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Encyclopedia > Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory

The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. The Northwest Ordinance, passed by the Continental Congress on July 13, 1787, provided for the administration of the territories and set rules for admission as a state. On August 7, 1789, the new U.S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution. The territory included all the land of the United States west of Pennsylvania and northwest of the Ohio River. It covered all of the modern states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota. The area covered more than 260,000 square miles (673,000 km²). The Northwest Territory of the United States, circa 1787, time of the Northwest Ordinance. ... Northwest Territory (1787). ... The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ...

Contents

History

European exploration of the region began with French Canadian voyageurs in the seventeenth century, followed by French missionaries and French fur traders. French Canadian explorer Jean Nicolet was the first recorded entry into the region in 1634, landing at the site of Green Bay, Wisconsin, today (although Étienne Brûlé is stated by some sources as having explored Lake Superior and possibly inland Wisconsin in 1622). The French exercised control from widely separated posts throughout the region they claimed as New France. France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris (1763), which ended the French and Indian Wars. Jean Nicolet (born 1598 - died November 1, 1642) was a French voyageur noted for exploring the Northwest Territory. ... Étienne Brûlé (c. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ...


However, facing armed opposition by Native Americans, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited white settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains until treaties had been negotiated with the Native Americans. But this action angered American colonists interested in expansion and was a contributing factor to the American Revolution. Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by the British government in the name of King George III to prohibit settlement by British colonists beyond the Appalachian Mountains in the lands captured by Britain from France in the French and Indian War/Seven Years War and to... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


Britain ceded the area north of the Ohio River and west of the Appalachians to the United States at the end of the American Revolutionary War with the Treaty of Paris (1783), but the British continued to maintain a presence in the region as late as 1815, the end of the War of 1812. This article is about military actions only. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ...

Several states (Virginia, Massachusetts, New York, and Connecticut) then had competing claims on the territory. Other states, such as Maryland, refused to ratify the Articles of Confederation so long as these states were allowed to keep their western territory, fearing that those states could continue to grow and tip the balance of power in their favor under the proposed system of federal government. As a concession in order to obtain ratification, these states ceded their claims on the territory to the U.S. government: New York in 1780, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts and Connecticut in 1785. So the majority of the territory became public land owned by the U.S. government. Virginia and Connecticut reserved the land of two areas to use as compensation to military veterans: The Virginia Military District and the Connecticut Western Reserve. In this way, the United States included territory and people outside any of the states. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (765x800, 154 KB) [edit] Summary This is a map showing state land claims and cessions from 1782-1802 that I made. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... The Virginia Military District was an approximately 4. ... Connecticuts land claims in the West The Connecticut Western Reserve was land claimed by Connecticut in the Northwest Territory in what is now northeastern Ohio. ...


The Land Ordinance of 1785 established a standardized system for surveying the land into saleable lots, although Ohio had already been partially surveyed several times using different methods, resulting in a patchwork of land surveys in Ohio. Some older French communities' property claims based on earlier systems of long, narrow lots also were retained. The rest of the Northwest Territory was divided into roughly uniform square townships and sections, which facilitated land sales and development. A General Land Office diagram showing the theoretical sectioning of a standard survey township. ...


Difficulties with Native American tribes and with British trading outposts presented continuing obstacles for American expansion until military campaigns of General "Mad" Anthony Wayne against the Native Americans culminated with victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and the Treaty of Greenville of 1795. Jay's Treaty, in 1794, temporarily helped to smooth relations with British traders in the region, where British citizens outnumbered American citizens throughout the 1780s. Ongoing disputes with the British over the region was a contributing factor to the War of 1812. Britain irrevocably ceded claim to the Northwest Territory with the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 - December 15, 1796), was a United States Army general and statesman. ... Combatants United States Legion of the United States consisting of: 1st Sub-Legion: 3d Infantry Regiment 2nd Sub-Legion: U.S. 1st Infantry Regiment 3rd Sub-Legion: Captain Moses Porters Company of Artillery of the 3rd Sub-Legion 4th Sub-Legion: U.S. 4th Infantry Regiment Kentucky Volunteers Blue... This depiction of the treaty negotiations may have been painted by one of Anthony Waynes officers. ... John Jay The Jay Treaty of 1795 (also known as Jays Treaty or the Treaty of London), named after U.S. Supreme Court chief justice John Jay, was a treaty between the United States and Great Britain signed on November 19, 1794 that attempted to clear up some of... Signing of the Treaty of Ghent. ...


When the territory was created, it was inhabited by about 45,000 Native Americans and 4,000 traders, mostly French and British – although both groups included the Metis, a sizeable group descended from Native women married to European or Canadian traders who established a unique culture that ruled the Upper Midwest for more than a century[citation needed] before American settlement officially began at Marietta, Ohio, on April 7, 1788. The first governor of the Northwest Territory, Arthur St. Clair, formally established the government on July 15, 1788, at Marietta. His original plan called for the organization of five initial counties: Washington (Ohio east of the Scioto River), Hamilton (Ohio between the Scioto and the Miami Rivers), Knox (Indiana and eastern Illinois), St. Clair (Illinois and Wisconsin), and Wayne (Michigan). Downtown Marietta and the Muskingum River in July 2006 Marietta is a city in Washington County, Ohio, United States. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of St. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Washington County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Perspective view looking upstream of Scioto River valley near Portsmouth, Ohio. ... Hamilton County is a county in the located in the southwest corner of the state of Ohio, United States. ... The Great Miami River (also called the Miami River) is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately 160 mi (257 km) long, in southwestern Ohio in the United States. ... Knox County is a county located in the state of Indiana. ... St. ... Wayne County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...


