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Encyclopedia > Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland  (English)
Tuaisceart Éireann  (Irish)
Norlin Airlann  (Ulster Scots)
AnthemLondonderry Air/Derry Air (unofficial)
(the anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the Queen")
Location of Northern Ireland
Location of  Northern Ireland  (red)

in the United Kingdom  (light yellow) The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Londonderry Air (or Derry Air) is an anthem of Northern Ireland. ... For other uses, see God Save the Queen (disambiguation). ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Belfast
54°35.456′N, 5°50.4′W
Official languages English (de facto), Irish and Ulster Scots1
Government Constitutional monarchy
Consociationalism
 -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Prime Minister (of the United Kingdom) Gordon Brown MP
 -  First Minister Peter Robinson MLA
 -  Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness MLA
 -  Secretary of State Shaun Woodward MP
Establishment
 -  Government of Ireland Act 3 May, 1921 
Area
 -  Total 13,843 km² 
5,345 sq mi 
Population
 -  2006 estimate 1,741,600 
 -  2001 census 1,685,267 
 -  Density 122/km² 
315/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2002 estimate
 -  Total £33.2 billion 
 -  Per capita £19,603 
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
 -  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .uk2, .ie2
Calling code +443
Patron saint St Patrick4
1 Officially recognised languages: Northern Ireland has no official language; the use of English has been established through precedent. Irish and Ulster Scots are officially recognised minority languages
2 Also .eu, as part of the European Union, and .ie shared with Republic of Ireland. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.
3 +44 is always followed by 28 when calling landlines. The code is 028 within the UK and 048 from the Republic of Ireland
4 In common with the Republic of Ireland.

Northern Ireland (Irish: Tuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km²), about a sixth of the island's total area.[1] It shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west. At the time of the UK Census in April 2001, its population was 1,685,000, constituting between a quarter and a third of the island's total population and about 3% of the population of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland consists of six of the nine counties of the historic Irish province of Ulster. In the UK, it is generally known as one of the four Home Nations that form the Kingdom. Not to be confused with capitol. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the capital city of Northern Ireland. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Consociationalism is the method of conflict resolution built on the idea that a democracy fractured by opposing political parties can stabilize itself by appointing a small group of intellectuals to govern the people. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Members of Parliament elected to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the 2005 general election, arranged by constituency. ... Peter David Robinson (born December 29, 1948) is a Democratic Unionist Party Member of Parliament for East Belfast. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly election, 2007 will be held on 7 March 2007. ... James Martin Pacelli McGuinness MP MLA (Irish: ;[1] born in Derry on 23 May 1950) is the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly election, 2007 will be held on 7 March 2007. ... The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is the British cabinet minister who has responsibility for the government of Northern Ireland. ... Shaun Anthony Woodward (born October 26, 1958, Bristol) is a British politician, and Labour Member of Parliament for St Helens South. ... This is a list of Members of Parliament elected to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the 2005 general election, arranged by constituency. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... GBP redirects here. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ie is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for the Republic of Ireland. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... This is a trivia section. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Statue of Saint Patrick Saint Patrick (died March 17, 462, 492, or 493), is the patron saint of Ireland. ... The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. ... .ie is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for the Republic of Ireland. ... ISO 3166-1, as part of the ISO 3166 standard, provides codes for the names of countries and dependent areas. ... Not to be confused with United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... .gb is a reserved Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... // Constituent country is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a historical, currently non-legally officially recognised country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... Northern Ireland is one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... When under Gaelic rule, Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the túatha. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Home Nations (often written as the common noun home nations) is a term used to refer to the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — collectively but as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a state. ...


Northern Ireland was established as a distinct administrative region of the United Kingdom on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920.[2] For over 50 years it was the only part of the UK to have its own form of devolved government until it was suspended in 1972.[3] Northern Ireland's current devolved government bodies, the Northern Ireland Assembly and Executive were established in 1998 but were suspended several times. They were restored on 8 May 2007.[4][5] Northern Ireland's legal system descends from the pre-1921 Irish legal system (as does the legal system of the Republic of Ireland). It is based on common law. Northern Ireland is a distinct jurisdiction, separate from England and Wales and Scotland.[6] An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Devolution. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Republic of Ireland has a common law legal system with a number of main sources of law as follows: Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) Primary legislation - Acts of the Oireachtas and pre-1937 legislation Secondary legislation - Statutory Instruments Case law European Union law International law // The state... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ...


Northern Ireland has been for many years the site of a violent and bitter ethno-political conflict between those claiming to represent Nationalists, who are predominantly Roman Catholic, and those claiming to represent Unionists, who are predominantly Protestant.[7] In general, Nationalists want Northern Ireland to be unified with the Republic of Ireland, and Unionists want it to remain part of the United Kingdom. Unionists are in the majority in Northern Ireland, though Nationalists represent a significant minority.[8] In general, Protestants consider themselves British and Catholics see themselves as Irish but there are some who see themselves as both British and Irish. People from Northern Ireland are entitled to both British and Irish citizenship (see Citizenship and identity). The campaigns of violence have become known popularly as The Troubles. The majority of both sides of the community have had no direct involvement in the violent campaigns waged. Since the signing of the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement or the G.F.A.) in 1998, many of the major paramilitary campaigns have either been on ceasefire or have declared their war to be over. Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Northern Ireland

For events before 1900 see Ulster or History of Ireland. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... The History of Ireland began with the first known settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. ...


