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Encyclopedia > Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage routes
Northwest Passage routes

The Northwest Passage is a sea route through the Arctic Ocean along the northern coast of North America via the waterways amidst the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.[1][2] The various islands of the archipelago are separated from one another and the Canadian mainland by a series of Arctic waterways collectively known as the Northwest Passages or Northwestern Passages.[3] Northwest Passage may refer to the: Northwest Passage, a route through the Arctic archipelago of Canada 1940 movie Northwest Passage song Northwest Passage on the album of the same name by Canadian folk artist Stan Rogers song A Northwest Passage on the New Morning, Changing Weather album by Swedish punk... Download high resolution version (2560x960, 799 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2560x960, 799 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... World map depicting Canadian Arctic Archipelago Polar projection map of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Reference map of Canadian Arctic Archipelago The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as just the Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago north of the Canadian mainland in the Arctic. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ...


Sought by explorers for centuries as a possible trade route, it was first navigated by Roald Amundsen in 1903-6. The Arctic pack ice prevents regular marine shipping throughout the year, but due to global warming, the pack ice is being reduced and may eventually make the waterways more navigable. This and the contested sovereignty claims over the waters may complicate future shipping through the region. The Canadian government considers the Northwestern Passages part of Canadian Internal Waters,[4] but various countries maintain they are an international strait or transit passage, allowing free and unencumbered passage.[5][6] Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... NOAA Projected arctic changes Polar ice packs are large areas of pack ice formed from seawater in the Earths polar regions, known as polar ice caps: the Arctic ice pack (or Arctic ice cap) of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean, fringing the... A container ship // “Water transport” redirects here. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The Canada wordmark, used by most agencies of the Canadian federal government. ... Canadian Internal Waters is a Canadian legal term of art that refers to ...the waters on the landward side of the baselines of the territorial sea of Canada,....[1] These waters may include such bodies of water as the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Strait of Georgia, Queen Charlotte Sound... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ...

Contents

Overview

Strait of Anian. Upper left corner. (Frederik de Wit, ca. 1670)
Strait of Anian. Upper left corner. (Frederik de Wit, ca. 1670)

Between the end of the 15th century and the 20th century, colonial powers from Eurasia dispatched explorers in an attempt to discover a commercial sea route north and west around North America. The Northwest Passage represented a new route to the established trading nations of Asia. In 1493 to defuse trade disputes Pope Alexander VI split the discovered world in two between Spain and Portugal; thus France, Holland and England were left without a sea route to Asia, either via Africa or South America.[7]The British called the hypothetical route the Northwest Passage. The desire to establish such a route motivated much of the European exploration of both coasts of North America. When it became apparent that there was no route through the heart of the continent, attention turned to the possibility of a passage through northern waters. This was driven in some part by scientific naiveté, namely an early belief that seawater was incapable of freezing (as late as the mid 18th century, Captain James Cook had reported, for example, that Antarctic icebergs had yielded fresh water, seemingly confirming the hypothesis), and that a route close to the North Pole must therefore exist.[7] The belief that a route lay to the far north persisted for several centuries and led to a number of expeditions into the Arctic, including the attempt by Sir John Franklin in 1845. In 1906, Roald Amundsen first successfully completed a path from Greenland to Alaska in the Gjøa. Since that date, a number of ice-fortified ships have made the journey. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (1131 × 763 pixel, file size: 670 KB, MIME type: image/png) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (1131 × 763 pixel, file size: 670 KB, MIME type: image/png) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... Icebergs at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg, Témpanos, Patagonia, Argentina. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... For other persons named John Franklin, see John Franklin (disambiguation). ... Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Gjøa Gjøa was the first vessel to transit the Northwest Passage. ...


From west to east the Northwest Passage runs through the Bering Strait (separating Russia and Alaska), Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea and then through several waterways that go through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. There are five to seven different routes through the archipelago, including the McClure Strait, Dease Strait and the Prince of Wales Strait, but not all of them are suitable for larger ships.[8][9] The passage then goes through Baffin Bay and the Davis Strait into the Atlantic Ocean. Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... Chukchi Sea (Russian: Чуко́тское мо́ре) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, between Chukotka and Alaska. ... Approximate area of the Beaufort Sea, and the disputed waters The Beaufort Sea is a large body of water north of The Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska and west of Canadas arctic islands that is a part of the Arctic Ocean. ... The McClure Strait is a strait in the Arctic Ocean and part of the Northwest Passage. ... Dease Strait, Nunavut, Canada. ... The Prince of Wales Strait is a strait in the Northwest Territories of Canada, and separates Banks Island from Victoria Island. ... Baffin Bay, lying between Nunavut, Canada and Greenland. ... Map of Baffin Island and surrounding areas, including Davis Strait. ...


There has been speculation that with the advent of global warming the passage may become clear enough of ice to permit safe commercial shipping for at least part of the year. On August 21, 2007 the Northwest Passage became open to ships without the need of an icebreaker. According to Nalan Koc of the Norwegian Polar Institute this is the first time it has been clear since they began keeping records in 1972.[10][11] Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... A container ship // “Water transport” redirects here. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... Icebreaker Polarstern Track of research vessel Polarstern while breaking ice in the Southern Ocean An icebreaker is a special purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters. ... The Norwegian Polar Institute (in Norwegian: Norsk Polarinstitutt) is Norways national institution for polar research. ...


