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Encyclopedia > Northern pike
Northern Pike
Northern pike
Northern pike
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Superorder: Protacanthopterygii
Order: Esociformes
Family: Esocidae
Genus: Esox
Species: E. lucius
Binomial name
Esox lucius
Linnaeus, 1758

The northern pike (known as the pike in Britain), Esox lucius, is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes). They are typical of brackish and freshwaters of the northern hemisphere (i.e. holarctic in distribution). They are also known by the literal translation of their latin name, "water wolf". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x363, 32 KB) en: Northern pike (Esox lucius). ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Order Esociformes Osmeriformes Salmoniformes Protacanthopterygii is the taxon superorder of bony ray-finned fish. ... Families Esocidae (pikes) Umbridae (mudminnows) Esociformes is a small order of ray-finned fish, with two families. ... Species  E. americanus –       grass and redfin pickerels  E. lucius – northern pike  E. masquinongy – muskellunge  E. niger – chain pickerel   – Amur pike Esox Linnaeus, 1758, is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes. ... Pickerel redirects here. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Pickerel redirects here. ... Brackish redirects here. ... Fresh water redirects here. ... The Holarctic is a term used by zoologists to define the ecozone covering much of Eurasia and North America, which have often been connected by the Bering land bridge. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

E. lucius is found throughout the northern hemisphere, including Russia, , Europe and North America. It is even found in brackish water of the Baltic sea. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... Brackish redirects here. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ...


Within North America, there are northern pike populations in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, eastern New York, northern New England, most of Canada (though pike are rare in British Columbia), Alaska, the Ohio Valley, the upper Mississippi River and its tributaries, the Great Lakes Basin and surrounding states, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska. They are also stocked in, or have been introduced to, some western lakes and reservoirs for angling purposes, although this practice often threatens other species of fish such as trout and salmon, causing government agencies to exterminate the pike by poisoning lakes.[1] This article is about the state. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... See also: Mississippi River The Upper Mississippi River is the portion of the Mississippi River upstream of Cairo, Illinois. ... Great Lakes Basin The Great Lakes Basin consists of the Great Lakes and the surrounding lands of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin in the United States, and the provinces of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, whose direct runoff and watersheds form a... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trout (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ...

Northern pike in public aquarium in Kotka, Finland
Northern pike in public aquarium in Kotka, Finland

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x363, 32 KB) Northern pike (Esox lucius). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x363, 32 KB) Northern pike (Esox lucius). ... The centre of Kotka Kotka (Finnish word for Eagle) is a town and municipality of Finland. ...

Description

Northern pike in the Straussee at Strausberg
Northern pike in the Straussee at Strausberg

Northern pike are most often olive, shading into yellow to white along the belly. The flank is marked with short, light barlike spots and there are a few to many dark spots on the fins. The lower half of the gill cover lacks scales and they have large sensory pores on their head and on the underside of the lower jaw which are part of the lateral line system. Unlike the similar-looking and closely related muskellunge, the northern pike has light markings on a dark body background and fewer than six sensory pores on the underside of each side of the lower jaw. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 142 KB) Photographer: photo taken by Gunter Küchler / Berlin (de:User:Masturbius) on 2005-09-08 Upload-History: de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 142 KB) Photographer: photo taken by Gunter Küchler / Berlin (de:User:Masturbius) on 2005-09-08 Upload-History: de. ... Strausberg is a city in Brandenburg, Germany. ... Flank is a word which might mean any of several different things: A flank is the side of either a horse or a military unit. ... The operculum in fish is the hard bony flap covering and protecting the gills of Bony fish. ... The Lateral Line, in this case shown on a shark In fish, the lateral line is a sense organ used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water. ... For other uses, see Head (disambiguation). ... Human jaw front view Human jaw left view Human jaw top view The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ... In fish, the lateral line is a sense organ used to detect movement in the surrounding water. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Muskellunge or muskie or musky (Esox masquinongy) are large, relatively rare freshwater fish of North America. ...