The area now known as Northern Ireland has had a diverse history. From serving as the bedrock of Irish resistance in the era of the plantations of Queen Elizabeth and James I in other parts of Ireland, it became the subject of major planting of Scottish and English settlers after the Flight of the Earls in 1607 (when the Gaelic aristocracy fled to Catholic Europe). The Nine Years War (Irish: Cogadh na Naoi mBliana) in Ireland took place from 1594 to 1603 and is also known as Tyrones Rebellion. ... Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Ulster. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Flight of the Earls (Irish: Teitheadh na nIarlaí) refers to the departure from Ireland on 14 September 1607 of Hugh ONeill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory ODonnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ...


The all-island Kingdom of Ireland (1541—1800) merged into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801 under the terms of the Act of Union, under which the kingdoms of Ireland and Great Britain merged under a government and monarchy based in London. In the early 20th century, Unionists, led by Sir Edward Carson (generally regarded as the founder of Northern Ireland), opposed the introduction of Home Rule in Ireland. Unionists were in a minority on the island of Ireland as a whole, but were a majority in the northern province of Ulster, a very large majority in the counties of Antrim and Down, small majorities in the counties of Armagh and Londonderry, with substantial numbers also concentrated in the nationalist-majority counties of Fermanagh and Tyrone. These six counties, containing an overall unionist majority, would later form Northern Ireland. This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Irish: Acht an Aontais 1800) is used to describe two complementary Acts[1] whose official United Kingdom titles are the Union with Ireland Act 1800 (1800 c. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... Edward Carson HMSO image The Right Honourable Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC (February 9, 1854 – October 22, 1935) was a leader of the Irish Unionists, a Barrister and a Judge. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Armagh Area: 1,254 km² Population (est. ... For other places with similar names, see Londonderry (disambiguation) and Derry (disambiguation). ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Enniskillen Area: 1,691 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Omagh Area: 3,155 km² Population (est. ...


The clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over the controversial budget of Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd-George produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. Given that the Lords had been the unionists' main guarantee that a home rule act would not be enacted, because of the majority of pro-unionist peers in the House, the Parliament Act made Home Rule a likely prospect in Ireland. Opponents to Home Rule, from Conservative Party leaders like Andrew Bonar Law to militant unionists in Ireland, threatened the use of violence, producing the Larne Gun Running incident in 1912, when they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for the Ulster Volunteer Force. Lord Randolph Churchill famously told a unionist audience in Ulster that "Ulster will fight, and Ulster will be right". The prospect of civil war in Ireland loomed. Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, Parliament Act refers to each of two Acts of Parliament, passed in 1911 and 1949 respectively. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a British Conservative Party statesman and Prime Minister. ... In March 1914 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith introduced his Home Rule Bill for Ireland into the House of Commons. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) is a Loyalist group in Northern Ireland. ...

Prime Ministers
of Northern Ireland
Lord Craigavon (1922–1940)
John Miller Andrews (1940–1943)
Lord Brookeborough (1943–1963)
Captain Terence O'Neill (1963–1969)
James Chichester-Clark (1969–1971)
Brian Faulkner (1971–1972)

In 1914, the Third Home Rule Act, which contained provision for a temporary partition, received the Royal Assent. Its implementation was suspended for the duration of the intervening First World War, which was expected to last only a few weeks, but, in fact, lasted four years. James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon, PC (8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940) was a prominent Irish unionist politician, leader of the Ulster Unionist Party and the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. ... John Millar Andrews (July 17, 1871 - August 5, 1956) was the second Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. ... Sir Basil Stanlake Brooke, 1st Viscount Brookeborough, Bt, KG, CBE, MC, PC (June 9, 1888-August 18, 1973) was an Irish Unionist politician. ... Terence Marne ONeill, Baron ONeill of the Maine, PC (10 September 1914–12 June 1990) was the fourth Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. ... The Right Honourable James Dawson Chichester-Clark, Baron Moyola, PC, DL (February 12, 1923–May 17, 2002) was the fifth Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. ... Arthur Brian Deane Faulkner, Baron Faulkner of Downpatrick (February 18, 1921 - March 3, 1977) was the sixth and last Prime Minister of Northern Ireland from 1971 until 1972. ... The Third Home Rule Act, more correctly known as the Home Rule Act, 1914 was an Act of the parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland which allowed for the creation of a separate home rule parliament in Ireland. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


By the end of the war, the Act was seen as dead in the water, with public opinion in the majority nationalist community having moved from a demand for home rule to something more substantial: independence. David Lloyd George proposed in 1919 a new bill which would divide Ireland into two Home Rule areas, twenty-six counties being ruled from Dublin, six being ruled from Belfast, with a shared Lord Lieutenant of Ireland appointing both executives and a Council of Ireland, which Lloyd George believed would evolve into an all-Ireland parliament.[citation needed] David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital city of Northern Ireland. ... Official standard of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (plural: Lords Lieutenant), also known as the Judiciar in the early mediaeval period and as the Lord Deputy as late as the 17th century, was the Kings representative and head of the Irish executive during the... The Council of Ireland may refer to one of two councils, one proposed and one implemented for a brief period. ...