From 1500 to 1850

Assumed route of the Strait of Anián
Assumed route of the Strait of Anián

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Strait of Anián

In 1539, Hernán Cortés commissioned Francisco de Ulloa to sail along the peninsula of Baja California on the Western coast of America. Ulloa concluded that the Gulf of California was the southernmost section of a strait supposedly linking the Pacific with the Gulf of St. Lawrence. His voyage perpetuated the notion of the Island of California and saw the beginning of a search for the Strait of Anián. Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Route of the 1539 voyage by Francisco de Ulloa from (Acapulco) along the west coast of Mexico Francisco de Ulloa (d. ... Baja California Peninsula (highlighted) The Baja California Peninsula or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ... The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Island of California is shown on a 1650 map by Nicolas Sanson The Island of California refers to a long-held European misconception, dating from the 16th century, that California was not part of mainland North America but rather a large island separated from the continent by the Mare...


The strait probably took its name from Ania, a Chinese province mentioned in a 1559 edition of Marco Polo's book; it first appears on a map issued by Italian cartographer Giacomo Gastaldi about 1562. Five years later Bolognini Zaltieri issued a map showing a narrow and crooked Strait of Anian separating Asia from America. The strait grew in European imagination as an easy sea-lane linking Europe with the residence of the Great Khan in Cathay (northern China). It was originally placed at approximately the latitude of San Diego, California leading some who live in the region to call it "Anian" or "Aniane". January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... Giacomo Gastaldi (Villafranca c. ... Year 1562 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... Cathay is the Anglicized version of Catai, the name that was given to northern China by Marco Polo (he referred to southern China as Manji). ... “San Diego” redirects here. ...


Voyages by John Cabot, Corte-Real, Jacques Cartier and Sir Humphrey Gilbert were motivated by its supposed existence, and cartographers and seamen tried to demonstrate its reality. Sir Francis Drake sought the western entrance in 1579. The Greek pilot Juan de Fuca claimed he had sailed the strait from the Pacific to the North Sea and back in 1592. The Spaniard Bartholomew de Fonte (who, some scholars have stated, was fictitious) claimed to have sailed from Hudson Bay to the Pacific via the strait in 1640. Giovanni Caboto (c. ... Corte-Real was the name of three Portuguese explorers: João Vaz Corte-Real, who possibly reached Newfoundland in the 1470s. ... For other uses, see Jacques Cartier (disambiguation). ... Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. ... Sir Francis Drake, c. ... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... Juan de Fuca (born 1536 as Ioannis Phokas in Kefalonia/Greece; † 1602 in Zákynthos/Greece, often reported as Apostolos Valerianos), was a Greek captain employed by Spain to sail northward from Mexico and look for a northern passage from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ...


Northern Atlantic

The first recorded attempt to discover the Northwest passage was the east-west voyage of John Cabot in 1497, sent by Henry VII in search of a direct route to the Orient.[7] The next of several British expeditions were launched in 1576 by Martin Frobisher, who took three trips west to what is now the Canadian Arctic in order to find the passage. Frobisher Bay, which he discovered, is named after him. As part of another hunt, in July 1583 Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who had written a treatise on the discovery of the passage and was a backer of Frobisher, claimed the territory of Newfoundland for the English crown. On August 8, 1585 the English explorer John Davis for the first time entered Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island. Giovanni Caboto (c. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Martin Frobisher by Cornelis Ketel. ... The North, the Canadian Arctic defined politically. ... Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... For other persons named John Davis, see John Davis (disambiguation). ... The Cumberland Sound is a body of water between Baffin Islands Hall Peninsula and the Cumberland Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada. ... Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ...


The major rivers on the east coast were also explored in case they could lead to a transcontinental passage. Jacques Cartier's explorations of the Saint Lawrence River were initiated in hope of finding a way through the continent. Indeed, Cartier managed to convince himself that the St. Lawrence was the Passage; when he found the way blocked by rapids at what is now Montreal, he was so certain that these rapids were all that was keeping him from China (in French, la Chine), that he named the rapids for China. To this day, they are the Lachine Rapids. In 1609 Henry Hudson sailed up what is now called the Hudson River in search of the Passage; encouraged by the saltiness of the water, he reached present-day Albany before giving up. He later explored the Arctic and Hudson Bay. For other uses, see Jacques Cartier (disambiguation). ... TheSaint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The Lachine Rapids are a series of rapids on the Saint Lawrence River, between the Island of Montreal and the south shore. ... No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... Hudson Bay, Canada. ...


