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Encyclopedia > Northern red oak
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How to read a taxobox
Northern Red Oak

An old specimen in the garden of the Japanese Palace in Dresden, Germany
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Rosopsida
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Species: Q. rubra
Binomial name
Quercus rubra
L.

The Northern Red Oak or Champion Oak, Quercus rubra (syn. Quercus borealis), is an oak in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae). It is a native of North America, in the northeastern United States and southeast Canada. It grows from the north end of the Great Lakes, east to Nova Scotia, south as far as Georgia and sites with good soil that is slightly acidic. Often simply called "Red Oak", northern red oak is formally so named to distinguish it from southern red oak (Q. falcata), also known as the spanish oak. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Orders Basal eudicots Ranunculales Buxales Trochodendrales Proteales Gunnerales Berberidopsidales Dilleniales Caryophyllales Saxifragales Santalales Vitales Basal rosids Crossosomatales Geraniales Myrtales Eurosids I Zygophyllales Celastrales Malpighiales Oxalidales Fabales Rosales Cucurbitales Fagales Eurosids II Brassicales Malvales Sapindales Basal asterids Cornales Ericales Euasterids I Garryales Solanales Gentianales Lamiales Unplaced: Boraginaceae Euasterids II Aquifoliales Apiales... Families included in the Kew list: Fagaceae - Beech family   (including Nothofagaceae) Betulaceae - Birch family Corylaceae - Hazel family Ticodendraceae not included in the Kew list: Casuarinaceae - She-oak family Juglandaceae - Walnut family Rhoipteleaceae Myricaceae The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best known trees. ... Genera Castanea - Chestnuts Castanopsis Chrysolepis - Golden chinkapin Colombobalanus Cyclobalanopsis Fagus - Beeches Formanodendron Lithocarpus - Stone oaks Nothofagus - Southern beeches Quercus - Oaks Trigonobalanus The family Fagaceae, or beech family, is characterized by alternate leaves with pinnate venation, flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of nuts, one to... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... // Genus Quercus Section Quercus The white oaks (synonym sect. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Binomial name Quercus falcata Michx. ...

Contents

Description

In forests, the northern red oak grows straight and tall, to 35 m (115 ft), exceptionally to 43 m (141 ft) tall, with a trunk of up to 1 m diameter; open-grown trees do not get so tall, but can develop a stouter trunk, up to 2 m (6.6 ft) in diameter. Has stout branches growing at right angles to the stem, forming a narrow round-topped head. It grows rapidly and is tolerant of many soils and varied situations although prefers the glacial drift and well-drained borders of streams.[1]

Detail of mature bark
Detail of mature bark

Northern red oak is easy to recognize by its bark, which features bark ridges that appear to have shiny stripes down the center. A few other oaks have bark with this kind of appearance in the upper tree, but the northern red oak is the only tree with the striping all the way down the trunk. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1316, 1106 KB)Closeup of bark of marked tree at Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:22, August 4, 2005 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1316, 1106 KB)Closeup of bark of marked tree at Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:22, August 4, 2005 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del...

Fall leaves and acorns

The leaves are 12-25 cm (5-10 in) long, with 7-11 lobes; the lobes are bristle-tipped, and less deeply cut than most other oaks of the red oak group (except for black oak which can be similar). The acorns are borne in a shallow cup 2 cm (0.8 in) wide, have a flat base and acute apex, 12-20 mm (0.5-0.8 in) long, green, maturing nut-brown about 18 months after pollination. Despite their bitter kernel, they are eaten by deer, squirrels and birds. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1024 pixel, file size: 862 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo Stefan Stojanović File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1024 pixel, file size: 862 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo Stefan Stojanović File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... In telecommunication, the term lobe has the following meanings: An identifiable segment of an antenna radiation pattern. ... Binomial name Quercus velutina Lamb. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... “Fawn” redirects here. ... Genera Several, see text Squirrel is the common name for rodents of the family Sciuridae. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ...

  • Bark: Dark gray brown tinged with red, with broad, thin, rounded ridges, scaly. On young trees and large stems, smooth and light gray. Rich in tannic acid. Branchlets slender, at first bright green, shining, then dark red, finally dark brown. Bark is brownish gray, becoming dark brown on old trees.
  • Wood: Pale reddish brown, sapwood darker; heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained. Checks in drying, but when carefully treaded may be successfully used for furniture. Also used in construction and for interior finish of houses. Sp. gr., 0.6621; weight of cu. ft., 41.25 lbs.
  • Winter buds: Light chestnut brown, ovate, acute, one-fourth of an inch long.
  • Leaves: Alternate, seven to nine-lobed, oblong-ovate to oblong, five to nine inches long, four to six inches broad; lobes tapering gradually from broad bases, acute, and usualy repandly-dendate and terminating with long bristle-pointed teeth; the second pair of lobes from apex are largest; midrib and primary veins conspicuous. They come out of the bud convolute, pink, covered with soft silky down above, coated with thick white tomentum below. When full grown are dark green and smooth, sometimes shining above, yellow green, smooth or hairy on the axils of the veins below. In autumn they turn a rich red, sometimes brown. Petioles stout, one to two inches long, often red; stipules caducous.
  • Flowers: May, when leaves are half grown. Staminate aments four to five inches long, hairy. Calyx four to five-lobed, greenish; stamens four to five; filaments slender; anthers yellow. Pistillate flowers borne on short peduncles; involucral scales broadly ovate, dark reddish-brown; stigmas elongated, bright green.
  • Acorns: Ripen in the autumn of the second year; solitary or in pairs, sessile or stalked; nut oblong-ovoid with broad base, full, sometimes narrowed at apex, three-fourths to one and one-fourth of an inch long; cup, saucer-shaped, usually covers only the base, sometimes one-fourth of the nut, thick, shallow, reddish brown, somewhat downy within, covered with thin imbricated reddish brown scales. Kernel white and very bitter.[1]