Esox lucius Drawing
Esox lucius Drawing

Pike grow to a relatively large size; lengths of 150 centimetres (59 in) and weights of 25 kg (55 pounds) are not unheard of. The heaviest specimen known so far was caught in an abandoned stone quarry, in Germany, in 1983. She (the majority of all pikes over 8 kg (18 pounds) are females) was 1.47 m (5 ft) long and weighed 31 kg (67 pounds). The longest pike ever recorded was 152 cm (60 in) long and weighed 28 kg (61 pounds). Historic reports of giant pike, caught in nets in Ireland in the late 1800s, of 41 to 42 kg (89 to 92 pounds), were researched by Fred Buller and published in "The Doomsday Book of Mammoth Pike". The British Isles have not managed to produce much in the way of giant pike in the last 50 years or so however; therefore there is substantial doubt surrounding those earlier claims. Currently, the IGFA recognizes a 26 kg (55 pound) pike caught by Lothar Louis in Lake of Grefeern, Germany, on 16 Oct, 1986 as the all-tackle world record northern pike. Northern pike in North America seldom reach the size of their European counterparts; one of the largest specimens known was a 21 kg (46 pound, 2 ounce) specimen from New York state. It was caught in Great Sacandaga Lake on September 15, 1940 by Peter Dubuc. There are reports of far larger pike, but these are either misidentifications of the pike's much larger relative the muskellunge, or simply have not been properly documented and belong in the realm of legend. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The International Game Fish Association (IGFA) is the leading authority on angling pursuits and the keeper of the most current World Record fishing catches by fish categories. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about Ounce (unit of mass). ... Great Sacandaga Lake ( formerly the Sacandaga Reservoir) is a large lake situated in the Adirondack State Park in northern New York in the USA. The lake has a surface area of about 42. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Muskellunge or muskie or musky (Esox masquinongy) are large, relatively rare freshwater fish of North America. ...


Alternate forms

Northern pike occasionally breed with muskellunge to produce the hybrid commonly known as the tiger muskellunge[1] (Esox masquinongy x lucius or Esox lucius x masquinongy[2], depending on the gender of each of the contributing species). In the hybrids, the males are almost invariably sterile although the females are sometimes fertile.[3] Another form of northern pike, the silver pike, is not a subspecies but rather a mutation that occurs in scattered populations. Silver pike, sometimes called silver muskellunge, lack the rows of spots and appear silver or silvery-blue in color. (Craig, 1). Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Muskellunge or muskie or musky (Esox masquinongy) are large, relatively rare freshwater fish of North America. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ...


Habitat

Pike can be aggressive predators
Pike can be aggressive predators

Pike are found in sluggish streams and shallow, weedy places in lakes, as well as in cold, clear, rocky waters. Pike are typical ambush predators; they lie in wait for prey, holding perfectly still for long periods and then exhibit remarkable acceleration as they strike. The fish has a distinctive habit of catching its prey sideways in the mouth, killing or immobilising it with its sharp teeth, and then turning the prey lengthwise to swallow it. It eats mainly fish, but on occasion water voles and ducklings have also been known to fall prey to pike. Pike will aggressively strike at any fish in the vicinity, even at other pike. Young pike have been found dead from choking on a pike of a similar size. Northern pike also feed on frogs, insects and leeches. It has often been suggested that pike optimally forage on prey that are from 25 to 35% of their body length. Also, in Britain a pike snatched the head of a feeding swan, but the backward-pointing teeth meant that the fish could not let go of the bird, and both of them died soon afterwards. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Ambush predators are carnivorous animals who capture prey by stealth or cunning, not by speed or necessarily by strength. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) This article deals with the European Water Vole. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Leech (disambiguation). ... A central concern of ecology has traditionally been foraging behavior. ...


Importance to humans

E. lucius caught by an angler in the river Dráva, Hungary
E. lucius caught by an angler in the river Dráva, Hungary

Although generally acknowledged as a "sporting" quarry, most anglers release pike they have caught because the flesh is considered bony, especially due to the substantial (epipleural) "Y-bones". However, the larger fish are more easily filleted, and pike have a long and distinguished history in cuisine and are popular fare in Europe. Historical references to cooking pike go as far back as the Romans. The flesh is white and mild-tasting. Fishing for pike is said to be very exciting with their aggressive hits and aerial acrobatics. Pike are among the largest freshwater fish. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x363, 32 KB) Northern pike (Esox lucius). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x363, 32 KB) Northern pike (Esox lucius). ... Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian and Croatian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe, flowing East from South Tyrol, Italy through Carinthia, Austria, and Slovenia (145 km) then southeast, forming most of the Croatian-Hungarian border before joining the Danube near Osijek. ... Angling. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Because of their prolific nature and their aggressiveness as predators, laws have been enacted in some places to help stop the spread of northern pike outside of their native range. For instance, in the State of Maine, anglers are required, by law, to remove the head from a pike once it has been caught. In Alaska pike are native north and west of the Alaska Range, but have been illegally introduced to the south central alaska by game fishermen. In south central Alaska there is no limit in most areas. Pike, while loved by some, are seen as a threat to native wild stocks of salmon. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... View of Denali, the centre piece of the Alaska range, on a rare clear day . The Alaska Range is a mountain range that extends for about 650 km (400 mi) across south-central Alaska, from Iliamna Lake at the SW end to White River in Canada at the SE end. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ...