1920-1925: Partition of Ireland, partition of Ulster

The island of Ireland was partitioned in 1921 under the terms of the Government of Ireland Act 1920.[9] Six of the nine Ulster counties in the north-east formed Northern Ireland and the remaining three counties (including County Donegal, despite it having a large Protestant minority as well as it being the most northern county in all of Ireland) joined those of Leinster, Munster and Connacht to form Southern Ireland. Whilst Southern Ireland had only a brief existence between 1921 and 1922, a period dominated by the Anglo-Irish War and its aftermath, Northern Ireland was to continue on. An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County seat: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Statistics Area: 19,774. ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... Statistics Area: 17,713. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Capital Dublin Head of State King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Head of Government Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Chairman of the Provisional Government from Jan 1922. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament...


Northern Ireland provisionally became an autonomous part of the Irish Free State on 6 December 1922. However, as expected, the Parliament of Northern Ireland chose, under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, to opt out of the Irish Free State the following day.[10] Shortly after Northern Ireland had exercised its opt out of the Irish Free State, a Boundary Commission was established to decide on the territorial boundaries between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland. Though leaders in Dublin expected a substantial reduction in the territory of Northern Ireland (with nationalist areas like south Armagh, Tyrone, southern County Londonderry and urban territories like Derry and Newry moving to the Free State), the Boundary Commission decided against this. This decision was approved by the Dáil in Dublin on 10 December 1925 by a vote of 71 to 20.[11] This article is about the prior state. ... This article is about the pre-1972 Parliament of Northern Ireland. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... The Irish Boundary Commission was established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War in 1921. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Armagh Area: 1,254 km² Population (est. ... The name Tyrone can refer to: A county in Northern Ireland; see County Tyrone An Earl of Tyrone A small steam train which runs between Bushmills and the Giants Causeway in Northern Ireland. ... For other places with similar names, see Londonderry (disambiguation) and Derry (disambiguation). ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ... , Newry (from the Irish: Iúr Cinn Trá meaning The Yew Tree at the Head of the Strand, short form An tIúr, The Yew) is the fourth largest city in Northern Ireland and eighth on the island of Ireland. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ...


1926 to the present

In June 1940, to encourage the Irish state to join with the Allies, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill indicated to the Taoiseach Éamon de Valera that the United Kingdom would push for Irish unity, but believing that Churchill could not deliver, de Valera declined the offer.[12] The British did not inform the Northern Ireland government that they had made the offer to the Dublin government, and De Valera's rejection was not publicized until 1970. Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Churchill redirects here. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... Éamon de Valera[1][2] (IPA: ) (Irish: ) (born Edward George de Valera 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The Ireland Act 1949 gave the first legal guarantee to the Parliament and Government that Northern Ireland would not cease to be part of the United Kingdom without consent of the majority of its citizens, and this was most recently reaffirmed by the Northern Ireland Act 1998. This status was echoed in the Anglo-Irish Agreement in 1985, which was signed by the governments of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic, was amended in 1999 to remove a claim of the "Irish nation" to sovereignty over the whole of Ireland (in Article 2), a claim qualified by an acknowledgement that the southern state only could exercise legal control over the territory formerly known as the Irish Free State. The new Articles 2 and 3, added to the Bunreacht to replace the earlier articles, implicitly acknowledge that the status of Northern Ireland, and its relationships within the United Kingdom and with the Republic of Ireland, would only be changed with the agreement of a majority of voters in Ireland ( North and South voting together.). This acknowledgement was also central to the Belfast Agreement which was signed in 1998 and ratified by plebiscites held simultaneously in both Northern Ireland and the Republic. The Agreement states that a decision on sovereignty should be voted on first by the people of Northern Ireland then the citizens of both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland together if the former vote is in favour of a united Ireland. The Ireland Act 1949 is a UK Act of Parliament which was intended to deal with the consequences of the then recently passed Republic of Ireland Act 1948 as passed by the Irish parliament (Oireachtas). ... This article is about the pre-1972 Parliament of Northern Ireland. ... The Northern Ireland Act 2006 (2006 c. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The Constitution of Ireland is the founding legal document of the state known today as the Republic of Ireland. ... Article 2 and Article 3 of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, were adopted with the constitution as a whole in 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took full effect in 1999. ... The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


A plebiscite within Northern Ireland on whether it should remain in the United Kingdom, or form a united Ireland, was held in 1973. The vote went heavily in favour (98.9%) of maintaining the status quo with approximately 57.5% of the total electorate voting in support, but most nationalists boycotted the poll (see Northern Ireland referendum, 1973 for more). Though legal provision remains for holding another plebiscite, and former Ulster Unionist Party leader David Trimble some years ago advocated the holding of such a vote, no plans for such a vote have been adopted as of 2007. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Northern Ireland referendum of 1973 was a referendum held in Northern Ireland only on March 8, 1973 on whether Northern Ireland should remain part of the United Kingdom or join with the Republic of Ireland to form a United Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... The Lord Trimble William David Trimble, Baron Trimble, PC (born 15 October 1944), known as David Trimble, is a Northern Irish politician who served as leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and the first First Minister of Northern Ireland. ...


In 2005 Northern Ireland became the only European geographic region with 100% broadband coverage and one of a few outside Asia. This was achieved by a partnership between the Northern Ireland Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment and BT Northern Ireland. [13]


8 May 2007 Home rule returned to Northern Ireland. DUP leader Ian Paisley and Sinn Féin spokesman Martin McGuinness took office as First Minister and Deputy First Minister, respectively [14]. is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born 6 April 1926), styled The Revd and Rt Hon. ... James Martin Pacelli McGuinness MP MLA (Irish: ;[1] born in Derry on 23 May 1950) is the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland. ...


