fall in Yellowstone National Park A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water, often in the form of a stream, flowing over an erosion-resistant rock formation that forms a sudden break in elevation. ...

Typical Western Norwegian landscape with village (Geiranger)
Typical Western Norwegian landscape with village (Geiranger)

The land is mostly made of hard granite and gneiss rock, but slate, sandstone and limestone are also common, and the lowest elevations have marine deposits. Due to the Gulf Stream and prevailing westerlies, Norway experiences warmer temperatures and more precipitation than expected at such northern latitudes, especially along the coast. The mainland experiences four distinct seasons, with colder winters and less precipitation inland. The northernmost part has a mostly maritime Subarctic climate, while Svalbard has an Arctic tundra climate. For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Gneiss Gneiss (pronounced ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological formation. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and brief, warm summers. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ...


Due to Norway's high latitude, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. From late May to late July, the sun never completely descends beneath the horizon in areas north of the Arctic Circle (hence Norway's description as the "Land of the Midnight Sun") and the rest of the country experiences up to 20 hours of daylight per day. Conversely, from late November to late January, the sun never rises above the horizon in the north, and daylight hours are very short in the rest of the country. This article is about the geographical term. ... For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... The midnight sun at Nordkapp, Norway. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Norway

Norway is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. The Royal House is a branch of the princely family of Glücksburg, originally from Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. As it stands, the functions of the King, Harald V, are mainly ceremonial, but he has influence as the symbol of national unity. Although the constitution of 1814 grants important executive powers to the King, these are always exercised by the Council of State in the name of the King (King's Council or cabinet). The reserve powers vested in the Monarch by the constitution have in the 20th century in reality been symbolic, but has on a few occasions been important such as in World War II, when the Monarch said he would step down if the government should accept the German demand. The Council of State consists of a Prime Minister and other ministers, formally appointed by the King. Parliamentarism has evolved since 1884 and entails that the cabinet must not have the parliament against it, and that the appointment by the King is a formality when there is a clear majority in Parliament for a party or a coalition of parties. But after elections resulting in no clear majority to any party or coalition, the leader of the party most likely to be able to form a government is appointed Prime Minister by the King. Norway has often been ruled by minority governments. The King has government meetings every Friday at the Royal Palace (Council of State), but the government decisions are decided in advance in government conferences, headed by the Prime Minister, every Tuesday and Thursday. The King opens the Parliament every October, he receives ambassadors to the Norwegian court, and he is the symbolic Supreme Commander of the Norwegian Defence Force and the Head of the Church of Norway. Norwegian politics officially have the structure of a constitutional monarchy, giving the King mainly symbolic power while maintaining a stable Western democracy. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (in Danish: Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Lyksborg (or Glücksborg)), from Glücksburg in northernmost Germany, is a line of the House of Oldenburg (Danish: Oldenborg), to which the royal houses of Denmark, Norway, and the former royal house of Greece belong. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... Harald V, KG (born February 21, 1937) is the King of Norway. ... The functions of the King of Norway are mainly ceremonial, but he has influence as the symbol of national unity. ... This is a list of Viceroys (Rigsstatholder) and Prime Ministers (statsminister) of Norway. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The Royal Palace in Oslo from the front The Royal Palace in Oslo from the park The Royal Palace (no:Slottet) in Oslo was built in the first half of the 18th century as the Norwegian residence of Swedish-Norwegian king Charles III (Charles XIV of Sweden) and is used... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Ranks Norwegian military ranks The Norwegian Defence Forces (Norwegian: Forsvaret) numbers about 60,000 personnel, including civilian employees. ... The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke in BokmÃ¥l or Den norske kyrkja in Nynorsk), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway, is the state church of Norway, to which 83%[1] of Norwegians are members. ...

Stortinget, Oslo.
Stortinget, Oslo.

The Norwegian parliament, Stortinget, currently has 169 members (increased from 165, effective from the elections of 12 September, 2005). The members are elected from the nineteen counties for four-year terms according to a system of proportional representation. In addition, 19 seats, the socalled "levelling seats" are allocated on a nationwide basis to make the representation in parliament correspond better with the popular vote. There is a 4% election threshold to gain levelling seats. When voting on legislation, the Storting – until the 2009 election – divides itself into two chambers, the Odelsting and the Lagting. Laws are in most cases proposed by the government through a Member of the Council of State, or in some cases by a member of the Odelsting in case of repeated disagreement in the joint Storting. Nowadays, however, the Lagting rarely disagrees, effectively rubber-stamping the Odelsting's decisions. A constitutional amendment of February 20, 2007 will repeal the division after the 2009 general election. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1590x904, 223 KB) Photo by John Erling Blad (Agtfjott/jeb) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1590x904, 223 KB) Photo by John Erling Blad (Agtfjott/jeb) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The Storting main building The Storting, or Stortinget, (the Great Assembly), is the parliament of Norway, and is located in Oslo. ... Parliamentary elections were held in Norway on 12 September 2005. ... Norway is divided into 19 administrative regions, called counties (fylker, singular - fylke, Nynorsk: singular and plural fylke; until 1918 known as singular and plural- amt), and 433 municipalities (kommuner - Nynorsk: kommunar). ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... In party-list proportional representation systems, an election threshold is a clause that stipulates that a party must receive a minimum percentage of votes, either nationally or within a particular district, to get any seats in the parliament. ... The Odelsting forms the lower house of Norways Storting or parliament, the Lagting being the upper house. ... Lagting, literally Law Ting, can refer to: Lagting - the parliament of Åland Lagting - the upper house of the parliament of Norway (semi bicameralism) Løgting - the parliament of the Faroe Islands This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Rubber stamp, is a political metaphor referring to an institution that has little power and rarely disagrees with more powerful organs, though usually it formally has much greater power. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Impeachment cases are very rare (the last being in 1927, when Prime Minister Abraham Berge was acquitted) and may be brought against Members of the Council of State, of the Supreme Court (Høyesterett), or of the Storting for criminal offenses which they may have committed in their official capacity. Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... Abraham Theodor Berge (January 20, 1851–July 10, 1936) was a Norwegian politician representing Venstre, the social liberal party. ... The Supreme Court of Norway, located in Oslo, is Norways most superior court. ...