On July 4, 1800, in preparation for Ohio's statehood, the Indiana Territory was carved out, reducing the Northwest Territory to the size of Ohio, to prepare for statehood. The Northwest Territory went out of existence when Ohio was admitted as a state on March 1, 1803. is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Map of the Indiana Territory Indiana Territory was an organized territory of the United States from 1800 to 1816, created by Act of Congress and signed into law by President John Adams on May 7, 1800, effective on July 4. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Law and government

Main article: Northwest Ordinance

At first, the territory had a modified form of martial law. The governor was also the senior army officer within the territory, and he combined legislative and executive authority. But a supreme court was established, and he shared legislative powers with the court. County governments were organized as soon as the population was sufficient, and these assumed local administrative and judicial functions. Washington County was the first of these, at Marietta in 1788; William Stacy was honored with the position of Foreman of the first Grand Jury in the Northwest Territory.[1][2] This was an important event, as this court was the first establishment of civil and criminal law in the pioneer country. Hamilton County at Cincinnati followed in 1790. These areas later became part of Ohio. Northwest Territory (1787). ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... William Stacy (1734–1802) was an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and a pioneer to the Ohio Country. ... “Cincinnati” redirects here. ...


As soon as the number of settlers exceeded 5,000, the Territorial Legislature was to be created, and this happened in 1798. The full mechanisms of government were put in place, as outlined in the Northwest Ordinance. A bicameral legislature consisted of a House of Representatives and a Council. The first House had 22 representatives, two elected by each county. The House then nominated 10 citizens to be Council members. The nominations were sent to the U.S. Congress, which appointed five of them as the Council. This assembly became the legislature of the Territory, although the governor retained veto power. A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... Northwest Territory (1787). ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... ζōA legislator is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Article VI of the Articles of Compact within the Northwest Ordinance prohibited the owning of slaves within the Northwest Territory. However, territorial governments evaded this law by use of indenture laws[1]. The Articles of Compact prohibited legal discrimination on the basis of religion within the territory. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The township formula created by Thomas Jefferson was first implemented in the Northwest Territory through the Land Ordinance of 1785. The square surveys of the Northwest Territory would become a hallmark of the Midwest, as sections, townships, counties (and states) were laid out scientifically, and land was sold quickly and efficiently (although not without some speculative aberrations). A township in the United States refers to a small geographic area, ranging in size from 6 to 54 square miles (15. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... A General Land Office diagram showing the theoretical sectioning of a standard survey township. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Sectioning a township. ...


Leadership

Map of the states and territories of the United States as it was on August 7, 1789 (when the Northwest Territory was first organized) to May 26, 1790 (when the Territory south of the Ohio River (Southwest Territory) was organized).

Arthur St. Clair was the Territory's only governor. The original supreme court was made up of John Cleves Symmes, James Mitchell Varnum, and Samuel Holden Parsons. There were three secretaries: Winthrop Sargent (July 9, 1788-May 31, 1798); William Henry Harrison (June 29, 1798-December 31, 1799); and Charles Willing Byrd (January 1, 1800- January 15, 1803). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x677, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Maps of the United States Territorial evolution of the United States ... John Cleves Symmes (1742-1814) was a delegate to the Continental Congress from New Jersey, and later a pioneer in the Northwest Territory. ... James Mitchell Varnum (December 17, 1748– January 10, 1789) was an American lawyer. ... Samuel Holden Parsons (May 14, 1737–November 17, 1789) was an American lawyer, jurist, and military leader. ... Winthrop Sargent on a postage stamp Winthrop Sargent (May 1, 1753 - June 3, 1820) was a United States politician. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1798, the territory became eligible to send a non-voting delegate to the U.S. Congress. The Assembly elected this representative. Representatives were: Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...

Further information: United States congressional delegations from Northwest Territory

William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Paul Fearing (February 28, 1762 - August 21, 1822) was Delegate from the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio. ... In 1798, the Northwest Territory became eligible to send a non-voting delegate to the U.S. Congress. ...

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Northwest Ordinance

Northwest Territory (1787). ... Combatants United States Western Lakes Confederacy Commanders Josiah Harmar Arthur St. ... The state cessions are those areas of the United States that the separate states ceded to the federal government in the late 18th and early 19th century. ... The Southwest Territory, also known as the Territory South of the River Ohio, was an organized territory of the United States formed on May 26, 1790. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Illinois-Wabash Company land holdings included Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin. ... Zanes Trace is the name for a frontier road constructed under the direction of Col. ... French settlements and forts in the Illinois Country in 1763, showing U.S. current state boundaries. ... Categories: Stub | Illinois history | U.S. historical regions and territories ... Map of the United States portion of the territory in 1775 after Quebec laid claim to the land north of the Ohio River. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

References

  1. ^ Hildreth, S. P.: Pioneer History: Being an Account of the First Examinations of the Ohio Valley, and the Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory, H. W. Derby and Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (1848) p. 233.
  2. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) pp. 39-40.

External links

  • Facsimile of 1789 Act
  • The Territory's Executive Journal
  • Maumee Valley Heritage Corridor

  Results from FactBites:
 
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