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Encyclopedia > Northridge Earthquake
Northridge earthquake
Date January 17, 1994
Magnitude 6.7 Mw
Depth: 17.0 km
Epicenter location: Reseda, California
Countries affected United States (Southern California)
Casualties: 61 killed
12,000 injured

The Northridge earthquake occurred on January 17, 1994 at 4:31 AM Pacific Standard Time in Reseda, a neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California. The earthquake had a "strong" moment magnitude of 6.7, but the ground acceleration was the highest ever instrumentally recorded in an urban area in North America.[1] Fifty-seven people died as a result of the earthquake and over 12,000 were injured. In addition, the earthquake caused an estimated $12.5 billion in damage, making it one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history.[2] is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... Reseda (IPA: [ɹəˈsidÉ™]) is a district in the San Fernando Valley of the City of Los Angeles, California. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Reseda refers to the following: The plant genus Reseda; see Mignonette The Los Angeles, California suburb named after the plant; see Reseda, Los Angeles, California This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... The moment magnitude scale (a successor to the Richter Scale), was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... Peak ground acceleration is a measure of earthquake intensity. ...

Contents

The earthquake

The earthquake struck in the San Fernando Valley about 31 km (20 mi) northwest of downtown Los Angeles near the community of Northridge. The actual epicenter of the the quake was in Reseda, near the intersection of Reseda Blvd. and Saticoy St. However, it took several days to pinpoint the epicenter with accuracy, and in the meantime the media had already dubbed it "The Northridge Earthquake," so the name stuck due to the most damage done in Northridge and Porter Ranch. The National Geophysical Data Center places the epicenter's geographical coordinates at 34°12′47″N, 118°32′13″W and a depth of 17 km (10.56mi). Despite the area's proximity to the San Andreas Fault, the Northridge quake did not occur along this fault, but rather on a previously-undiscovered blind thrust fault. San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ... Northridge is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley region of the City of Los Angeles, California. ... Reseda refers to the following: The plant genus Reseda; see Mignonette The Los Angeles, California suburb named after the plant; see Reseda, Los Angeles, California This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Northridge is a community in the City of Los Angeles. ... Porter Ranch is a district in the northwest portion of the San Fernando Valley region of the City of Los Angeles, California. ... The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides scientific stewardship, products and services for geophysical data describing the solid earth, marine, and solar-terrestrial environment, as well as earth observations from space. ... View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ... A thrust fault is a particular type of fault, or break in the fabric of the Earths crust with resulting movement of each side against the other, in which a lower stratigraphic position is pushed up and over another. ...

The underpass of the 10 Freeway at La Cienega Blvd. This image shows the collapsed section of the freeway.
The underpass of the 10 Freeway at La Cienega Blvd. This image shows the collapsed section of the freeway.
The freeway "bent" even before the section collapsed.
The freeway "bent" even before the section collapsed.
Kaiser Permanente Building
Collapsed Apartment Building
Street Damage

Damage occurred up to 125 km (85 mi) away, with the most damage in the west San Fernando Valley, and the cities of Santa Monica, Simi Valley and Santa Clarita. Fifty-seven people died as a result of the earthquake, and over 11,000 were injured including 1,600 that required hospitalization.[3] Major freeway damage occurred up to 32 km (20 mi) from the epicenter. Portions of Interstate 10 (the Santa Monica Freeway), Interstate 5 (the Golden State Freeway) and State Route 14 (the Antelope Valley Freeway) collapsed and had to be rebuilt. The Newhall Pass interchange of Interstate 5 and State Route 14 collapsed as it had 23 years earlier during the 1971 Sylmar earthquake even though it had been rebuilt without improved structural components.[4] One life was lost in the Newhall Pass interchange collapse: Los Angeles Police officer Clarence Dean, who fell 40 feet from the severed overpass along with his motorcycle after he failed to observe the damaged overpass in the early morning darkness, and was unable to stop in time to avoid the fall. Download high resolution version (1024x686, 979 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x686, 979 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x663, 1076 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x663, 1076 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 801 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 801 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 800 pixel, file size: 932 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Collapsed apartment building after the Northridge Earthquake of January 17, 1994. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 800 pixel, file size: 932 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Collapsed apartment building after the Northridge Earthquake of January 17, 1994. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 800 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 800 pixel, file size: 1. ... San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ... For other uses, see Santa Monica (disambiguation). ... Simi Valley is an incorporated city located in the extreme southeast corner of Ventura County, California, bordering the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles in the Greater Los Angeles Area. ... Location of Santa Clarita in California and Los Angeles County Coordinates: , Country United States State California County Los Angeles Incorporated December 15, 1987 Government  - Mayor Marsha McLean  - Mayor Pro-Tem Bob Kellar  - City Council Frank Ferry Laurene Weste TimBen Boydston  - City Manager Ken Pulskamp Area  - City  47. ... Interstate 10, the major east-west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States, runs east from Santa Monica, California, on the Pacific Ocean, through Los Angeles and San Bernardino to the border with Arizona. ... Interstate 10; the Santa Monica Freeway segment is highlighted in red and the San Bernardino Freeway is highlighted in blue. ... INTERSTATE JUNCTIONS JUNCTION EXIT # Mexican Federal Highway 1/ Mexican Border CA 0 I-805 CA 1 I-15 CA 13 I-8 CA 20 I-805 CA 31 I-405 CA 94 I-605 CA 124 I-710 CA 130 I-10 CA 134 CA 135 I-405 CA 158... Interstate 5; the Golden State Freeway is highlighted in red, the Santa Ana Freeway is highlighted in purple, and the San Diego Freeway is highlighted in blue. ... California State Route 14 is a north-south state highway largely in the Mojave Desert of the U.S. State of California, also known as the High Desert, just east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada in its northern part. ... The Antelope Valley Freeway is a freeway in Los Angeles and Kern counties in southern California. ... The Newhall Pass interchange is a highway interchange at Newhall Pass, north of San Fernando in Southern California, United States. ... INTERSTATE JUNCTIONS JUNCTION EXIT # Mexican Federal Highway 1/ Mexican Border CA 0 I-805 CA 1 I-15 CA 13 I-8 CA 20 I-805 CA 31 I-405 CA 94 I-605 CA 124 I-710 CA 130 I-10 CA 134 CA 135 I-405 CA 158... California State Route 14 is a north-south state highway largely in the Mojave Desert of the U.S. State of California, also known as the High Desert, just east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada in its northern part. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... The Sylmar earthquake struck at 6:00:55 a. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Additional damage occurred about 50 miles south in Anaheim, California as the scoreboard at Anaheim Stadium collapsed onto several hundred seats. Fortunately, the stadium was empty at the time of the quake. Although several commercial buildings collapsed, loss of life was minimized because of the early morning hour of the quake, and it occurred on a Federal holiday (Martin Luther King Day). Also, because of known seismic activity in California, area building codes dictate that buildings incorporate structural design intended to withstand earthquakes. However, the damage caused by the earthquake revealed that some structural specifications did not perform as well as expected. Because of this building codes were revised. Some structures were not red-tagged until months after the earthquake because damage was not immediately apparent. Anaheim redirects here. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... I NEED TO FUCK SOMEONE! I AM TIRED OF PORN! SOMEONE HELP ME! ... A structure (e. ...