Prior to an amendment to the Norwegian Constitution on February 20, 2007 indictments were raised by the Odelsting and judged by the Lagting and the Supreme Court justices as part of the High Court of the Realm. In the new system impeachment cases will be heard by the five highest ranking Supreme Court justices and six lay members in one of the Supreme Court courtrooms (previously cases were heard in the Lagting chamber). Storting representatives may not perform as lay judges. Indictments will be raised by the Storting in a plenary session. is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


The Storting otherwise functions as a unicameral parliament and after the 2009 general election the division into Odelsting and Lagting for passing legislation will be abolished. Legislation will then have to go through two – three in case of dissent – readings before being passed and sent to the King for assent. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Reading is a mechanism by which a bill is introduced to, and approved by a legislature. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court (eighteen permanent judges and a chief justice), courts of appeal, city and district courts, and conciliation councils. Judges attached to regular courts are appointed by the King in council. In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... The functions of the King of Norway are mainly ceremonial, but he has influence as the symbol of national unity. ...


In order to form a government, more than half the membership of the Council of State is required to belong to the Church of Norway. Currently, this means at least ten out of nineteen members. After the negotiations of looser ties between the church and the state, it was decided that this requirement will be abolished in the near future. The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke in Bokmål or Den norske kyrkja in Nynorsk), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway, is the state church of Norway, to which 83%[1] of Norwegians are members. ...


In December each year, Norway gives a Christmas tree to the United Kingdom, in thanks for the UK's assistance during World War II. A ceremony takes place to erect the tree in Trafalgar Square.[18] For other uses, see Christmas tree (disambiguation). ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ...


In its 2007 Worldwide Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked Norway at a shared 1st place (with Iceland) out of 169 countries.[19] Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ...


Corporal punishment of children has been illegal in Norway since 1983. Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain and suffering intended to change a persons behavior or to punish them. ...


Foreign relations

Map of Norway

Norway maintains embassies in 86 countries around the world.[20] Norway has diplomatic relations with many countries without maintaining an embassy in the country. 60 countries maintain an embassy in Norway, all of them in the capital, Oslo.[21] Norway supports international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of disputes, recognizing the need for maintaining a strong national defense through collective security. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of norwegian counties File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of norwegian counties File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Norway was a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the Council of Europe, the European Free Trade Association, the OECD and the OSCE, and maintains membership in several other international organisations. Although not a member of the European Union, Norway has access to the European single market through membership in the European Economic Area. UN redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... European Free Trade Association() on the European continent() Secretariat Geneva, Switzerland Official languages German, French, Norwegian, and Icelandic Type Trade bloc Member states Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Establishment 3 May 1960  -  4 January 1960  Area  -  Total 529,600 km²  204,518 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 12,660,623   -  Density... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ...


Norway has also assisted in international negotiations, such as in facilitating the Oslo Accords. Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ...


Cities and municipalities

Further information: Regions of Norway and Subdivisions of Norway
A geopolitical map of Norway, exhibiting its nineteen first-level administrative divisions (fylker or "counties")
A geopolitical map of Norway, exhibiting its nineteen first-level administrative divisions (fylker or "counties")

Norway is divided into nineteen first-level administrative regions known as fylker ("counties", singular fylke) and 430[22] second-level kommuner ("municipalities", singular kommune). The fylke is the intermediate administration between state and municipality. The King is represented in every county by a Fylkesmann. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of cities in Norway. ... Norway is divided into 19 administrative regions, called counties (fylker, singular - fylke), and 431 municipalities/communes (kommuner). ... A geopolitical map of Norway, exhibiting its 19 first-order subnational divisions (fylker or counties) with Svalbard and Jan Mayen. ... Norway is divided into 19 administrative regions, called fylker (singular fylke) and 431 kommuner (singular kommune). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2902, 965 KB) Summary Map: Norway – geopolitical Exhibits counties (fylker) of Norway (19); colours correspond to regions of Norway: yellow: Østlandet (Austlandet) orange: Sørlandet red: Vestlandet green: Trøndelag blue: Nord-Norge violet: Svalbard Drawn by E Pluribus Anthony, adapted... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2902, 965 KB) Summary Map: Norway – geopolitical Exhibits counties (fylker) of Norway (19); colours correspond to regions of Norway: yellow: Østlandet (Austlandet) orange: Sørlandet red: Vestlandet green: Trøndelag blue: Nord-Norge violet: Svalbard Drawn by E Pluribus Anthony, adapted... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...


There is ongoing debate as to whether the nineteen "fylker" should be replaced with five to nine larger regions.[citation needed] Some expect this to happen by 2010, whereas others expect the intermediate administration to disappear entirely. Another option would probably require consolidating the municipalities into larger entities and delegating greater responsibility to them.


The counties of Norway are:

County NO-02 Region Østlandet Administrative centre Oslo County mayor Hildur Horn Øien (KrF) Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 16 4,918 km² 1. ... County NO-09 Region Sørlandet Administrative centre Arendal County mayor Oddvar Skaiaa Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 14 9,157 km² 2. ... County NO-06 Region Østlandet Administrative centre Drammen County mayor Tor Ottar Karlsen (Ap) Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 12 14,910 km² 4. ... County NO-20 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Vadsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 1 48,618 km² 15. ...   is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Akershus. ...   is a county in Norway, bordering Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud, Telemark and Rogaland. ...   is a county in the northernmost part of the Vestlandet region of Norway, and borders the counties of Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Sogn og Fjordane. ... // For other uses, see Nordland (disambiguation). ... County NO-17 Region Trøndelag Administrative centre Steinkjer County mayor Inger Lise Gjørv Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 6 22,412 km² 6. ... Oppland is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag, Møre og Romsdal, Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud, Akershus, Oslo and Hedmark. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Østfold is a county in southeastern Norway, bordering Akershus and southwestern Sweden (Västra Götaland County and Värmland), while Vestfold is on the other side of the bay. ... Rogaland is a county in Norway, bordering Hordaland, Telemark, Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder. ... County NO-14 Region Vestlandet Administrative centre Leikanger County mayor Nils R. Sandal Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 8 18,623 km² 5. ... County NO-16 Region Trøndelag Administrative centre Trondheim County mayor Tore O. Sandvik Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 7 18,848 km² 5. ... For other uses, see Telemark (disambiguation). ... County NO-19 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Tromsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 4 25,877 km² 8. ... County NO-10 Region Sørlandet Administrative centre Kristiansand County mayor Thore Westermoen Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 15 7,276 km² 2. ... County NO-07 Region Østlandet Administrative centre Tønsberg County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 18 2,224 km² 0. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Norway

Norwegians enjoy the second highest GDP per-capita (after Luxembourg) and third highest GDP (PPP) per-capita in the world, and has maintained first place in the world in the UNDP Human Development Index (HDI) for six consecutive years (2001-2006). However, in 2007 Iceland very narrowly beat Norway as the #1 place according to the Human Development Index. Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, Norway Although sensitive to global business cycles, the economy of Norway has shown robust growth since the start of the industrial era. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ...


