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Encyclopedia > Northern March
The Northern March within the Empire, 10th century.
The Northern March within the Empire, 10th century.

The Northern March or North March (German: Nordmark) was created out of the division of the vast marca Geronis in 965. It initially comprised the northern third of the marca (corresponding to the modern state of Brandenburg) and was part of the territorial organisation of areas conquered from the Wends. A Slavic rebellion in 983 reversed German control over the region until the establishment of the March of Brandenburg by Albert the Bear in the 12th century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1785, 901 KB) Summary La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1785, 901 KB) Summary La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... The hatched portion of the map in the northeast excepting the March of the Billungs was the marca Geronis, notice the Mark Merseburg which was one of its partitions. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Albert I (c. ...

Contents

Slavic background

The Northern March was established in territory known in antiquity as Magna Germania, which reached to the Vistula river. During the Migration Period, many Germanic peoples began migrating towards the Roman frontier. In the northeast they were replaced primarily by Slavic peoples. The first Slavs were certainly in the Brandenburg area by 720, after the arrival of the Avars in Europe. These Slavs had come via Moravia, where they had arrived in the mid-seventh century. The remnants of the Germanic Semnoni were absorbed into these Slav groups. Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century. ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is with 1,047 kilometers (678 miles) the longest river in Poland. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... The Semnones were a Germanic tribe which was settled between the Elbe and the Oder in the 1st century when they were described by Tacitus. ...


The group of people who settled at the Spree river became known as Sprevjane. They settled east of the line formed by the Havel and Nuthe rivers, in the current Barnim and Teltow regions. They built their main fortification at the confluence of the Spree and the Dahme at Köpenick. The Hevelli lived west of that line, in the current Havelland and Zauche regions. They were named Habelli for the ancient Germanic name of the river "Habula" (Havel). The name for themselves was the Stodoranie. They built their main fortification at "Brenna" (modern Brandenburg). The Hevelli also built a large outpost at the current site of Spandau Citadel in Berlin. The Sprevjane and Hevelli not only waged war against their German, but also their Slav, neighbours. The Sprevjane (Slavonic name) or Sprewanen (German name) were a Slavic tribe who lived around the river Spree and where Berlin is now, in the Brandenburg area in eastern Germany from the 8th century on. ... Barnim is a district in Brandenburg, Germany. ... Teltow is a town in the Potsdam-Mittelmark district, in Brandenburg, Germany. ... Dahme may refer to: Dahme, Brandenburg, a town in Germany Dahme, Holstein, a municipality in Germany Dahme River, a river in Germany Category: ... Köpenick is a former borough of Berlin; in 2001 it merged with Treptow to form the new borough Treptow-Köpenick. ... Lands of the Hevelli (Heveller), ca. ... Havelland is a district in Brandenburg, Germany. ... For the Biblical Havel, see Abel. ... Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. ... The Spandau Citadel is the oldest remaining structure in Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


History of the Northern March


History of Brandenburg and Prussia
Northern March
pre-12th century
Old Prussians
pre-13th century
Margraviate of Brandenburg
11571618 (1806)
Ordenstaat
12241525
Duchy of Prussia
15251618
Royal (Polish) Prussia
14661772
Brandenburg-Prussia
16181701
Kingdom in Prussia
17011772
Kingdom of Prussia
17721918
Free State of Prussia
19181947
Brandenburg
19471952 / 1990

Image File history File links Brandenburg_Wappen. ... The Prussian flag (small) 1701-1918 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

Establishment and loss, 965–983

After the Saxon War of 808, the victorious Charlemagne bestowed on the Slavic tribes allied with him (such as the Obotrites) part of the Saxon lands between the Elbe and the Baltic Sea. A period of quiet followed in the region. The Bishopics of Brandenburg and Havelberg were established around 940 and the Christianisation of the pagan Slavs began. The Saxon Wars were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... The Obotrites (sometimes Abodrites, Obodrites) were a group of Slavic peoples who had in the 6th century settled in the regions later known as Mecklenburg and Schleswig-Holstein in what is now north-eastern Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Bishopric of Brandenburg was a Roman Catholic diocese established by Otto the Great in 948, including the territory between the Elbe on the west, the Oder on the east, and the Black Elster on the south, and taking in the Uckermark to the north. ... The See of Havelberg was founded in 946. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...


Henry I of Germany conquered Brandenburg in 928–929 and imposed tribute upon the tribes up to the Oder. By 948 his son Otto I had established German control over the many remaining pagans, who were collectively referred to as Slavs or Wends by contemporaries. Slavic settlements such as Brenna, Budišin (Bautzen), and Chotebuž (Cottbus) came under German control through the installation of margraves.[citation needed] The main function of the margravial office was to defend and protect the marches (frontier districts) of the Teutonic kingdom. After the death of the margrave Gero the Great in 965, the vast collection of marches (a "super-march") was divided by Otto into five smaller commands. The Northern March was one of these. The others were the Eastern March, the March of Merseburg, the March of Meissen, and the March of Zeitz. Henry I, the Fowler (German, Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. ... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... For others with the same name, see Otto I (disambiguation). ... Bautzen (pronounced , listen, until 1868: Budissin; Upper Sorbian: BudyÅ¡in; Lower Sorbian: BudyÅ¡yn; , listen; Polish: Budziszyn; Czech: Budyšín) is a city in eastern Saxony, Germany, and capital of the eponymous district. ... Cottbus (Sorbian: ChoÅ›ebuz, archaic German: Kottbus) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany, situated around 125 km southeast of Berlin on the Spree river. ... Margrave is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... The Kingdom of Germany was a medieval state[1] which grew out of that of East Francia in the tenth century, when the term regnum Teutonicum first came into informal use. ... 14th-century wall painting depiciting Gero in the chuch he founded at Gernrode. ... The Saxon Eastern March or Ostmark (German: ) was a march of the Holy Roman Empire from the 10th until the 12th century. ... The hatched portion of the map in the northeast excepting the March of the Billungs was the marca Geronis, notice the Mark Merseburg which was one of its partitions. ... Meissen, with the Albrechtsburg and the Cathedral of Sts. ... The Ottonian Empire, with the March of Zeitz (hatched), in the tenth century. ...