Elsewhere, notably in the British Isles, pike are highly-prized as a sporting fish and they are returned alive to the water in order to safeguard future sport and maintain the balance of a fishery. The Pike Anglers Club has campaigned to preserve pike since 1977, arguing that the removal of pike from waters can lead to an explosion of smaller fish, which is damaging to both the sport fishery and the environment.[2]


Sport fishing

Esox lucius

Pike angling is becoming an increasingly popular pastime in the UK and Europe. Effective methods for catching this hard fighting fish include dead baits, lure fishing, and jerk baiting. They are prized as game fish for their determined fighting and have been food fish since ancient times. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Game fish is a fish that is pursued for sport, regardless of whether the fisherman ultimately eats the fish. ...


Lake fishing for pike from the shore is especially effective during springtime, at which stage the big pike move into the shallows to spawn in reedy areas, and later many remain there to feed on other spawning coarse fish species to regain their condition after spawning. Smaller jack pike often remain in the shallows for their own protection, and for the small fish food available there. For the hot summer period and during non-active phases the larger female pike tend to retire to deeper water and/or places of better cover. This gives the boat angler good fishing during the summer and winter seasons. Trolling (towing a lure or bait behind a moving boat) is a popular technique.


The use of float tubes have become a very popular way of fishing for pike on small to medium size stillwaters.[citation needed] Fly fishing for pike is another recently developing way of catching these fish, and the float tube is now recognised as an especially suitable water craft for pike flyfishing. Fly rod and reel with a wild brown trout from a chalk stream. ...


In recent decades more and more pike are released back to the water after catching (catch and release). But they can easily be damaged when handled. Handling those fishes with dry hands can easily damage their mucous covered skin and possibly lead to their death from infections. Catch and release is a term given to the recreational fishing where releasing the fish (catch) is believed to be a technique of conservation. ...


Since they have very sharp and numerous teeth, care is required in unhooking a pike. It is recommended that barbless trebles are used when angling for this species as it simplifies unhooking.[citation needed] Unhooking should be accomplished using long forceps—30 cm artery clamps are ideal. The pike should be kept out of the water for the minimum amount of time possible, and should be given some time to recover before being weighed and photographed.


In Finland, catching a kymppihauki, a pike weighing at least 10 kilograms, is considered the qualification as a master fisherman.


Etymology

Esox lucius skull
Esox lucius skull

The northern pike gets its name from its resemblance to the pole-weapon known as the pike (from the Middle English for pointed). The genus name, Esox, comes from the Greek and Celtic for "big fish" and "salmon" (see Esox: Name). Various other unofficial trivial names are: American pike, common pike, great northern pike, Great Lakes pike, grass pike, pickerel, slough shark, snake, northern, and jackfish. Numerous other names can be found in Field Museum Zool. Leaflet Number 9. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 500 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by David Stang. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 500 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by David Stang. ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Pickerel redirects here. ... In chemistry, a trivial name (also common or vernacular name) is a non-systematic name. ...


See also

Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Muskellunge or muskie or musky (Esox masquinongy) are large, relatively rare freshwater fish of North America. ... Pickerel redirects here. ... Fly rod and reel with a wild brown trout from a chalk stream. ...

References

  1. ^ Young, Samantha. "Calif. Aims to Rid Lake of Northern Pike", Associated Press, 2007-09-26. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  2. ^ What the PAC is All About

The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... FishBase is a comprehensive database of information about fish. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Esox lucius
Wikispecies has information related to:
Esox lucius

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Northern Pike - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (354 words)
The Northern Pike (Esox lucius) is a carnivorous fish of brackish and freshwaters of the northern hemisphere.
It is moreover a cannibal and this cannibalism serves in maintaining stability in the pike population.
The pike generally hides in wait for prey, holding perfectly still for long periods, and is then capable of remarkable acceleration, sometimes propelling it a meter into the air (though it rarely leaves the surface).
Esox - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (514 words)
The pike species are native to the Palearctic and Nearctic ecozones, ranging across northern North America and from Western Europe to Siberia in Eurasia.
Pikes can grow to a maximum recorded length of 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in), reaching a maximum recorded weight of 35 kg (77 lb).
The pikes are not to be confused with the unrelated pikeminnows (formerly known as "squawfish") of genus Ptychocheilus (family Cyprinidae).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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