Cost of living is about 30% higher in Norway than in the United States and 25% higher than the United Kingdom. The standard of living in Norway is very high, and the continuing increase in oil prices ensure that Norway will remain one of the richest countries in the world over the forseeable future.


The Norwegian economy is an example of mixed economy, featuring a combination of free market activity and large government ownership. The government controls key areas, such as the strategic petroleum sector (StatoilHydro), hydroelectric energy production (Statkraft), aluminium production (Norsk Hydro), the largest Norwegian bank (DnB NOR) and telecommunication provider (Telenor). The government controls 31.6% of publicly listed companies. When non-listed companies are included the state has even higher share in ownership (mainly from direct oil license ownership). A mixed economy is an economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Petro redirects here. ... StatoilHydro ASA (OSE: STL) is a Norwegian energy company, formed by the 2007 merger of Statoil with the oil and gas division of Norsk Hydro. ... Statkraft is a Norwegian state owned electricity company. ... Norsk Hydro ASA is a Norwegian oil and energy and integrated aluminium company, headquartered in Oslo. ... DnB NOR (OSE: DNBNOR) is Norways largest financial services group with total assets of more than NOK 1. ... Telenor (OSE: TEL, NASDAQ: TELN) is the incumbent telecommunications company in Norway, with headquarters located at Fornebu, close to Oslo. ...


The control mechanisms over petroleum resources are a combination of state ownership in major operators in the Norwegian fields (StatoilHydro approx. 62% in 2007) and the fully state owned Petoro (market value of about twice Statoil) and SDFI. Finally the government controls licensing of exploration and production of fields. StatoilHydro ASA (OSE: STL) is a Norwegian energy company, formed by the 2007 merger of Statoil with the oil and gas division of Norsk Hydro. ... Petoro AS, a company wholly owned by the state of Norway, manages Norwegian offshore oil and natural gas properties on behalf of the government. ... States Direct Financial Interest (SDFI) (Norwegian:Statens direkte økonomiske engasjement (SDØE)) is a portfolio the Norwegian governments directly owned exploration and production licenses for petroleum and natural gas on the Norwegian continental shelf. ...


The country is richly endowed with natural resources including petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the world in part by having a large amount of natural resources compared to the size of the population. The income from natural resources include a significant contribution from petroleum production and the substantial and well-managed income related to this sector. Norway also has a very low unemployment rate, currently below 2% (June 2007). The hourly productivity levels, as well as average hourly wages in Norway are among the highest in the world. The egalitarian values of the Norwegian society[citation needed] ensure that the wage difference between the lowest paid worker and the CEO of most companies is much smaller than in comparable western economies. This is also evident in Norway's low Gini coefficient.[citation needed] Petro redirects here. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ...


In 2006, oil and gas accounted for 58% of exports.[citation needed] Only Russia and OPEC member Saudi Arabia export more oil than Norway, which is not an OPEC member. To reduce over-heating from oil money and the uncertainty from the oil income volatility, and to save money for an aging population, the Norwegian state started in 1995 to save petroleum income (taxes, dividends, licensing, sales) in a sovereign wealth fund ("Government Pension Fund — Global"). This also reduces the boom and bust cycle associated with raw material production and the marginalization of non-oil industry (see also Dutch Disease). Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Gold standard Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Policy-mix Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Regulation Banking Fractional-reserve Full-reserve   Free banking Islamic... The Petroleum Fund of Norway is a government controlled fund owned by the state of Norway. ... This article is about the economic phenomenon. ...


The fund invests in developed financial markets outside Norway. The budgetary rule ("Handlingsregelen") is to spend no more than 4% of the fund each year (assumed to be the normal yield from the fund ). By January 2006, the pension fund had reached a value of USD 200 billion. During the first half of 2007, the pension fund became the largest fund in Europe, with assets totalling about USD 300 billion, equivalent to over USD 62,000 per capita. As such, the Norwegian state has savings equal to 100% of the Norwegian GDP. Norway has the largest capital reserve per capita of any nation (April 2007). Projections indicate that the Norwegian pension fund may become the largest capital fund in the world. It is the second largest state-owned sovereign wealth fund in the world, second only to the sovereign wealth fund of Abu-Dhabi. Conservative estimates tell that the fund may reach USD 800-900 billion by 2017. Other natural resource-based economies in countries like Russia and Chile are trying to learn from Norway by establishing similar funds. The investment choices of the Norwegian fund are guided by ethical guidelines. For example, the fund is not allowed to invest in companies that produce parts for nuclear weapons. The openness about the investment choices is lauded by the international community.


The future size of the fund is of course closely linked to the oil price and the developments in international financial market. At an average oil price of USD 100 per barrel, the trade surplus for 2008 is expected to reach USD 80 billion. At present oil prices (June 2008) the trade surplus for 2008 is expected to reach USD 90 billion.


Norway is also the world's largest exporter of fish. In light of the rising energy and food prices, Norway's economic prospects are better than perhaps any other country in the world. Investing in research and development is an important priority for the Norwegian government, as it is important to have something to fall back on when the oil becomes a smaller part of the economy.


Referendums in 1972 and 1994 indicated that the Norwegian people wished to remain outside the European Union (EU). However, Norway, together with Iceland and Liechtenstein, participates in the European Union's single market via the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement. The EEA Treaty between the European Union countries and the EFTA countries – transposed into Norwegian law via "EØS-loven"[23] – describes the procedures for implementing European Union rules in Norway and the other EFTA countries. This makes Norway a highly integrated member of most sectors of the EU internal market. However, some sectors, such as agriculture, oil and fish, are not wholly covered by the EEA Treaty. Norway has also acceded to the Schengen Agreement and several other intergovernmental agreements between the EU member states. A referendum on whether Norway should join the European Union was held on November 28, 1994. ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ... The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on May 3, 1960 as an alternative for European states that were not allowed or did not wish to join the European Community (now the European Union). ... For other uses, see Schengen. ...