Northern Pacific

Although most Northwest Passage expeditions originated in Europe or on the east coast of North America and sought to traverse the Passage in the westbound direction, some progress was made in exploration of its western end as well. In 1728 Vitus Bering, a Danish Navy officer in Russian service, used the strait first discovered by Semyon Dezhnyov in 1648 but later accredited to and named after Bering (the Bering Strait), concluding North America and Russia were separate land masses. Later in 1741 with Lieutenant Alexei Chirikov he went in search of further lands beyond Siberia. Whilst separated, Chirikov discovered several of the Aleutian Islands while Bering charted the Alaskan region before the scurvy-ravaged ship wrecked off Kamchatka. A portrait attributed to Vitus Bering (according to modern data, his uncles portrait) Vitus Jonassen Bering (also, less correctly, Behring) (August 1681–December 19, 1741) was a Danish-born navigator in the service of the Russian Navy, a captain-komandor known among the Russian sailors as Ivan Ivanovich. ... Semyon (Semнon, Semion, Simon) Ivanovich Dezhnev (Russian: ; circa 1605–1673) was a Russian explorer who in 1648 led the expedition that doubled the known extent of the easternmost promontory of the Eurasian continent and discovered that Asia is not connected to Alaska. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Aleksei Ilyich Chirikov (Russian: Алексей Ильич Чириков) (1703 – November, 1748) was a Russian navigator and captain who charted some of the Aleutian Islands and was deputy to Vitus Bering during the Kamchatka expeditions. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ...


In 1762, the English trading ship Octavius reportedly hazarded the passage from the west, but became trapped in sea ice. In 1775, the whaler Herald found the Octavius adrift near Greenland with the bodies of her crew frozen below decks. Thus the Octavius may have earned the distinction of being the first Western sailing ship to make the passage, although the fact that it took 13 years and occurred after the crew was dead somewhat tarnishes this achievement. (The veracity of the Octavius story is questionable). The Octavius was a ghost ship found near Greenland by the whaler Herald in 1775. ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... A whaler (or whale catcher) is a specialized kind of ship, designed for catching whales. ...


Cook and Vancouver

In 1776 Captain James Cook was despatched by the Admiralty in England under orders driven by a 1745 Act which, when extended in 1775, promised a £20,000 prize for whoever discovered the passage. Initially the Admiralty had wanted Charles Clerke to lead the expedition, with Cook, in retirement following his exploits in the Pacific, acting as a consultant. However Cook had researched Bering's expeditions and the Admiralty ultimately placed their faith in the veteran explorer to lead with Clerke accompanying him. Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Charles Clerke (1741-1779) was an officer in the Royal Navy who sailed with of four voyages of exploration. ...


After journeying through the Pacific, in another West-East attempt Cook began at Nootka Sound in April 1777 and headed North along the coastline, charting the lands and searching for the regions sailed by the Russians 40 years previously. The Admiralty's orders had commanded the expedition to ignore all inlets and rivers until they reached a latitude of 65° N. Cook, however, failed to make any progress in sighting a Northwestern Passage. Nootka Sound is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean and a natural harbour on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Compass rose with north highlighted and at top Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Various officers on the expedition including William Bligh, George Vancouver and John Gore thought the existence of a route was 'improbable'. Before reaching 65° N they found the coastline pushing them further south, but Gore convinced Cook to sail on into the Cook Inlet in the hope of finding the route. They continued to the limits of the Alaskan peninsula and the start of the thousand-mile chain of Aleutian Islands. Despite reaching 70° N they encountered nothing but icebergs. Ultimately they failed in the search, cursing the Russians for their "late pretended Discoveries" and the existence of the passage as nothing more than geographical fantasy.[7] 1814 portrait of William Bligh Vice-Admiral William Bligh FRS RN (9 September 1754 – 7 December 1817) was an officer of the British Royal Navy and colonial administrator. ... A life sized statue covered in gold of George Vancouver on top of the British Columbia Parliament Buildings Captain George Vancouver RN (June 22, 1757 – May 12, 1798) was an officer of the Royal Navy, best known for his exploration of North America, including the Pacific coast along the modern... Cook Inlet, showing Knik and Turnagain Arms The Cook Inlet or Nuti Inlet is a large inlet of the Gulf of Alaska in south-central Alaska. ...


In 1791-1795, the Vancouver Expedition (led by George Vancouver who had accompanied Cook previously) surveyed in detail all the passages from the Northwest Coast and confirmed that there was no such passage south of the Bering Strait.[12] This conclusion was supported by the evidence of Alexander Mackenzie who explored the Arctic and Pacific oceans in 1793. The Vancouver Expedition (1791-1795) was a five-year voyage of exploration and diplomacy, commanded by Captain George Vancouver. ... The British Columbia Coast is one of Canadas two continental coastlines; the other being the coastline from the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean via the Northwest Passage and Hudson Bay to the Ungava Peninsula and Labrador and the Gulf of St. ... Alexander Mackenzie, PC (January 28, 1822 – April 17, 1892), a writer, was the second Prime Minister of Canada from November 7, 1873 to October 9, 1878. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


19th century

In the first half of the 19th century, some parts of the actual Northwest Passage (north of the Bering Strait) were explored separately by a number of expeditions, including those by John Ross, William Edward Parry, and James Clark Ross; overland expeditions were also led by John Franklin, George Back, Peter Warren Dease, Thomas Simpson, and John Rae. In 1825 Frederick William Beechey explored the north coast of Alaska, discovering Point Barrow. Engraving of Ross Sir John Ross (June 24, 1777 – August 30, 1856) was a British rear admiral and Arctic explorer. ... William Edward Parry Sir William Edward Parry (December 19, 1790 – 8 or 9 July 1855) was an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer. ... Sir James Clark Ross (April 15, 1800 – April 3, 1862), was a British naval officer and explorer. ... For other persons named John Franklin, see John Franklin (disambiguation). ... Sir George Back (6 November 1796 – 23 June 1878) was a British naval officer, explorer of the Arctic and artist. ... John Rae John Rae (September 30, 1813 – July 22, 1893) was a Scottish explorer of the Arctic . ... Frederick William Beechey (February 17, 1796-November 29, 1856) was an English naval officer and geographer. ... Point Barrow or Nuvuk, is a headland at the northernmost point of Alaska and of the United States, on the Arctic Ocean, Panoramic view of the tip of point Barrow, Alaska. ...