The leaves vary from oblong to obovate and are of two typical forms. The full leaf with the shallow sinuses is the youthful form although old trees are often found bearing it. That with the deeper sinuses is perhaps the more common form. Often the petiole and midvein are a rich red color in midsummer and early autumn, though this is not true of all red oaks. The leaves come out of the bud a lovely pink and white, im midsummer they become a deep shining green and in autumn they turn a rich, dark, purplish red.[1]


Cultivation

It has been widely introduced outside of its range, and is listed as an invasive species in some parts of Europe, notably in Germany where it is also a popular shade and park tree. In Canada, it has been successful as far north as Edmonton, and has become naturalized at Revelstoke, British Columbia. Location of Edmonton within census division number 11, Alberta, Canada. ... In biology, naturalisation is the process when foreign or cultivated plants have spread into the wild, where they multiply by natural regeneration. ... Revelstoke was also the name of a well-known Canadian chain of hardware and home improvement stores, now known as Rona. ...


It has been found on the banks of the Saskatchewan river. Climatic conditions so affect it that it ceases to be a tree, nor is it even a shrub, but rather appears as burls and knobs and low knotted heads only a foot or two high.[1] The Saskatchewan River is a major river in Canada, approximately 550 km (340 mi) long, flowing roughly eastward across Saskatchewan and Manitoba to drain into Lake Winnipeg. ...


Uses

The northern red oak is one of the most important oaks for timber production in North America.The wood is of high value. Other related oaks are also cut and marketed as Red Oak, although their wood is not always of as high a quality. These include black oak, scarlet oak, pin oak, shumard oak, southern red oak and other species in the red oak group. Binomial name Quercus velutina Lamb. ... Binomial name Quercus coccinea Muenchh. ... Binomial name Quercus palustris Muenchh. ... Binomial name Quercus shumardii L. The Shumard Oak, Quercus shumardii (also known as spotted oak, Schneck oak, Shumard red oak, and swamp red oak), is one of the largest of the oak species in the Red Oak group (Quercus section Lobatae). ... Binomial name Quercus falcata Michx. ...


Red oak wood grain is so open that smoke can be blown through it from end-grain to end-grain on a flatswan board.


Symbols

Northern red oak is the Provincial tree of Prince Edward Island and interstingly, many assume the tree on the Provincial Coat of Arms to also be a northern red oak, though this has never been recognised. Furthermore, the acorns appear to be that of the white oak (Quercus alba). [2] It is also the State tree of New Jersey and Iowa. This list of Provincial tree emblems of Canada includes the official trees of the Provinces and Territories of Canada. ... Motto: i lost P.E.I. again mom:well, look under the couch Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Binomial name Quercus alba L. The White oak (Quercus alba) is one of the most magnificent of oaks. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: U.S. state insignia | Lists of plants | Trees ...


Famous Northern Red Oaks

  • Ashford Oak - A very large Northern Red Oak in Ashford, Connecticut. The tree has suffered falling limbs because of its great age. However this tree is still a sight to behold; the trunk is 8 m (26 feet) in girth and the root-knees are also particularly impressive. The oak is located on Giant Oak Lane off U.S. Highway 44. There are several other large oaks in the area.[3]
  • Chase Creek Red Oak - This forest tree is located on a very rich steep slope in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. It is a high-stump coppice with three leads. It was the state champion oak in Maryland in 2002. The circumference at breast height is 6.7 m (22 feet), the height 41.5 m (136 feet) and the spread 29.9 m (98 feet) [3]

Ashford is a town located in Windham County, Connecticut. ... United States Highway 44 is an east-west United States highway that runs for 238 miles (383 km) from Plymouth, Massachusetts to the Hudson Valley region of New York. ... Anne Arundel County is a county located in the U.S. state of Maryland. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Coppicing is a traditional method of woodland management, by which young tree stems are cut down to a foot or less from ground level. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...

References and external links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Quercus rubra
  1. ^ a b c d Keeler, Harriet L. (1900). Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. New York: Charles Scriber's Sons, 349-354. 
  2. ^ Prince Edward Island Homepage: Provincial Tree,. Retrieved on 2007-05-05 
  3. ^ a b Rucker, Colby B. (February), Great Eastern Trees, Past and Present. Retrieved on 2007-05-05 

  Results from FactBites:
 
northern red oak - definition of northern red oak in Encyclopedia (480 words)
Northern red oak is so named to distinguish it from Southern red oak, also known as the Spanish oak.
Northern red oak is easy to recognize by its bark, which features bark ridges that appear to have shiny stripes down the center.
Northern red oak is the state tree of New Jersey.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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