In 2000, the government sold one-third of the then 100% state-owned oil company Statoil in an IPO. The next year, the main telecom supplier, Telenor, was listed on Oslo Stock Exchange. The state also owns significant shares of Norway's largest bank, DnB NOR and the airline SAS. Since 2000, economic growth has been rapid, pushing unemployment down to levels not seen since the early 1980s. (unemployment: 1.3%) A Statoil petrol station sign in Estonia Statoil (OSE: STL, NYSE: STO) is a Norwegian petroleum company established in 1972. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Telenor (OSE: TEL, NASDAQ: TELN) is the incumbent telecommunications company in Norway, with headquarters located at Fornebu, close to Oslo. ... Oslo Stock Exchange Oslo Stock Exchange (Norwegian: Oslo Børs) serves as the main market for trading in shares of Norwegian companies. ... DnB NOR (OSE: DNBNOR) is Norways largest financial services group with total assets of more than NOK 1. ... Scandinavian Airlines System or SAS is a multi-national airline for Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and the leading carrier in the Scandinavian countries, based in Stockholm, Sweden and owned by SAS AB. It is a founding member of the Star Alliance. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ...


Demography

Main article: Demography of Norway

As of 2007, Norway's population numbered 4.7 million. Most Norwegians are ethnic Norwegians, a North Germanic people. The Sami people traditionally inhabit central and northern parts of Norway and Sweden, as well as in northern Finland and in Russia on the Kola Peninsula. Another national minority are the Kven people who are the descended of Finnish speaking people that moved to northern Norway in the 18th up to 20th century. Both the Sami and the Kven were subjected to a strong assimilation policy by the Norwegian government from the 19th century up to the 1970s.[24] Because of this "Norwegianisation process", many families of Sami or Kven ancestry now self-identify as ethnic Norwegian .[25] This, combined with a long history of co-habitation of the Sami and North Germanic peoples on the Scandinavian peninsula, makes claims about ethnic population statistics less straightforward than is often suggested — particularly in central and northern Norway. Other groups recognized as national minorities of Norway are Jews, Forest Finns, Roma/Gypsies and Romani people/Travellers. // Ethnically, the residents of Norway are predominantly ethnic Norwegians who are of North Germanic / Nordic descent, although in the far north there are communities of the Scandanivian native people Sami who settled the area around 8,000 years ago, probably from continental Europe through the Norwegian coast and through Finland... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (459x800, 182 KB)Borgund stave church photo by Nina Aldin Thune (Nina) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (459x800, 182 KB)Borgund stave church photo by Nina Aldin Thune (Nina) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Stave church in Borgund Borgund stave church (Borgund stavkyrkje) is a stave church located in Lærdal, Norway. ... Language(s) Norwegian Related languages include Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Swedish, and to a lesser extent, all Germanic languages Religion(s) 83% of the population of Norway are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway [9]. Norway is highly secularized, and only about 10% of the population attend religious services... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... This article is about the contemporary ethnic group in Norway. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Forest Finns (Norwegian: Skogfinner, Swedish: Skogsfinnar) are people of Finnish descent in the forest areas of Eastern Norway and Central Sweden. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... The Norwegian and Swedish Travellers are a group or branch of the Romani people (also known as Roma people, Romanies or Gypsies) in Norway and Sweden. ...


In recent years, immigration has accounted for more than half of Norway's population growth. According to Statistics Norway (SSB), record 61,200 immigrants arrived in the country in 2007 — 35% higher than 2006. At the beginning of 2008, there were 459,600 persons in Norway with an immigrant background (i.e. immigrants, or born of immigrant parents), comprising 9.7% of the total population. 350,000 of these were from a non-Western background, which includes the formerly Communist countries according to the definition used by Statistics Norway. The largest immigrant groups by country of origin, in order of size, are Poles, Pakistanis, Swedish, Iraqis, Somalis , Vietnamese, Danes, and Germans.[26]The Iraqi immigrant population has shown a large increase in recent years. After the enlargement of the EU in 2004, there has also been an influx of immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe, particularly Poland. The largest increase in 2007 was of immigrants from Poland, Germany, Sweden and Lithuania .[27] You may also be looking for the plural of the word pole. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Norway

In common with other Scandinavian countries, the Norse followed a form of native Germanic paganism known as Norse paganism. By the end of the eleventh century, when Norway had been Christianized, the indigenous Norse religion and practices were prohibited. Anti-heathenry laws, however, were removed early in the twentieth century.[citation needed] Many remnants of the native religion and beliefs of Norway exist today, including names, referential names of cities and locations, the days of the week, and other parts of the everyday language. Religion in Norway is overwhelmingly Protestant (Evangelical-Lutheran) with 82. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... Norse paganism is a term used to describe the religious traditions which were common amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries prior to and during the process of the Christianization in Northern Europe. ... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...


Parts of the Sami minority retained their shamanistic religion well into the 18th century when they were converted to Christianity by Dano-Norwegian missionaries. The knowledge of the Sami religion is primarily based on archeological remains and written sources from missionary works in northern Scandinavia during the Middle Ages (1500 - 1600). ...


Nearly 83% of Norwegians are members of the state Church of Norway, to which they are registered at birth. Many remain in the state church to be able to use services such as baptism, confirmation, marriage and burial, rites which have strong cultural standing in Norway. Up to 40% of the membership attends church or religious meetings during a year [28], with fewer attending regularly. The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke in Bokmål or Den norske kyrkja in Nynorsk), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway, is the state church of Norway, to which 83%[1] of Norwegians are members. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... See Reform Judaism article about its Confirmation ceremony. ...


According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005, 32% of Norwegian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god," whereas 47% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 17% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force."[29]


Other Christian denominations total about 4.5% of the population. These include the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church, the Roman Catholic Church, Pentecostal congregations, the Methodist Church, Adventists, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses and others. Among non-Christian religions, Islam is the largest, representing about 1.5% of the population: It is practiced mainly by the Somalian, Arab, Albanian, Pakistani and Turkish communities. Other religions comprise less than 1% each, including Judaism (see Jews in Norway). Indian immigrants introduced Hinduism to Norway, but account for less than 5,000 people, or 1% of non-Lutheran Norwegians [30]. There are eleven Buddhist organizations, grouped under the Buddhistforbundet organisation, which make up 0.42% of the population. Around 1.5% of Norwegians adhere to the secular Norwegian Humanist Association. About 5% of the population is unaffiliated.[30] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Free Church, or the Free Church as it is commonly known, is a nationwide Lutheran church in Norway consisting of 81 congregations with approximately 21,000 members. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Somalia or Somolia (Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومال, As-Sumal), formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a coastal nation in East Africa. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab diaspora refers to the numbers of Arab immigrants, and their descendants, who voluntarily or as refugees emigrated from their native countries and now reside in non-Arab nations, primarily in Western countries as well... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Jews in Norway have a long history. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... The Buddhist Federation of Norway (Norwegian: Buddhistforbundet) is an umbrella organization for the different Buddhist groups in Norway. ... Human-Etisk Forbund (HEF), the Norwegian Humanist Association, is currently one of the largest Humanist associations in the world, with 76,470 members (January 2006). ...