Sir Robert McClure was credited with the discovery of the real Northwest Passage in 1851 when he looked across McClure Strait from Banks Island and viewed Melville Island. However, this strait was not navigable to ships at that time, and the only usable route linking the entrances of Lancaster Strait and Dolphin and Union Strait was discovered by John Rae in 1854. Robert John Le Mesurier McClure (or MClure) (28 January 1807 - 17 October 1873) was a British explorer of the Arctic. ... The McClure Strait is a strait in the Arctic Ocean and part of the Northwest Passage. ... Banks Island, Northwest Territories. ... Categories: Canada geography stubs | Islands of Canada | Nunavut geography | Northwest Territories geography ... Dolphin and Union Strait separates Victoria Island from mainland Canadas Northwest Territories area. ...


Franklin expedition

In 1845, a well-equipped two-ship expedition led by Sir John Franklin sailed to the Canadian Arctic to chart the final unknown parts of the Northwest Passage. Confidence was high, as there was less than 500 kilometres (311 miles) of unexplored Arctic mainland coast left. When the ships failed to return, a number of relief expeditions and search parties explored the Canadian Arctic, resulting in final charting of a possible passage. Traces of the expedition have been found, including notes that indicate that the ships became ice-locked in 1846 near King William Island, about half way through the passage, and were unable to extricate themselves. Franklin himself died in 1847 and the last of the party in 1848, after abandoning the ships and attempting to escape overland by sledge. While starvation and scurvy contributed to the deaths of the crew, another factor was significant. The expedition took 8,000 tins of food which were carelessly sealed with a lead-based solder. The lead appears to have contaminated the food, poisoning the crew. They would have become weak and disoriented — later stages of lead poisoning include insanity and death. In 1981 Dr. Owen Beattie, an anthropologist from the University of Alberta, examined remains from sites associated with the expedition. This led to further investigations, and the examination of tissue and bone from the mummified bodies of three seamen, exhumed from the permafrost of Beechey Island. Laboratory tests revealed high concentrations of lead in all three. New evidence shows that cannibalism may also have been a last resort for some of the crew. For other persons named John Franklin, see John Franklin (disambiguation). ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... King William Island, Nunavut NASA Landsat satellite image of King William Island King William Island is a Canadian Arctic island, in the Nunavut Territory. ... Scene from winter nearly anywhere snow may fall on a handy hill—Children at play sledding. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ... Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism or painters colic, caused by increased blood lead levels. ... The University of Alberta (U of A) is a public coeducational research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or airlessness. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more years. ... Beechey Island, is an island located in the inland Arctic archipelago in Wellington Channel at 74 degrees 43 minutes North Latitude and 91 degrees 51 minutes West Longitude. ... “Cannibal” redirects here. ...


McClure expedition

The North-West Passage (1874), a painting by John Everett Millais representing British frustration at the failure to conquer the passage.
The North-West Passage (1874), a painting by John Everett Millais representing British frustration at the failure to conquer the passage.

During the search for Franklin, Commander Robert McClure and his crew in HMS Investigator traversed the Northwest Passage from west to east in the years 1850 to 1854, partly by ship and partly by sledge. McClure started out from England in December of 1849, sailed the Atlantic Ocean south to Cape Horn and entered the Pacific Ocean. He sailed the Pacific north with a stop at Hawaii and then finally passed through the Bering Strait, turning east at that point and reaching Banks Island. McClure's ship was trapped in the ice for three winters near Banks Island, at the western end of Viscount Melville Sound. Finally McClure and his crew – who were by that time dying of starvation — were found by searchers who had travelled by sledge over the ice from a ship of Sir Edward Belcher's expedition, and returned with them to Belcher's ships, which had entered the sound from the east. On one of Belcher's ships, McClure and his crew returned to England in 1854, becoming the first people to circumnavigate the Americas, and to discover and transit the Northwest Passage, albeit by ship and by sledge over the ice. This was an astonishing feat for that day and age and McClure was knighted and promoted to Captain and both he and his crew shared £10,000 awarded them by the British Parliament. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1279, 341 KB) John Everett Millais: The North-West Passage / Die Ãœberfahrt nach Nord-West / Le passage de nord-ouest 1874 Tate Gallery, London File links The following pages link to this file: Northwest Passage John Everett Millais ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1279, 341 KB) John Everett Millais: The North-West Passage / Die Ãœberfahrt nach Nord-West / Le passage de nord-ouest 1874 Tate Gallery, London File links The following pages link to this file: Northwest Passage John Everett Millais ... Sir John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (June 8, 1829 – August 13, 1896) was a British painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. ... Robert John Le Mesurier McClure (or MClure) (28 January 1807 - 17 October 1873) was a British explorer of the Arctic. ... Cape Horn from the South. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Banks Island, Northwest Territories. ... The Viscount Melville Sound is a body of water that separates Victoria Island and Prince of Wales Island from the Parry Islands in Nunavut, Canada. ... Sir Edward Belcher (27 February 1799 – 18 March 1877) was a British naval officer and explorer. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats...