Many Slavic tribes allied together in a rebellion in 983 and threw the Germans back, destroying their monasteries and killing or expelling the priests and German officials. Until the collapse of the Liutizi alliance in the middle of the 11th century, the German expansion in the direction of the Northern March remained at a standstill and the Wends east of the Elbe remained independent for approximately 150 years. The Veleti (German: ; Polish: ), also known as the Liutizians (also Liutizi, Lyutitzi, or Liutitians; German: Liutizen or Lutizen) or Wilzi(ans) (also Wiltzes; German: Wilzen), were a group of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern northeastern Germany (see Polabian Slavs). ...


March of Brandenburg

In the beginning of the 12th century, the German kings re-established control over the mixed Slav-inhabited lands on the eastern borders of the Holy Roman Empire. In the wake of the Wendish Crusade of 1134, the German magnate Albert the Bear was granted the Northern March by the Emperor Lothair II. Some Slavic tribes survived the conquests and still live there today, such as the Sorbs in Lusatia, but others were assimilated through a process of Germanisation. The church under Albert established dioceses, which with their walled towns protected the townspeople from attack. With the arrival of monks and bishops begins anew the recorded history of the town of Brandenburg, from which would develop the eponymous margraviate. Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Albert I (c. ... Seal of Lothair III. on a deed from 1131 Lothair III of Supplinburg (1075 – 1137), was Duke of Saxony (1106), King of Germany (1125), and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 to 1137. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern...


Albert's control of the region was nominal for several decades, but he engaged in a variety of military and diplomatic actions against the Wends, and saw his control become more real by the middle of the century. In 1150, Albert formally inherited Brandenburg from its last Wendish ruler, the Christian Pribislav. Albert and his Ascanian descendants made considerable progress in Christianising and cultivating the newly-German lands. Pribislav Henry (1127 - 1150) was a Christian and the last ruler of the Slavic tribe of the Havelles in Brandenburg. ... The Ascanian dynasty of the rulers of Brandenburg began with Albert the Bear who inherited the territory from its last Wendish ruler, Pribislav, in 1150. ...


List of margraves

  • Dietrich, 965–983
  • Lothair, 983–1003
  • Werner, 1003–1009
  • Bernard, 1009–1051
  • William, 1051–1056
  • Otto, 1056–1057
  • Lothair Udo I, 1056–1057
  • Udo II, 1057–1082
  • Henry I, 1082–1087
  • Lothair Udo III, 1087–1106
  • Rudolf I, 1106–1114
  • Henry II, 1114–1128
  • Udo IV, 1128–1130
  • Rudolf I, 1130–1144

Dietrich or Theodoric of Haldensleben (also Theoderic[h]; died 985) was the first Margrave of the Nordmark from 965 until his deposition in 983. ... Lothair or Liuthar (died 25 January 1003) was the Margrave of the Northern March from 983 until his death. ... Werner (also Wirinher or Werinharius; died 11 November 1014) was the Margrave of the Nordmark from 1003 until 1009. ... Bernard or Bernhard (died 1051) was the Margrave of the Nordmark from 1009 until his death. ... William (died 10 September 1056) was the Margrave of the Nordmark from 1051 until his death. ... Otto (died 26 June 1057) was illegitimate son of Bernard, Margrave of the Nordmark, and a Slav mistress. ... Lothair Udo II (c. ...

Sources

  • Reuter, Timothy. Germany in the Early Middle Ages 800–1056. New York: Longman, 1991.
  • Thompson, James Westfall. Feudal Germany, Volume II. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1928.

Timothy Reuter (1947-2002) was a British historian who specialized in the study of medieval Germany, particularly the social, military and ecclesiastical institutions of the Ottonian and Salian periods (10th-12th centuries). ... James Westfall Thompson (1869–1941) was an American historian specializing in the history of medieval and early modern Europe, particularly of the Holy Roman Empire and France. ...

Notes


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Northern March (423 words)
Northern March (in German, Nordmark), was the Holy Roman Empire's territorial organisation on the conquered areas of the Wends.
In the beginning of the 12th century the Saxon German kings and emperors conquered the lands of eastern and southern Germania, which had been previously inhabited by Slavic peoples.
In 1134, in the wake of a German crusade against the Wends, the German magnate Albert the Bear was granted the Northern March by the Holy Roman Emperor Lothar II.
Northern March - definition of Northern March in Encyclopedia (311 words)
Northern March (in German, Nordmark), was the Holy Roman Empire's territorial organisation on the conquered areas of the Wends.
In 1134, in the wake of a German crusade against the Wends, the German magnate Albert the Bear was granted the Northern March by the Holy Roman Emperor Lothar II.
In the beginning of the 12th century the Saxon German kings and emperors conquered the lands of eastern and southern Germania, which had been previously inhabited by Slavic peoples.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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