Languages

Main article: Languages of Norway
See also: Sami languages

The North Germanic Norwegian language has two official written forms, Bokmål and Nynorsk. They have officially equal status, i.e. they are both used in public administration, in schools, churches, radio and television, but Bokmål is used by the vast majority, about 85-90%. Around 95% of the population speak Norwegian as their native tongue, although many speak dialects that may differ significantly from the written language. In general Norwegian dialects are inter-intelligible, though some may require significant effort. Several Finno-Ugric Sami languages are spoken and written throughout the country, especially in the north, by the Sami people. The state recognises these languages as official, and speakers have a right to get education in Sami language no matter where they are living, and receive communications from government in various Sami languages. The Kven minority speak the Finno-Ugric Kven language/Finnish. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x800, 341 KB) Reine, Lofoten, seen from top of Reinebringen (June, 2003), by Michael Haferkamp Source: self made File links The following pages link to this file: Lofoten ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x800, 341 KB) Reine, Lofoten, seen from top of Reinebringen (June, 2003), by Michael Haferkamp Source: self made File links The following pages link to this file: Lofoten ... Reine in 2005 Reine seen from Reinebringen Reine is the administrative centre of Moskenes municipality, Norway. ... Reine, Lofoten, seen from top of Reinebringen (June, 2003). ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Kvens (kveeni in Kven language / Finnish; kvener in Norwegian) are a Norwegian ethnic minority descended from Finnish peasants and fishermen who emigrated from the northern parts of Finland and Sweden to Northern Norway in the 18th and 19th centuries. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Norwegian is highly similar to the other languages in Scandinavia, Swedish and Danish. All three languages are mutually intelligible and can be, and commonly are, employed in communication between inhabitants of the Scandinavian countries. As a result of the cooperation within the Nordic Council, inhabitants of all Nordic countries, including Iceland and Finland, have the right to communicate with the Norwegian authorities in their own language. Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ...


Any Norwegian student who is a child of immigrant parents is encouraged to learn the Norwegian language. The Norwegian government offers language instructional courses for immigrants wishing to obtain Norwegian citizenship. Somali is the largest non-western language spoken in Norway[citation needed], as Somalis are the third largest population of non-western immigrants in Norway, after Pakistani and Iraqi people. The Somali language is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. ...


The main foreign languages taught in Norwegian elementary school are English, German and French. Spanish and Russian are available in some schools, mostly in the cities. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Individual human rights

Scouts holding Norwegian flags lead a parade on the 17 May, Norway's Constitution Day
Scouts holding Norwegian flags lead a parade on the 17 May, Norway's Constitution Day

Norway is currently the second most highly ranked nation in the UN Human Development Index, an index made up by literacy rate, education level and per capita income, though it had been the highest on the list for the six years between 2001 and 2006. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1476x1053, 395 KB) Scouts lead a parade on the 17th of May, Norways constitution day, holding Norwegian flags. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1476x1053, 395 KB) Scouts lead a parade on the 17th of May, Norways constitution day, holding Norwegian flags. ... This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ... The Norwegian Constitution Day is the National Day of Norway and is an official national holiday each year. ... The UN Human Development Index (HDI) measures poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other factors. ...


Freedom of expression is enshrined in Article 1 of the Constitution of Norway. Freedom of religion is enshrined in Article 2 of the Constitution, which also establishes the state religion as "Evangelical Lutheran". The press is not censored. Editors adhere to self-imposed commandments of caution, in order to protect people's privacy and other civic rights.(Vær Varsom-plakaten- Norwegian Wikipedia in Bokmål, see [1] for an English translation). Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... The Constitution of Norway was first adopted on May 16, 1814 by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll (a small town north of the countrys capital, Christiania), then signed and dated May 17. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke in BokmÃ¥l or Den norske kyrkja in Nynorsk), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway, is the state church of Norway, to which 83%[1] of Norwegians are members. ... For other uses, see Censor. ...


Public radio and TV broadcast without interference from the government, although permission to broadcast depends on the program spectrum. Broadcast advertisement is regulated, with particular restrictions on paid political messages and advertising directed at children.


The constitution forbids retroactive laws, punishment not based on laws and court decisions, and the use of torture. Capital punishment for high crime during wartime was abolished in 1979.[31] An ex post facto law (from the Latin for from something done afterward) or retroactive law, is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences of acts committed or the legal status of facts and relationships that existed prior to the enactment of the law. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... The charge of high crimes and misdemeanours covers allegations of misconduct that do not fall under a more clearly defined impeachable offence; eg. ...


In 1999, the Human Rights conventions of the United Nations and the Council of Europe were constituted as law in Norway (menneskerettsloven) and given superiority to all laws after the constitution.[32] Norwegian lawyers have joined the Council of Europe's Committee Against Torture to express their concern about the long-term detention of criminal defendants and the use of solitary confinement in Norway, deeming it to be torture.[33] Long processing times for asylum seekers and the treatment of those arriving without identity papers has also been under discussion. UN redirects here. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden...


An issue of much debate and public interest in Norway is the phenomenon of criminals and suspected terrorists being granted asylum, on the grounds that they may be persecuted in their native countries. Examples are Najmuddin Faraj Ahmad (a.k.a. Mullah Krekar), the Aeroflot hijackers of 1993, and several suspected war criminals, for example suspected collaborators in the Rwandan Genocide. Successive governments have often been criticised for deporting sick people, orphans, and well-integrated children. Mullah Krekar in a Norwegian court of law. ... JSC Aeroflot - Russian Airlines (Russian: ) (MICEX:AFLT RTS:AFLT), or Aeroflot (Russian: ) as the airline is commonly known, is the Russian flag carrier and the largest airline in Russia. ... The Rwandan Genocide was the systematic murder of the countrys Tutsi minority and the moderates of its Hutu majority, in 1994. ...