Explorations by John Rae

Main article: John Rae (explorer)

The expeditions by Franklin and McClure were in the then-current tradition of British exploration: well-funded ship-borne expeditions using modern technology, and usually including British Naval personnel. By contrast, John Rae was an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company, which was the major driving force behind exploration of the Canadian North. They adopted a pragmatic approach and tended to be land-based. While Franklin and McClure attempted to explore the passage by sea, Rae explored by land, using dog sleds and employing techniques he learned from the native Inuit. The Franklin and McClure expeditions each employed hundreds of personnel and multiple ships, and ended in failure. John Rae's expeditions included less than ten people and succeeded. Rae was also the only explorer to traverse these lands without ever losing a man. In 1854, [13] Rae returned with information about the outcome of the ill-fated Franklin expedition. John Rae John Rae (September 30, 1813 – July 22, 1893) was a Scottish explorer of the Arctic . ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


Amundsen expedition

The Northwest Passage was not conquered by sea until 1906, when the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, who had sailed just in time to escape creditors seeking to stop the expedition, completed a three-year voyage in the converted 47-ton herring boat Gjøa. At the end of this trip, he walked into the city of Eagle, Alaska, and sent a telegram announcing his success. Although his chosen east-west route, via the Rae Strait, contained young ice and thus was navigable (see John Rae), some of the waterways were extremely shallow making the route commercially impractical. Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Atlantic... A fishing vessel is any ship used to catch fish on seas, lakes or rivers. ... Gjøa Gjøa was the first vessel to transit the Northwest Passage. ... Eagle is a city located along the United States-Canada border in the Southeast Fairbanks Census Area, Alaska. ... John Rae John Rae (September 30, 1813 – July 22, 1893) was a Scottish explorer of the Arctic . ...


Later expeditions

The first traversal of the Northwest Passage via dog sled[14] was accomplished by Greenlander Knud Rasmussen while on the Fifth Thule Expedition (1921-1924). Rasmussen, and two Greenland Inuit, traveled from the Atlantic to the Pacific over the course of 16 months via dog sled. Dog sled A dog sled (or dogsled) is a sled pulled by one or more dogs used to travel over ice and through snow. ... Knud Johan Victor Rasmussen (June 7, 1879–December 21, 1933) was a Greenlandic polar explorer and anthropologist. ... Kalaallit is the Greenlandic term for the population living in Greenland. ...


In 1940, Canadian RCMP officer Henry Larsen was the second to sail the passage, crossing west to east, from Vancouver, Canada to Halifax, Canada. More than once on this trip, it was touch and go as to whether the St. Roch a Royal Canadian Mounted Police "ice-fortified" schooner would survive the ravages of the sea ice. At one point, Larsen wondered "if we had come this far only to be crushed like a nut on a shoal and then buried by the ice." The ship and all but one of her crew survived the winter on Boothia Peninsula. Each of the men on the trip was awarded a medal by Canada's sovereign, King George VI, in recognition of this notable feat of Arctic navigation. Henry Larsen (September 30, 1899 – October 29, 1964) was a Canadian Arctic explorer. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ... in Arctic ice The St. ... RCMP redirects here. ... Two-masted fishing schooner A schooner (IPA: ) is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. ... Boothia and Melville peninsulas, Nunavut, Canada. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ...


Later in 1944, Larsen's return trip was far more swift than his first; the 28 months he took on his first trip was significantly reduced, setting the mark for having traversed it in a single season. The efficiency was due to the ship following a more northerly partially uncharted route, together with extensive ship upgrades.


On July 1, 1957, the United States Coast Guard cutter Storis departed in company with U.S. Coast Guard cutters Bramble (WLB-392) and SPAR (WLB-403) to search for a deep draft channel through the Arctic Ocean and to collect hydrographic information. Upon her return to Greenland waters, the Storis became the first U.S. registered vessel to circumnavigate the North American continent. Shortly after her return in late 1957, she was reassigned to her new home port of Kodiak, Alaska. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... For other uses see cutter (disambiguation) An American-looking gaff cutter with a genoa jib set This French yawl has a gaff topsail set. ... The medium endurance cutter STORIS (WMEC-38) was the oldest vessel in commission with the United States Coast Guard fleet at 64 years and 5 months. ... Hydrography focuses on the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


In 1969, the SS Manhattan made the passage, accompanied by the Canadian icebreaker John A. Macdonald. The Manhattan was a specially reinforced supertanker sent to test the viability of the passage for the transport of oil. While the Manhattan succeeded, the route was deemed not cost effective and the Alaska Pipeline was built instead. Oil tanker SS Manhattan (The entry SS Manhattan is for an 1930s ocean liner. ... Icebreaker Polarstern Track of research vessel Polarstern while breaking ice in the Southern Ocean An icebreaker is a special purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters. ... The CCGS John A. MacDonald was a vessel in the Canadian Coast Guard from 1960-1991. ... Ships with an Ice Class have a strengthened Hull to enable them to navigate through sea ice. ... A supertanker is an unofficial nickname that applies to a certain class of tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids; in practice this typically refers to crude oil. ... Map of the pipeline The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS), usually called the Alyeska Pipeline in Alaska or the Alaska Pipeline elsewhere, is a major U.S. oil pipeline connecting oil fields in northern Alaska to a sea port where the oil can be shipped to the Lower 48 states...