Lives lost and injured in the "Troubles"

Main article: The Troubles

Bombings in Great Britain tended to have had more publicity, since attacks there were comparatively rare (in the context of the troubles); indeed 93% of killings happened in Northern Ireland. Republican paramilitaries have contributed to nearly 60% (2056) of these. Loyalists have killed nearly 28% (1020) while the security forces have killed just over 11% (362), with 9% of the total (296) attributed to the British Army. For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


Civilians killed

Civilians account for the highest death toll at 53% or 1798 fatalities. Loyalist paramilitaries account for a higher proportion of civilian deaths (those with no military or paramilitary connection) according to figures published in Malcolm Sutton’s book, “Bear in Mind These Dead: An Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland 1969 - 1993”. According to research undertaken by the CAIN organisation, based on Sutton's work, 85.6% (873) of Loyalist killings, 52.9% (190) by the security forces and 35.9% (738) of all killings by Republican paramilitaries took the lives of civilians between 1969 and 2001. The disparity of a relatively high civilian death toll yet low Republican percentage is explained by the fact that they also had a high combatants' death toll.


Combatants killed

Republican paramilitaries account for a higher proportion of combatants killed (those within paramilitaries or the military) Again from Malcolm Sutton's research, Republicans killed 1318 combatants, the security forces killed 192 and the Loyalists killed 147. Both Republicans and Loyalists killed more of their own than each other, over twice as many for Loyalists and nearly four times as many for Republicans.


80 people, mainly civilians, have died without any organisation claiming responsibility. The British Army has also lost 14 soldiers to Loyalists while the security forces overall in the Republic have lost 10 to Republicans.


According to a submission by Marie Smith to the Northern Ireland Commission on Victims, 40,000 people have also been injured, though she believes that to be a conservative figure.


Demography and politics

Communities in northern Ireland - 1991 census.
Communities in northern Ireland - 1991 census.
Northern Ireland

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Northern Ireland
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ...


In Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland Assembly The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ...


MLA
Committees
List of Acts
Members: 2007 - 2003 - 1998
Elections: 2007 - 2003 - 1998 This is a list of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly passed by that body from its establishment in 2000 until its suspension in 2002 and from its re-establishment in 2007. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly election, 2007 will be held on 7 March 2007. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly elected in November 2003, never met as such, since Northern Irelands devolved government and representative institutions were suspended following the re-introduction of direct rule by the United Kingdom government on 14 October 2002. ... This is a list of Members of the Northern Ireland Assembly elected in 1998. ... The third elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly were held on 7 March 2007. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The first elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly were held on June 25, 1998. ...


Northern Ireland Executive The Northern Ireland Executive as established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ...


First Minister: Peter Robinson
Deputy First Minister: Martin McGuinness
Departments
Executives: First - Suspended - Second Peter David Robinson (born December 29, 1948) is a Democratic Unionist Party Member of Parliament for East Belfast. ... James Martin Pacelli McGuinness MP MLA (Irish: ;[1] born in Derry on 23 May 1950) is the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland. ...


Northern Ireland Policing Board
Parades Commission The Northern Ireland Policing Board is the Police Authority for Northern Ireland, charged with supervising the activities of the Police Service of Northern Ireland. ... The Parades Commission is a quasi-judicial body responsible for placing restrictions on or banning outright any parades in Northern Ireland it deems contentious or offensive. ...

In the United Kingdom

United Kingdom Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...


Committees: Affairs - Grand
Members: Commons - Lords - Privy Council
Elections: 2005 The Northern Ireland Affairs Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure, administration and policy of the Northern Ireland Office. ... The Northern Ireland Grand Committee is one of three such committees in the United Kingdom Parliament. ... This is a list of Members of the United Kingdom House of Lords who were born, live or lived in Northern Ireland. ... The United Kingdom general election of 2005 was held on Thursday, 5 May 2005. ...


United Kingdom Government The agencies responsible for the government of the United Kingdom consist of a number of ministerial departments (usually headed by a Secretary of State) and non-ministerial departments headed by senior civil servants. ...


Northern Ireland Office
Secretary of StateDirect Rule The Northern Ireland Office (NIO) is an arm of the United Kingdom government, responsible for Northern Ireland affairs. ... The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is the British cabinet minister who has responsibility for the government of Northern Ireland. ... Direct Rule is the term given to the running of the day-to-day administration of Northern Ireland directly from Westminster. ...

In the European Union

European Union Parliament The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary body of the European Union. ...


MEP
Members: 2004 - 1999
Elections: 2004 - 1999 A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... Northern Ireland is a constituency of the European Parliament. ... Northern Ireland is a constituency of the European Parliament. ... The European Parliament Election, 1999 was the UK part of the European Parliament election 1999. ...

Related political parties

Designated Unionist
Democratic Unionist Party
Ulster Unionist Party
Progressive Unionist Party
Conservatives
Traditional Unionist Voice A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... This article is about the political party in Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... The Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) are a small political party from Northern Ireland. ... The logo of the Conservatives in Northern Ireland The Conservatives in Northern Ireland is the wing of the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom that operates in Northern Ireland. ...


Designated Nationalist
Sinn Féin
Social Democratic and Labour Party
Fianna Fáil For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ...


Designated Other
Alliance Party
Green Party The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI), is a political party operating in Northern Ireland. ... The Green Party in Northern Ireland is a political party operating in Northern Ireland. ...