In 2005, the international conventions against discrimination of women and race discrimination were incorporated into (but not made superior to) Norwegian law. Amnesty International has recently focused on violence against women in Norway and a shortage of public services to victims of violence.[34] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


Norway has compulsory military service for men. Conscripts are drafted at age 18 for initial service (førstegangstjeneste) of between six to twelve months (Service may begin at age 17 with parental consent). After completion of the initial service period, personnel serving in the home guard are transferred to reserve units, which may be called up for periodic training (repetisjonstjeneste) until age 44. Conscientious objectors serve twelve months in alternative civilian national service. If a candidate refuses to attend the assessment of fitness (sesjon), where any objections to future military service are to be stated, they are liable to prosecution. A person who is deemed fit for service and who is not a conscientious objector, but still refuses military service is also liable to prosecution. Changes to the structure of the armed forces has resulted in a lower demand for conscripts, and the number of males needing to serve is decreasing.[citation needed] Conscript redirects here. ... A Home Guard is a part-time civilian reserve military force similar to a militia. ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ...


Homosexuality was officially decriminalized in 1972 and same sex civil partnerships were instituted in 1993. According to Statistics Norway (SSB), 192 same sex civil partnerships were recorded in 2004. Since 2002, it has become possible for same sex couples to adopt each other's children from previous relationships, although joint adoption is not allowed. At this time (May 2008) the Norwegian government is about to introduce a same-sex marriage law. This makes it possible for homosexuals to marry, with the same rights and obligations as heterosexuals. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Statistics Norway (Statistisk sentralbyrå or SSB) is the Norwegian statistics bureau. ...


International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
International Monetary Fund GDP per capita 2nd out of 232 (2006)
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 2nd out of 177 (2007) (1st, 2001-2006)
A.T. Kearney / Foreign Policy Globalization Index 2005 14th out of 111
Heritage Foundation / Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 2006 30th out of 155
Reporters Without Borders Worldwide press freedom index 1st out of 168 (1st 2002-2005)
Save the Children State of the World's Mothers 2004  (Children) 1st out of 119
Save the Children State of the World's Mothers 2004  (Women) 6th out of 119
Save the Children State of the World's Mothers 2004  (Mothers) 6th out of 119
UNICEF Child Well-being league table 7th out of 21 industrial countries
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2004 8th out of 145
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2005-2006 9th out of 117
Nationmaster Labour Strikes 5th out of 27
The Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide quality-of-life index, 2005 3rd out of 111
Yale University/Columbia University Environmental Sustainability Index, 2005 (pdf) 2nd out of 146
The Fund for Peace Failed States Index, 2007 177th out of 177
The Economist Global Peace Index 3rd out of 140 (2008)
The Economist Democracy Index 4th out of 167

IMF redirects here. ... Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a calculation method in national accounting (see Measures of national income and output) is defined as the total value of final goods and services produced within a countrys borders in a year, regardless of ownership. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... A.T. Kearney is an international management consulting firm, dating its origins back to the early days of the management consulting profession. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nationmaster is the name for a website created by Rapid Intelligence an Australian Web tech company. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication of The Economist Newspaper Limited in London. ... Yale redirects here. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The Fund for Peace is an independent Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit research and educational organization. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... World map of the Global Peace Index The Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Democracy index map. ...

Literature

Main article: Norwegian literature
See also: List of Norwegian writers

The history of Norwegian literature starts with the pagan Eddaic poems and skaldic verse of the 9th and 10th centuries with poets such as Bragi Boddason and Eyvindr Skáldaspillir. The arrival of Christianity around the year 1000 brought Norway into contact with European medieval learning, hagiography and history writing. Merged with native oral tradition and Icelandic influence this was to flower into an active period of literature production in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Major works of that period include Historia Norwegie, Thidreks saga and Konungs skuggsjá. Norwegian literature is literature composed in Norway or by Norwegian people. ... This is a list of Norwegian literature authors in the order of their year of birth. ... Norse paganism is a term used to describe the religious traditions which were common amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries prior to and during the process of the Christianization in Northern Europe. ... The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... Skaldic poetry (Icelandic: dróttkvæði, court poetry) is Old Norse poetry composed by known skalds, as opposed to the anonymous Eddaic poetry. ... Bragi, in Norse mythology, is the god of poetry. ... Eyvindr Finnsson skáldaspillir was a 10th century Norwegian skald. ... Historia Norwegiæ is a short history of the Norwegian past written by a monk around the second half of the 12th century. ... Thidreks saga (also Thidreksaga, Thidrekssaga, Niflungasaga) is a saga of the adventures of the hero Dietrich von Bern, believed to be based on the historical Theodoric the Great, and written down about 1250. ... A page from Konungs skuggsjá. Konungs skuggsjá (Old Norse for Kings mirror; Latin: Speculum regale, modern Norwegian: Kongespeilet) is a Norwegian educational scripture from around 1250, dealing with politics and moral. ...


Little Norwegian literature came out of the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union (1387—1814), with some notable exceptions such as Petter Dass and Ludvig Holberg. In his play Peer Gynt, Ibsen characterized this period as "Twice two hundred years of darkness/brooded o'er the race of monkeys", although the latter line is not as frequently quoted as the former. During the union with Denmark, written Norwegian was replaced by Danish. Petter Dass memorial in Sandnessjøen Petter Dass (born in 1647, died September 18, 1707) was the foremost poet and hymn writer of his generation. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Peer Gynt (IPA: ) is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ...


Two major events precipitated a major resurgence in Norwegian literature. In 1811 a Norwegian university was established in Christiania Seized by the spirit of revolution following the American and French Revolutions, the Norwegians signed their first constitution in 1814. Soon, the cultural backwater that was Norway brought forth a series of strong authors recognized first in Scandinavia, and then worldwide; among them were Henrik Wergeland, Peter Asbjørnsen, Jørgen Moe and Camilla Collett. This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Henrik Wergeland Henrik Wergeland (June 17, 1808–July 12, 1845) was a Norwegian poet and prose writer, born in Kristiansand. ... PC Asbjørnsen Peter Christen Asbjørnsen (1812-1885) was a Norwegian writer and scientist. ... Jørgen Moe (1813-1882) was, through his collaboration with Peter Christian Asbjørnsen, responsible for collecting and editing Norwegian folk tales, Norske Folkeeventyr. ... Camilla Collett (Jacobine) Camilla Collett , née Wergeland (January 23, 1813 - March 6, Norwegian writer, commonly referred to as the first Norwegian feminist. ...