In June 1977 sailor Willy de Roos left Belgium to attempt crossing the Northwest Passage in his 13.8 m (45 ft) steel yacht Williwaw. He reached the Bering Strait in September and after a stopover in Victoria, British Columbia went on to round Cape Horn and sail back to Belgium, thus being the first sailor to circumnavigate the Americas entirely by ship.[15] This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the city of Victoria. ...


David Scott Cowper set out in July 1986 from England in a 12.8m (42') lifeboat, the Mabel El Holland, and survived 3 Arctic winters in the Northwest Passage before reaching the Bering Straits in August 1989. He then continued around the world via the Cape of Good Hope to arrive back on 24th September 1990, becoming the first vessel to circumnavigate via the Northwest Passage[16]. David Scott Cowper is a British Yachtsman, and was the first man to successfully sail the Northwest passage single-handed. ...


In October, 2005, a 14.3 m (47 ft) aluminium sailboat, Northabout[17], built and captained by Jarlath Cunnane, a retired construction manager, completed the first east-to-west circumnavigation of the pole by a single sailboat using the increasingly open Northwest Passage to get from Ireland to the Bering Strait in 2001. The voyage from the Atlantic to the Pacific was completed in a very fast time of 24 days — from sailing into Lancaster Sound off Baffin Bay on August 7 to reaching the Bering Strait, Alaska on September 1. The Northabout then cruised in Canada for two years. The return Northeast Passage along the coast of Russia was slower, starting in 2004, with an ice stop/winter over in Khatanga, Siberia — hence the return to Ireland via the Norwegian coast in October 2005. On January 18, 2006, The Cruising Club of America awarded Jarlath Cunnane their Blue Water Medal, an award for "meritorious seamanship and adventure upon the sea displayed by amateur sailors of all nationalities." “Aluminum” redirects here. ... Diagram of Sailboat, in this case a typical monohull sloop with a bermuda or marconi rig. ... “Round the world” redirects here. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Northern Sea Route (Russian Северный морской путь) is a shipping lane from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean along the Siberian coast of Russia. ... Khatanga (Russian: ) is a village (selo) in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Khatanga River, south of the Arctic Ocean. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On May 19, 2007, French sailor Sébastien Roubinet and one other crew member left Anchorage, Alaska in Babouche, a 7.5 m (25 ft) ice catamaran designed to sail on water and slide over ice. The goal was to navigate west to east through the Northwest Passage by sail only. Following a journey of more than 7,200 kilometres (4,474 mi), Roubinet reached Greenland on September 9, 2007, thereby completing the first Northwest Passage voyage made without engine in one season.[18] is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... Three types of mariners are seen here in the wheelhouse: a master, an able seaman, and a harbour pilot. ... Nickname: Motto: Big Wild Life Location in the state of Alaska Coordinates: , Borough Municipality of Anchorage Government  - Mayor Mark Begich (D) Area  - Municipality  1,961. ... It has been suggested that Catamaran History be merged into this article or section. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ...


International waters dispute

The Canadian government claims that some of the waters of the Northwest Passage, particularly those in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, are internal to Canada, giving Canada the right to bar transit through these waters.[6] Most maritime nations,[19] including the United States and the nations of the European Union,[20] consider them to be an international strait, where foreign vessels have the right of "transit passage".[21] In such a régime, Canada would have the right to enact fishing and environmental regulation, and fiscal and smuggling laws, as well as laws intended for the safety of shipping, but not the right to close the passage.[22][23] In 1985, the U.S. icebreaker Polar Sea passed through, and the U.S. government made a point of not asking permission from Canada. They claimed that this was simply a cost-effective way to get the ship from Greenland to Alaska and that there was no need to ask permission to travel through an international strait. The Canadian government issued a declaration in 1986 reaffirming Canadian rights to the waters. However, the United States refused to recognize the Canadian claim. In 1988 the governments of Canada and the U.S. signed an agreement, "Arctic Cooperation", that did not solve the sovereignty issues but stated that U.S. icebreakers would require permission from the Government of Canada to pass through.[24] World map depicting Canadian Arctic Archipelago Polar projection map of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Reference map of Canadian Arctic Archipelago The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as just the Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago north of the Canadian mainland in the Arctic. ... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... USCGC Polar Sea (WAGB-11) is a United States Coast Guard Heavy Icebreaker. ...


In late 2005, it was alleged that U.S. nuclear submarines had traveled unannounced through Canadian Arctic waters, sparking outrage in Canada. In his first news conference after the federal election, then-Prime Minister-designate Stephen Harper contested an earlier statement made by the U.S. ambassador that Arctic waters were international, stating the Canadian government's intention to enforce its sovereignty there. The allegations arose after the U.S. Navy released photographs of the USS Charlotte surfaced at the North Pole.[25] Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... USN redirects here. ... USS Charlotte (SSN-766), a Los Angeles-class submarine, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy to be named for Charlotte, North Carolina. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ...