Related bodies

North/South Ministerial Council
British-Irish Council
British-Irish Intergovernmental Conference
Civic Forum for Northern Ireland The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC, Irish: An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh/Theas, Ulster-Scots: The Noarth-Sooth Cooncil o Männystèrs) is a body established under the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement) to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain limited governmental powers across the whole... The British–Irish Council (sometimes known as the Council of the Isles) is a body created by the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ...

See also

St Andrews Agreement (2006)
Belfast Agreement (1998) The St Andrews Agreement is an agreement proposed by the British and Irish Governments in relation to devolution of power to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


Segregation in Northern Ireland
Elections in Northern Ireland A peace line in Belfast Segregation in Northern Ireland is a long-running issue in the political and social history of the province. ... Elections in Northern Ireland gives information on election and election results in Northern Ireland. ...


Constituencies
Political parties Northern Ireland is divided into 18 Parliamentary constituencies - 4 Borough constituencies in Belfast and 14 County constituencies elsewhere. ... Political parties in Northern Ireland lists political parties in Northern Ireland. ...


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Main article: Demography and politics of Northern Ireland

The population of Northern Ireland was estimated as being 1,710,300 on 30 June 2004. In the 2001 census, 45.6% of the population identified as belonging to Protestant denominations (of which 20.7% Presbyterian, 15.3% Church of Ireland), 40.3% identified as Catholic, 0.3% identified with non-Christian religions and 13.9% identified with no religion. [15] In terms of community background, 53.1% of the Northern Irish population came from a Protestant background, 43.8% came from a Catholic background, 0.4% from non-Christian backgrounds and 2.7% non-religious backgrounds.[16][17] The population is forecast to pass the 1.8 million mark by 2011.[18] Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... // Population 1,685,267 Place of birth Northern Ireland: 1,534,268 (91. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Modern logo of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI) has a membership of 300,000 people in 650 congregations across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, though the bulk of the membership is in Northern Ireland. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ...


A plurality of the present-day population define themselves as Unionist, 22% as Nationalist and 35% define themselves as neither.[19] According to a 2005 opinion poll, 58% express long term preference of the maintenance of Northern Ireland's membership of the United Kingdom, while 23% express a preference for membership of a united Ireland.[20] This discrepancy can be explained by the overwhelming preference among Protestants to remain a part of the UK (85%), while Catholic preferences are spread across a number of solutions to the constitutional question including remaining a part of the UK (25%), a united Ireland (50%), Northern Ireland becoming an independent state (9%), and those who "don't know" (14%).[21] Official voting figures, which reflect views on the "national question" along with issues of candidate, geography, personal loyalty and historic voting patterns, show 54% of Northern Ireland voters vote for Pro-Unionist parties, 42% vote for Pro-Nationalist parties and 4% vote "other". Opinion polls consistently show that the election results are not necessarily an indication of the electorate's stance regarding the constitutional status of Northern Ireland. For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ...


Most of the population of Northern Ireland are at least nominally Christian. The ethno-political loyalties are allied, though not absolutely, to the Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations and these are the labels used to categorise the opposing views. This is, however, becoming increasingly irrelevant as the Irish Question is very complicated. Many voters (regardless of religious affiliation) are attracted to Unionism's conservative policies, while other voters are instead attracted to the traditionally leftist, nationalist Sinn Féin and Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) and their respective party platforms for Democratic Socialism and Social Democracy. For the most part, Protestants feel a strong connection with Great Britain and wish for Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom. Catholics generally desire a greater connection with the Republic of Ireland, or are less certain about how to solve the constitutional question. In a survey by Northern Ireland Life and Times, quarter of Northern Irish Catholics were said to support Northern Ireland remaining a part of the United Kingdom[citation needed] (see Catholic Unionist). Despite this no Catholics in the survey stated they would vote for the Unionist Parties and only 5% would vote for the Alliance Party.[citation needed] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Irish Question is the phrase used for the internal dispute in Britain concerning rational Irish nationalism and calls for independence. ... National conservatism is a political term used primarily in Europe to describe a variant of conservatism which concentrates more on national interests than standard conservatism, while not being nationalist or a far-right approach. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... A Catholic Unionist is either a Roman Catholic in Northern Ireland who supports continuing ties between Northern Ireland and Great Britain or a Roman Catholic from the Republic of Ireland who supports Ireland rejoining the United Kingdom. ...


Protestants have a slight majority in Northern Ireland, according to the latest Northern Ireland Census.[22] The make-up of the Northern Ireland Assembly reflects the appeals of the various parties within the population. Of the 108 MLA's, 55 are Unionists and 44 are Nationalists (the remaining nine are classified as "other"). The largest single religious denomination is the Roman Catholic Church, which comprises a plurality, followed by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, the Church of Ireland (Anglican) and the Methodist Church. The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... Modern logo of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI) has a membership of 300,000 people in 650 congregations across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, though the bulk of the membership is in Northern Ireland. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ...


The two opposing views of British unionism and Irish nationalism are linked to deeper cultural divisions. Unionists are overwhelmingly Protestant, descendants of mainly Scottish, English, Welsh and Huguenot settlers and indigenous Irishmen who had converted to one of the Protestant denominations. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... In the field of ecology, an indigenous species is an organism which is native to a region or ecosystem. ...