By the late 19th century, in the Golden Age of Norwegian literature, the so-called Great Four emerged: Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Alexander Kielland, and Jonas Lie. Bjørnson's "peasant novels", such as "En glad gutt" (A Happy Boy) and "Synnøve Solbakken" are typical of the national romanticism of their day, whereas Kielland's novels and short stories are mostly realistic. Although an important contributor to early Norwegian romanticism (especially the ironic Peer Gynt), Henrik Ibsen's fame rests primarily on his pioneering realistic dramas such The Wild Duck and A Doll's House, many of which caused moral uproar because of their candid portrayals of the middle classes. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson (December 8, 1832–April 26, 1910). ... Alexander Kielland when he was mayor of Stavanger. ... Jonas Lauritz Idemil Lie (November 6, 1833 – July 5, 1908) was a Norwegian novelist, considered to be one of the Four Greats of 19th century Norwegian literature. ... Peer Gynt (IPA: ) is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... The Wild Duck (original Norwegian title: Vildanden) is a 1884 play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ... Cover page to manuscript of A Dolls House, Henrik Ibsen, 1879 For other uses, see A Dolls House (disambiguation). ...


In the twentieth century three Norwegian novelists were awarded the Nobel prize in literature: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson in 1903, Knut Hamsun for the book "Markens grøde" ("Growth of the Soil") in 1920, and Sigrid Undset in 1928. In the 20th century writers like Dag Solstad, Jostein Gaarder, Erik Fosnes Hansen, Jens Bjørneboe, Kjartan Fløgstad, Lars Saabye Christensen, Johan Borgen, Herbjørg Wassmo, Jan Erik Vold, Rolf Jacobsen, Olaf Bull, Jan Kjærstad, Georg Johannesen, Tarjei Vesaas, Sigurd Hoel, Arnulf Øverland and Johan Falkberget have made important contributions to Norwegian literature. René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson (December 8, 1832–April 26, 1910). ... Knut Hamsun (31 years old) in 1890 Knut Hamsun (August 4, 1859 – February 19, 1952) was a leading Norwegian author and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature for 1920. ... Growth of the Soil is considered one of Norwegian author Knut Hamsuns best novels. ... Sigrid Undset as photographed by Carl Van Vechten in 1927. ... Dag Solstad ( born July 16, 1941 in Sandefjord, Norway) is a Norwegian novelist, short-story writer, and dramatist whose work has been translated into several languages. ... Jostein Gaarder (born August 8, 1952 in Oslo) is a Norwegian intellectual and author of several novels, short stories and childrens books. ... Erik Fosnes Hansen (born June 6, 1965 in New York) is a norwegian author. ... Jens Bjørneboe (born October 9, 1920 in Kristiansand, Norway, died May 9, 1976 in Veierland in Nøtterøy) was a Norwegian writer whose work spanned a number of literary formats. ... Kjartan Fløgstad (born June 7th, 1944 in the industrial city of Sauda in Ryfylke, Rogaland) is a Norwegian author. ... Lars Saabye Christensen (born in 1953 in Denmark) is a Norwegian author. ... Johan Collett Müller Borgen (April 28, 1903, Kristiania – October 16, 1979) was a Norwegian author, journalist and critic. ... Herbjørg Wassmo (born VesterÃ¥len, 1942 ) is a Norwegian author. ... Rolf Jacobsen, the modernist poet Rolf Jacobsen (1907-1994) was the firs modernistic writer in Norway. ... Olaf Bull Olaf Jacob Martin Luther Breda Bull or Olaf Bull was a Norwegian poet. ... Jan Kjærstad (born March 6, 1953) is a Norwegian author. ... Georg Johannesen Photo: Gisle Hannemyr Georg Johannesen (born February 22, 1931 in Bergen, died December 24, 2005 in Egypt) was a Norwegian author and professor of rhetoric. ... Tarjei Vesaas (August 20, 1897 - March 15, 1970) was a Norwegian poet and novelist. ... Sigurd Hoel (December 14, 1890 - October 14, 1960) was a Norwegian author and publishing consultant, born in Nord-Odal. ... Arnulf Øverland (April 27, 1889 - March 25, 1968) was a Norwegian author born in Kristiansund and raised in Bergen. ... Johan Falkberget, born Johan Petter Lillebakken, (September 30, 1879 – April 5, 1967) was a Norwegian author. ...


See also

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, Norway Although sensitive to global business cycles, the economy of Norway has shown robust growth since the start of the industrial era. ... Norway supports international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of disputes, recognizing the need for maintaining a strong national defense through collective security. ... Norway has mandatory military service for males (6-12 months of training) and voluntary service for females. ... Music based on traditional Norwegian form usually includes minor or modal scales (sometimes mixed with major scales), making a sober and haunting sound. ... One of the most important and divisive issues in Norwegian political and economic debate since World War II has been the countrys relationship with the European Union. ... Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language. ... Norwegian literature is literature composed in Norway or by Norwegian people. ... Holidays in Norway Categories: | | ... A geopolitical map of Norway, exhibiting its 19 first-order subnational divisions (fylker or counties) with Svalbard and Jan Mayen. ... Tourism > Tourism in Norway Norway by winter Norway is a country of impressive landscapes, and extends far north across the Arctic Circle. ... Norwegian Minke Whale Quotas (blue line, 1994-2006) and Catches (red line, 1946. ...

Culture, education and sports

Loft in Setesdal, about 1890 From its origins about 9,000 years ago to the present, the architecture of Norway has evolved in response to shifting economic conditions, technological advances, demographic fluctuations and cultural shifts. ... Norwegian culture should be understood in the context of Norwegian history as well as Norwegian geography. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Football is the most popular sport in Norway. ... First International Sweden 11 - 3 Norway (Gothenburg, Sweden; 12 July 1908) Largest win Norway 12 - 0 Finland (Bergen, Norway; 28 June 1946) Worst defeat Sweden 9 - 0 Norway (Stockholm, Sweden; 8 June 1913) World Cup Appearances 3 (First in 1938) Best result Round 2, 1998 European Championship Appearances 1 (First... The Norwegian Premier League is the top division for football (soccer) in Norway. ... The lusekofte is a traditional Norwegian sweater, dating from the 19th century. ... As in many countries, the science, craft, and art of photography in Norway has evolved as a result of changing technology, improving economic conditions, and the level of acceptance of photography as an art form in its own right. ... The Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund (Statens lånekasse for utdanning) provides loans and grants to Norwegian students for their education. ...