On April 9, 2006, Canada's Joint Task Force North declared that the Canadian military will no longer refer to the region as the Northwest Passage, but as the Canadian Internal Waters.[26] The declaration came after the successful completion of Operation Nunalivut (Inuktitut for "the land is ours"), which was an expedition into the region by five military patrols. [27] is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Canada Command (Canada COM) is responsible for all domestic (Canadian) and North American continental joint military operations. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ... Canadian Internal Waters is a Canadian legal term of art that refers to ...the waters on the landward side of the baselines of the territorial sea of Canada,....[1] These waters may include such bodies of water as the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Strait of Georgia, Queen Charlotte Sound... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


In 2006 a report prepared by the staff of the Parliamentary Information and Research Service of Canada suggested that because of the September 11, 2001 attacks the United States might be less interested in pursuing the international waterways claim in the interests of having a more secure North American perimeter.[24] This report was based on an earlier paper, The Northwest Passage Shipping Channel: Is Canada’s Sovereignty Really Floating Away? by Andrea Charron, given to the 2004 Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute Symposium.[9] Later in 2006 former United States Ambassador to Canada, Paul Cellucci agreed with this position, however the current Ambassador, David Wilkins states that the Northwest Passage is in international waters.[28] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute is a Calgary, Alberta-based Canadian lobbying organization. ... This is a list of ambassadors from the United States to Canada. ... Paul Cellucci Argeo Paul Cellucci (born April 24, 1948) better known as Paul Cellucci, is an American politician and diplomat, former Governor of Massachusetts, and former Ambassador to Canada. ... You may be looking for David Wilkins (orientalist) David Horton Wilkins (born October 12, 1946) is the current United States Ambassador to Canada. ...


On July 9, 2007 Prime Minister Harper announced the establishment of a deep water port in the far North. In the government press release the Prime Minister is quoted as saying, “Canada has a choice when it comes to defending our sovereignty over the Arctic. We either use it or lose it. And make no mistake, this Government intends to use it. Because Canada’s Arctic is central to our national identity as a northern nation. It is part of our history. And it represents the tremendous potential of our future."[29] is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ...


On July 10, 2007 Rear Admiral Timothy McGee of the United States Navy, and Rear Admiral Brian Salerno of the United States Coast Guard announced that the United States would also be increasing its ability to patrol the Arctic.[30] is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Rear Admiral Timothy McGee, Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. ... USN redirects here. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...


Effects of climate change

Around the time of the Viking Sagas and for at least two more centuries (a conservative interval from 1000–1200 AD that also happens to include the dates allotted to some of the larger Norse ships), prior to the Little Ice Age the climate was not only warmer, but the sea-level in the Arctic was also quite different from that of the present day.[31] Between the glacial rebound and global cooling, land levels of the land masses about the Northwest Passage have risen upwards of 20 m in the centuries after the Viking times. For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... Changes in the elevation of Lake Superior due to glaciation and post-glacial rebound Post-glacial rebound (sometimes called continental rebound, isostatic rebound or isostatic adjustment) is the rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last ice age, through a process...


In the summer of 2000, several ships took advantage of thinning summer ice cover on the Arctic Ocean to make the crossing. It is thought that global warming is likely to open the passage for increasing periods of time, making it attractive as a major shipping route. However the passage through the Arctic Ocean would require significant investment in escort vessels and staging ports. Therefore the Canadian commercial marine transport industry does not anticipate the route as a viable alternative to the Panama Canal even within the next 10 to 20 years. [32] Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ...

On September 14, 2007 the European Space Agency announced that ice loss had opened up the passage "for the first time since records began in 1978". According to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the 21st had seen marked shrinkage of ice cover. The extreme loss in 2007 rendered the passage "fully navigable".[33][34] By which the ESA suggested the passage would be navigable "during reduced ice cover by multi-year ice pack" (namely sea ice surviving one or more summers) where previously any traverse of the route had to be undertaken during favourable seasonable climatic conditions or by specialist vessels or expeditions. The agency's report speculated that the conditions prevalent in 2007 had shown the passage may "open" sooner than expected. At least 3 boats successfully completed the journey in 2007.[35] Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... “ESA” redirects here. ... The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) is a study describing the ongoing climate change in the Arctic and its consequences: rising temperatures, loss of sea ice, unprecedented melting of the Greenland ice sheet, and many impacts on ecosystems, animals, and people. ... Arctic shrinkage refers to the marked decrease in arctic ice levels in recent years. ...


See also

  • North West Passage Territorial Park
  • Territorial claims in the Arctic
  • Northern Sea Route (Northeast Passage)

The Northwest Passage Territorial Park is located at Gjoa Haven, on King William Island Nunavut, Canada. ... Arctic topography Under international law, no country currently owns the North Pole or the region of the Arctic Ocean surrounding it. ... The Northern Sea Route (Russian Северный морской путь) is a shipping lane from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean along the Siberian coast of Russia. ...