The quake produced unusually strong ground accelerations in the range of 1.0 g. Damage was also caused by fire and landslides. The Northridge earthquake was notable for striking almost the same area as the MW 6.6 San Fernando (Sylmar) Earthquake. In terms of property damage, the earthquake is one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history.[citation needed]. Some estimates of total damage range as high as 18 billion dollars (U.S.). The term g force or gee force refers to the symbol g, the force of acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface. ... The Sylmar earthquake struck at 6:00 a. ... Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is according to or provided by nature. ...


Most casualties and damage occurred in multi-story wood frame buildings (e.g. the three-story Northridge Meadows apartment building). In particular, buildings with a weak first floor (such as those with parking areas on the bottom) performed poorly. Numerous fires were also caused by broken gas pipes caused by houses shifting off foundations or by unsecured water heaters falling over.[5] As is common in earthquakes, unreinforced masonry buildings and houses on steep slopes suffered damage. However, school buildings (K-12), which are required to be reinforced against earthquakes, in general survived fairly well.


An unusual effect of the Northridge earthquake was an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever), a respiratory disease caused by inhaling airborne spores. The number of cases (203) in Ventura County, CA was roughly 10 times the normal rate in the eight weeks following the earthquake and three people died. It is thought that the spores were carried in large clouds of dust created by seismically triggered landslides. Most of the cases occurred immediately downwind of the landslides.[6]


Eleven hospitals suffered structural damage and were damaged or unusable after the earthquake.[7]Not only were they unable to serve their local neighborhoods, they had to transfer out their inpatient populations, which further increased the burden on nearby hospitals that were still operational. As a result, the state legislature passed a law requiring all California hospitals to ensure that their acute care units and emergency rooms are in earthquake-proof structures by January 1, 2005. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Northridge earthquake led to a number of legislative changes. Due to the large amount lost by insurance companies because of the earthquake, most insurance companies either stopped offering or severely restricted earthquake insurance in California (and elsewhere). In response, the California Legislature created the California Earthquake Authority (CEA), which is a publicly managed but privately funded organization that offers minimal coverage.[8] A substantial effort was also made to reinforce freeway bridges against seismic shaking and a law requiring water heaters to be properly strapped was passed in 1995. Established in September 1996 by the California Legislature, the California Earthquake Authority is a privately funded, publicly managed organization that sells California earthquake insurance policies through participating insurance companies. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Northridge Earthquake Southern California Earthquake Data Center, Accessed October 6, 2006
  2. ^ Anniversary of Deadly Northridge Quake. abc7.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  3. ^ http://www.huduser.org/publications/destech/bigone/summary.html
  4. ^ http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/summer94/p94su26.htm
  5. ^ http://www.earthquakecountry.info/daretoprepare/stuff/waterheater.html
  6. ^ http://landslides.usgs.gov/recent/archives/1997northridge.php
  7. ^ http://www.huduser.org/publications/destech/bigone/summary.html
  8. ^ http://www.earthquakeauthority.com/

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Northridge is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley region of the City of Los Angeles, California. ... San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: 1994 Northridge Earthquake (709 words)
This earthquake was considered moderate, with a moment magnitude of 6.7, but was the most monetarily costly quake in United States history.
The first was the Mw 6.6 San Fernando (Sylmar) Earthquake, affecting the same area in 1971; the second was the Mw 6.9 (Richter magnitude 7.1), 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake south of San Francisco.
Given that the Nisqually earthquake occurred 52 kilometers beneath the suface, someone at its epicenter would be at the same distance from the event as someone 45 kilometers away from the Northridge epicenter.
FEMA For Kids: The Northridge Earthquake (191 words)
The fault responsible for the earthquake ran underneath the San Fernando Valley and had been unknown before the Northridge Earthquake.
The Northridge Earthquake was the largest earthquake to hit a Southern Californian city since 1971.
It was the 11th largest earthquake to be recorded in California since 1769.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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