Nationalists are predominantly Catholic and descend from the population predating the settlement, with a minority from Scottish Highlanders as well as some converts from Protestantism. Discrimination against nationalists under the Stormont government (1921–1972) gave rise to the nationalist civil rights movement in the 1960s.[23] Some Unionists argue that any discrimination was not just because of religious or political bigotry, but also the result of more complex socio-economic, socio-political and geographical factors.[24] Whatever the cause, the existence of discrimination, and the manner in which Nationalist anger at it was handled, was a major contributing factor which led to the long-running conflict known as the Troubles. The political unrest went through its most violent phase in recent times between 1968 and 1994.[25] Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Northern Ireland Parliament Buildings Northern Ireland Parliament Buildings undergoing works during the 2007 summer break The Mile Parliament Buildings, known as Stormont because of its location in the Stormont area of Belfast, served as the seat of the Parliament of Northern Ireland and successive Northern Ireland assemblies and conventions. ... The Civil Rights Mural - The Beginning.[1] The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association was an organisation which campaigned for civil rights in Northern Ireland during the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ...


The main actors have been the Provisional Irish Republican Army and other republican groups who wish to bring about an end of the union with Great Britain, and various loyalist paramilitary groups who wish to maintain the union. The police force (the Royal Ulster Constabulary) and the British army were charged with maintaining law and order, though were frequently attacked by the nationalist community and republican paramilitaries who claimed that they were protagonists in the conflict. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... For other uses, see Loyalist (disambiguation). ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


As a consequence of the worsening security situation, self-government for Northern Ireland was suspended in 1972. Since mid-1997, the main paramilitary group, the Provisional IRA, has observed a ceasefire. Following negotiations, the Belfast Agreement of 1998 provides for an elected Northern Ireland Assembly, and a power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive comprising representatives of all the main parties. These institutions were suspended by the British Government in 2002 after Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) allegations of spying by people working for Sinn Féin at the Assembly (Stormontgate). The resulting case against the accused Sinn Féin member collapsed and the defendant later admitted to being a British agent. Politicians elected to the Assembly at the 2003 Assembly Election were called together on 15 May 2006 under the Northern Ireland Act 2006 [26] for the purpose of electing a First Minister of Northern Ireland and a deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland and choosing the members of an Executive (before 25 November 2006) as a preliminary step to the restoration of devolved government in Northern Ireland. Another election was held on 7 March 2007 and this Assembly sat following the return of devolved government in May 2007 A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... The Northern Ireland Executive as established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart na hÉireann) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... Stormontgate is the name given to the controversy surrounding an alleged Provisional Irish Republican Army spy-ring based in Stormont, the parliament building of Northern Ireland. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The First Minister of Northern Ireland (Ulster Scots: Heid Männystèr o Norlin Airlann) and the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland (Ulster Scots: Heid Männystèr Depute o Norlin Airlann) are the leaders of the Northern Ireland Executive, Northern Irelands home rule government set up in... The First Minister of Northern Ireland and the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland are the leaders of the Northern Ireland Executive, Northern Irelands home rule government set up in the 1990s as a result of the Good Friday Agreement. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The third elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly were held on 7 March 2007. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On 28 July 2005, the Provisional IRA declared an end to its campaign and has since decommissioned what is thought to be all of its arsenal. This final act of decommissioning was performed in accordance with the Belfast Agreement of 1998, and under the watch of the International Decommissioning Body and two external church witnesses. Many unionists, however, remain sceptical. This IRA decommissioning is in contrast to Loyalist paramilitaries who have so far failed to decommission many weapons. It is not thought that this will have a major effect on further political progress as political parties linked to Loyalist paramilitaries do not attract significant support and will not be in a position to form part of a government in the near future. See Independent International Commission on Decommissioning is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about armaments factories. ... The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) was established to oversee the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons in Ireland, as part of the peace process. ...


Citizenship and identity

Further information: Twenty-seventh Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland

People from Northern Ireland are British citizens on the same basis as people from any other part of the United Kingdom (e.g. by birth in the UK to at least one parent who is a UK permanent resident or citizen, or by naturalisation). The Twenty-seventh Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, the founding legal document of the Republic of Ireland, provided that children born on the island of Ireland to parents who were both non-nationals would no longer have a constitutional right to Irish citizenship. ... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ...


As an alternative to British citizenship [8], or in addition to British citizenship, people who were born in Northern Ireland on or before 31 December 2004 (and most persons born after this date) are entitled to claim Irish citizenship.[27] This was originally as a result of the Republic of Ireland extending Irish nationality law on an extra-territorial basis. First passed in 1956, the legislation was further developed in 2001 as a result of the Belfast Agreement of 1998, which stated that: is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Irish nationality law is the law of the Republic of Ireland governing citizenship. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


The two governments recognise the birthright of all the people of Northern Ireland to identify themselves and be accepted as Irish or British, or both, as they may so choose, and accordingly confirm that their right to hold both British and Irish citizenship is accepted by both Governments and would not be affected by any future change in the status of Northern Ireland.


This was subsequently qualified by the Twenty-seventh Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, which stated that, "notwithstanding any other provision of [the] Constitution," no-one would be automatically entitled to Irish citizenship unless they had at least one parent who was (or was entitled to be) an Irish citizen. The subsequent legislation (Irish Nationality and Citizenship Act of 2004) came into effect on 1 January 2005 and made Irish nationality law similar to British nationality law. This was in response to a large increase in the number of immigrants coming to Ireland whose children automatically acquired citizenship on birth. It was not specifically related to persons born in Northern Ireland. The Twenty-seventh Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, the founding legal document of the Republic of Ireland, provided that children born on the island of Ireland to parents who were both non-nationals would no longer have a constitutional right to Irish citizenship. ... The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Irish nationality law is the law of the Republic of Ireland governing citizenship. ... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ...