References

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary definition
  2. ^ The Northwest Passage Thawed
  3. ^ IHO Codes for Oceans & Seas, and Other Code Systems, including IHO 23-3rd: Limits of Oceans and Seas, Special Publication 23, 3rd ed. (1953), published by International Hydrographic Organization.
  4. ^ TP 14202 E Interpretation - Transport Canada
  5. ^ The Northwest Passage and Climate Change from the Library of Parliament - Canadian Arctic Sovereignty
  6. ^ a b Naval Operations in an ice-free Arctic
  7. ^ a b c d Captain Cook by Vanessa Collingridge (Ebury Press) 2002 ISBN 0091888980
  8. ^ The Northwest Passage and Climate Change from the Library of Parliament - Canadian Arctic Sovereignty
  9. ^ a b Andrea Charron - The Northwest Passage Shipping Channel: Is Canada’s Sovereignty Really Floating Away?PDF (225 KiB)
  10. ^ North-West Passage is now plain sailing
  11. ^ Satellites witness lowest Arctic ice coverage in history
  12. ^ Meany, Edmond Stephen. Vancouver's discovery of Puget Sound. Mystic Seaport. Retrieved on April 13, 2007.
  13. ^ John Rae - Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  14. ^ Knud Johan Victor Rasmussen, biography by Sam Alley. Minnesota State University.
  15. ^ Willy de Roos' big journey at the CBC archives
  16. ^ Cruising, London, Summer 1992, p35
  17. ^ Northabout
  18. ^ The North-West Passage by Sailboat. Sébastien Roubinet. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  19. ^ Nathan VanderKlippe. Northwest Passage gets political name change, CanWest News Services, Ottawa Citizen, April 9, 2006.
  20. ^ Climate Change and Canadian Sovereignty in the Northwest Passage
  21. ^ The Northwest Passage Thawed
  22. ^ UNCLOS part III, STRAITS USED FOR INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION
  23. ^ The Northwest Passage and Climate Change from the Library of Parliament - Canadian Arctic Sovereignty
  24. ^ a b Relations With the United States from the Library of Parliament - Canadian Arctic Sovereignty
  25. ^ Most of the activities involving American submarines (including their current and past positions and courses) are classified, so therefore under that policy the U.S. Navy has declined to reveal which route(s) the Charlotte took to reach and return from the Pole.
  26. ^ Northwest Passage Gets Political Name Change. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  27. ^ Arctic Trek Shows Canada's Sovereignty. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  28. ^ Dispute Over NW Passage Revived from the Washington Post
  29. ^ Prime Minister Stephen Harper announces new Arctic offshore patrol ships. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
  30. ^ Hugo Miller. "U.S. Bolsters Arctic Presence to Aid Commercial Ships (Update1)", Bloomberg, July 10, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-7-10. 
  31. ^ John N. Harris. The Last Viking: West by North West. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  32. ^ Arctic Marine Transport Workshop September 2004. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
  33. ^ Satellites witness lowest Arctic ice coverage in history. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  34. ^ Warming 'opens Northwest Passage'. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  35. ^ BBC News "Plain Sailing on the Northwest Passage"

The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ... Transport Canada is the department within the government of Canada which is responsible for developing regulations, policies and services of transportation in Canada. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System (MnSCU) comprises 32 state-supported technical colleges, community colleges and state universities in Minnesota. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Information sensitivity be merged into this article or section. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bloomberg L.P. is a Financial Media Company founded by Michael Bloomberg in 1982. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Irish Expedition completes the elusive Northwest Passage
  • Arctic Passage at PBS' Nova site has articles, photographs and maps about the Northwest Passage, particularly the 1845 Franklin and 1903 Amundsen expeditions
  • Exploration of the Northwest Passage
  • The Sir John Franklin Mystery
  • 'The Great Game in a cold climate'
  • Mission to Utjulik
  • The Voyage of the Manhattan
  • U.S. nuclear submarines travel in Canadian Arctic waters without permission
  • Canada considers the Northwest Passage its internal waters, but the United States insists it is an international strait.
  • Information Memorandum for Mr. Kissinger - The White House 1970
  • CBC Digital Archives - Breaking the Ice: Canada and the Northwest Passage
  • Nova Dania: Quest for the NW Passage - NEARA Journal Vol. 39 #2

  Results from FactBites:
 
CBC News In Depth: Northwest Passage (2365 words)
The Northwest Passage — a water route through the islands of northern Canada connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans — was a treasure explorers sought for centuries.
And the issue of whether the Northwest Passage is an internal waterway, and therefore Canada's, or an international waterway open to all remains murky.
Michael Byers said the Northwest Passage would be clear of ice during the summer months in 25 years, and he urged the government to take action.
Kayaking Sea Kayaking Kayaking Tour Kayaking Trip Kayaking Instruction Kayaking Instructions (245 words)
Since 1984, The Northwest Passage has been providing top-notch backpacking, climbing, skiing, cycling, sea kayaking trips and other adventure programs for our clients across the country, and around the world.
Serving as Chicago's premier sea kayaking outfit, The Northwest Passage offers a number of sea kayaking opportunities in Chicago and the surrounding area.
Sea Kayaking with The Northwest Passage: With ACA and BCU certifications, The Northwest Passage instructors and guides have dedicated themselves to providing the highest quality of Sea Kayaking Instruction and leadership to each and every participant.
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