Infrastructure

The registration number of cars in Norway is maintained by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 2. ... Norway is mostly supplied by Norwegian-generated hydroelectric power, and it is one of the foremost countries in the world as regards expertise in the field. ... Railways: See Norwegian railway system City with metro system: Oslo (T-banen, the tunnel-track). Cities with a tram system: Oslo, Trondheim City with a funicular: Bergen Car ferries are a vital part of the highway infrastructure in coastal regions. ... Road signs in Norway are regulated in Statens vegvesen (Norwegian Public Roads Administration). ...

Lists

Map of Norway with important cities This is a list of cities in Norway. ... This is a list of Norwegian companies operating as of 2004, and historical companies. ... // Categories Norwegian newspapers fall into several categories: National newspapers, i. ... List of Norwegian national parks with date of establishment and area. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... This is a list of notable people from Norway. ... This is a list of Norwegian radio stations or stations that broadcast for a Norwegian language audience. ... Norway has issued stamps since 1855, and the first person to appear on a norwegian stamp was the joint norwegian-swedish king Oscar II. The first non-royal person to appear on a norwegian stamp was the playwright Henrik Ibsen, to commemorate his centenniary in 1929. ... Schools in Norway are usually divided into the following categories: barneskoler 1. ... This is a list of Norwegian television channels. ...

References

Norway Portal
  1. ^ a b CIA — The World Factbook — Norway
  2. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, GDP (PPP)"
  3. ^ "Statsistics Norway"
  4. ^ Areal. SBB.
  5. ^ Befolkning. SBB.
  6. ^ List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita
  7. ^ List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
  8. ^ List of countries by current account balance
  9. ^ UPDATE 1-Statistics Norway raises '07 GDP outlook, cuts '08
  10. ^ [www.globefish.org/filedownload.php?fileId=560 FAO Globefish global trends 2006]
  11. ^ Human Development Index. Note that although Norway and Iceland's scores are the same to three decimal places, Iceland ranks higher when the decimal is expanded.
  12. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Norway rated most peaceful nation
  13. ^ Thorpe, B., The Life of Alfred The Great Translated From The German of Dr. R. Pauli To Which Is Appended Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Version of Orosius, Bell, 1900, p. 253.
  14. ^ http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/EJHG_2002_v10_521-529.pdf
  15. ^ RF Foster: "The Oxford History of Ireland", Oxford University Press, 1989
  16. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=2197762&dopt=Abstract The Black Death in Norway
  17. ^ Skodvin, Magne (1991). Norsk historie 1939-1945: krig og okkupasjon. Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget, pp. 320-323. ISBN 82-521-3491-2. 
  18. ^ Aftenposten Newspaper: PM to light London tree (English)
  19. ^ Reporters Without Borders: Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2007 (English)
  20. ^ List of Norwegian embassies at the website of the Norwegian ministry of foreign affairs
  21. ^ List of foreign embassies in Norway at the website of the Norwegian ministry of foreign affairs
  22. ^ Kristiansund + Frei = Sant (Norwegian). www.ks.no. Retrieved on 2008-01-09.
  23. ^ <dato>LOV-1992-11-27-109</dato> EØS-loven — EØSl. Lov om gjennomføring i norsk rett av hoveddelen i avtale om Det europeiske økonomiske samarbeidsområde (EØS) m.v. (EØS-loven)
  24. ^ Eivind Bråstad Jensen. 1991. Fra fornorskningspolitikk mot kulturelt mangfold. Nordkalott-Forlaget.
  25. ^ I. Bjørklund, T. Brantenberg, H. Eidheim, J.A. Kalstad and D. Storm. 2002. Australian Indigenous Law Reporter (AILR) 1 7(1)
  26. ^ Immigrant population
  27. ^ Population tatistics
  28. ^ Andel personer i alderen 9-79 år som har brukt forskjellige kulturtilbud siste 12 måneder. Prosent - Statistisk årbok 2007, tabell 234
  29. ^ Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 (PDF) p. 11. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  30. ^ a b More members in religious and philosophical communities
  31. ^ Amnesty International — Dødsstraff-oversikt
  32. ^ <dato>LOV-1999-05-21-30</dato> Menneskerettsloven — mnskrl. Lov om styrking av menneskerettighetenes stilling i norsk rett (menneskerettsloven)
  33. ^ Isolasjon i fengsel er tortur
  34. ^ Amnesty International — Slo sprekker i glansbildet

Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Blue = countries in surplus; Red = countries in deficit This is a list of countries and territories by current account balance, in millions of U.S. dollars, equivalence based on The World Factbook ([1]). Most data are 2006 estimates. ... Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Of the emerging democracies in central and eastern Europe, Czechia has one of the most developed industrialized economies. ... Tourism, petroleum transshipment, and offshore finance are the mainstays of the Netherlands Antillean economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. ... The United Kingdom has the fifth largest economy in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... [--168. ... An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by a someone who is elected by a group. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Alo, also known unofficially as Tu`a, is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna, which encompasses the eastern two thirds (53 km² out of 83 km²) of Futuna Island, and mostly uninhabited Alofi Island (32 km², pop. ... Ankole, originally known as Nkore, is one of the four traditional kingdoms of Uganda. ... For other uses, see Ashanti (disambiguation). ... The flag of Buganda Buganda is the kingdom of the 52 clans of the Baganda people, the largest of the traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda. ... Bunyoro flag The current Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara and its districts Bunyoro is a region of Uganda, and from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century one of the most powerful kingdoms of East Africa. ... The flag of Busoga Kingdom of Busoga and its districts Busoga is the kingdom of the 11 principalities of the Basoga people, one of the five traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Sigave is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna, which is located on the western part of Futuna Island. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Original Kingdom of Toro and its districts Kingdom of Toro since 1993 Toro is one of the four traditional kingdoms located within the borders of Uganda. ... For the Pacific island, see Wallis Island. ... Yogyakarta Sultanate or Kesultanan Yogyakarta is a monarchy in the province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. ... Zululand was the Zulu-dominated area of what is now northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Norway - Encyclopedia Article (1132 words)
Norway was a nonbelligerent during World War I, but as a result of the German invasion and occupation during World War II, Norwegians generally became skeptical of the concept of neutrality and turned instead to collective security.
Norway straddles the North Atlantic Ocean for its entire length, bound by three different seas: the North Sea to the southwest and its large inlet the Skagerak to the south, the Norwegian Sea to the west and the Barents Sea to the northeast.
Norway's highest point is the Galdhøpiggen at 2,469 m.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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