Today, a constitutional right to Irish citizenship still exists for anyone who is both:

  • Born on the island of Ireland (including its "isles and seas").
  • Born to at least one parent who is, or is entitled to be, an Irish citizen.

In general, Protestants in Northern Ireland see themselves primarily as being British, while Catholics regard themselves primarily as being Irish. Several studies and surveys performed between 1971 and 2006 show this.[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]


This does not however, account for the complex identities within Northern Ireland, given that many of the population regard themselves as "Ulster" or "Northern Irish", either primarily, or as a secondary identity. In addition, many regard themselves as both British and Irish.[citation needed] A 1999 survey showed that 51% of Protestants felt "Not at all Irish" and 41% only "weakly Irish"[36]


In Cricket the Ireland cricket team represents both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The Ireland cricket team is the cricket team representing all Ireland (i. ...


Symbols

See also: Northern Ireland flags issue
Former Governmental Coat of Arms of Northern Ireland 1925-72
Former Governmental Coat of Arms of Northern Ireland 1925-72

Today, Northern Ireland comprises a diverse patchwork of communities, whose national loyalties are represented in some areas by flags flown from lamp posts. The Union Flag and former Government of Northern Ireland therefore appear in some loyalist areas, with the Irish national flag of the Republic of Ireland, the tricolour, appearing in some republican areas. Even kerbstones in some areas are painted red-white-blue or green-white-orange (or gold), depending on whether local people express unionist/loyalist or nationalist/republican sympathies. // The Northern Ireland flags issue is one that divides the population along sectarian lines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Union Jack redirects here. ... Image File history File links Ulster_banner. ... Image File history File links Ulster_banner. ... The Parliament Buildings of Northern Ireland The Executive Committee met there. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... The national flag of the Republic of Ireland (Irish: An Bhratach Náisiúnta), also known as the tricolour,[1] is a vertical tricolour of green (at the hoist), white, and orange. ... Image File history File links Coat of Arms for Northern Ireland, granted in 1925. ... Image File history File links Coat of Arms for Northern Ireland, granted in 1925. ... The Coat of Arms of Northern Ireland The Coat of Arms of Northern Ireland was granted to the Government of Northern Ireland in 1924, after the Irish Free State had separated from the United Kingdom. ... Union Jack redirects here. ... The Parliament Buildings of Northern Ireland The Executive Committee met there. ... The Irish tricolour (flag ratio: 1:2). ... Curb, gutter, and storm drain A curb or kerb (see spelling differences) is the edge where a raised pavement/sidewalk/footpath, road median, or road shoulder meets an unraised street or other roadway. ...


The only official flag is the Union Flag.[37] The former Governmental Northern Ireland banner (also known as the "Ulster Banner" or "Red Hand Flag") was based on the arms of the former Parliament of Northern Ireland, and was used by the Government of Northern Ireland and its agencies between 1953 and 1972. The Ulster Banner has not been used by the government since the abolition of the Parliament of Northern Ireland under the Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973. It remains, however used uniquely to represent Northern Ireland in certain sporting events. The arms from which the Ulster Banner derives were themselves based on the flag of Ulster. Union Jack redirects here. ... Flag of Northern Ireland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the pre-1972 Parliament of Northern Ireland. ... The Northern Ireland Constitution Act was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1973 to replace the previous system established by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898. ... The Flag of Ulster The Flag of Ulster, one of the four provinces of Ireland, consists of a red cross on a golden field (from the arms of Norman coloniser, John de Courcy), charged with a white shield and the red hand. ...


The Union Flag and the Ulster Banner are typically only used by Unionists.[38] Nationalists generally eschew symbols which uniquely represent Northern Ireland; some instead use the Irish Tricolour, particularly at sporting events. Many people, however, prefer to avoid flags altogether because of their divisive nature. Paramilitary groups on both sides have also developed their own flags. Some unionists also occasionally use the flags of secular and religious organisations to which they belong. The national flag of the Republic of Ireland (Irish: An Bhratach Náisiúnta), also known as the tricolour,[1] is a vertical tricolour of green (at the hoist), white, and orange. ...


Some groups, including the Irish Rugby Football Union and Cricket Ireland[citation needed] and the Church of Ireland have used the Flag of St. Patrick as a symbol of Ireland which lacks nationalist or unionist connotations. However, it is felt by some to be a loyalist flag, as it was used to represent Ireland when the whole island was part of the UK and is used by some British army regiments. Foreign flags are also found, such as the Palestinian flags in some Nationalist areas and Israeli flags in some Unionist areas, which represent general comparisons made by both sides with conflicts in the wider world. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) is the body managing rugby union in Ireland. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The Irish tricolour (flag ratio: 1:2). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...


The United Kingdom national anthem God Save the Queen is often played at state events in Northern Ireland. At some cross-community events, however, the Londonderry Air (also known as Danny Boy) may be played as a neutral substitute. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... For other uses, see God Save the Queen (disambiguation). ... The Londonderry Air (or Derry Air) is an anthem of Northern Ireland. ... For the House of Pain MC, see Danny Boy (singer). ...


At the Commonwealth Games, the Northern Ireland team uses the Ulster Banner as its flag and Danny Boy / A Londonderry Air is used as its national anthem. The Northern Ireland football team also uses the Ulster Banner as its flag but uses God Save The Queen as its national anthem.[39] Major Gaelic Athletic Association matches are opened by the Ireland national anthem, Amhrán na bhFiann (The Soldiers Song), which is also used by some other all-Ireland sporting organisations.[40][41] Since 1995, the Ireland national rugby union team has used a specially commissioned song, Ireland's Call, in place of, or alongside, the Ireland national anthem at international matches.[42][43] Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... For the Irish FAs all-Ireland international team, see Ireland national football team (IFA). ... For other uses, see GAA (disambiguation). ... (pronounced ) is the national anthem of the Republic of Ireland. ... First international  England 7 - 0 Ireland  (15 February 1875) Largest win  United States 3 - 83 Ireland  (10 June , 2000) Worst defeat  New Zealand 59 - 6 Ireland  (6 June 1992) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Quarter Finals, 1987, 1991, 1995, 2003, The Ireland rugby union team, represents... Irelands Call is a song commissioned by the Irish Rugby Football Union for use at international rugby union fixtures featuring the Irish rugby union team. ...


Northern Irish murals have become well-known features of Northern Ireland, depicting past and present divisions, both also documenting peace and cultural diversity. Almost 2,000 murals have been documented in Northern Ireland since the 1970s (see Conflict Archive on the Internet/Murals). Northern Irish murals have become symbols of Northern Ireland, depicting the countys past and present divisions. ...


Geography and climate

Map of Northern Ireland
Map of Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland was covered by an ice sheet for most of the last ice age and on numerous previous occasions, the legacy of which can be seen in the extensive coverage of drumlins in Counties Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim and particularly Down. The centrepiece of Northern Ireland's geography is Lough Neagh, at 151 square miles (392 km²) the largest freshwater lake both on the island of Ireland and in the British Isles. A second extensive lake system is centred on Lower and Upper Lough Erne in Fermanagh. The largest island of Northern Ireland is Rathlin, off the Antrim coast. Strangford Lough is the largest inlet in the British Isles, covering 150 km² (58 sq mi). Download high resolution version (1252x1032, 273 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Northern Ireland Categories: Central Intelligence Agency images ... Download high resolution version (1252x1032, 273 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Northern Ireland Categories: Central Intelligence Agency images ... Ireland is sometimes known as the Emerald Isle because of its green scenery. ... The United Kingdom occupies a substantial part of the British Isles. ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²).[1] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Drumlin in Cato, New York Drowned drumlin in Clew Bay Drumlin at Withrow Moraine and Jameson Lake Drumlin Field National Natural Landmark A drumlin (Irish droimnín, a little hill ridge) is an elongated whale-shaped hill formed by glacial action. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Location map of Lough Erne. ... Rathlin Islands location Bird sanctuary on Rathlin Island False-colour NASA Landsat image showing Rathlin, the Antrim coast, and Kintyre Rathlin Island (Irish: Reachlainn) is an island off the coast of County Antrim in Northern Ireland, and is the northernmost point of the region. ... Strangford Lough from Portaferry, looking towards the narrows. ...


There are substantial uplands in the Sperrin Mountains (an extension of the Caledonian fold mountains) with extensive gold deposits, granite Mourne Mountains and basalt Antrim Plateau, as well as smaller ranges in South Armagh and along the Fermanagh–Tyrone border. None of the hills are especially high, with Slieve Donard in the dramatic Mournes reaching 848 m (2782 ft), Northern Ireland's highest point. Belfast's most prominent peak is Cave Hill. The volcanic activity which created the Antrim Plateau also formed the eerily geometric pillars of the Giant's Causeway on the north Antrim coast. Also in north Antrim are the Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge, Mussenden Temple and the Glens of Antrim. Sperrins is a mountain range in Northern Ireland. ... The Caledonian orogeny is a mountain building event recorded in the mountains and hills of northern Scotland, Ireland, England, Wales, and west Norway. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... The granite Mountains of Mourne are located in the first proposed national park of Northern Ireland. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Armagh Area: 1,254 km² Population (est. ... Slieve Donard (Sliabh Domangard or Sliabh Dónairt in Irish) is the highest mountain in Northern Ireland at 849 m (2,786 ft). ... Cave Hill refers to a a number of place names. ... For other uses, see Giants Causeway (disambiguation). ... The bridge from the island Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge is a rope suspension bridge near, Ballintoy, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. ... Mussenden Temple is a small circular building located on the cliffs of Binevenagh, high above the Atlantic Ocean on the north-western coast of Northern Ireland. ... The Glens of Antrim, or, simply, the Glens, is a region of County Antrim comprised of nine glens, or valleys, that radiate inward from the coast towards Lough Neagh. ...


The Lower and Upper River Bann, River Foyle and River Blackwater form extensive fertile lowlands, with excellent arable land also found in North and East Down, although much of the hill country is marginal and suitable largely for animal husbandry. The River Bann is the largest river in Northern Ireland. ... The River Foyle at Night. ... River Blackwater is a river in Northern Ireland which enters Lough Neagh west of Derrywarragh Island and is navigable from Maghery to Blackwatertown. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The valley of the River Lagan is dominated by Belfast, whose metropolitan area includes over a third of the population of Northern Ireland, with heavy urbanisation and industrialisation along the Lagan Valley and both shores of Belfast Lough. The River Lagan is a major river in Northern Ireland which runs 40 miles (60 km) from the Slieve Croob mountain in County Down to Belfast where it enters Belfast Lough, an inlet of the Irish Sea. ... Belfast Lough (Loch Lao in Irish) is a large intertidal sea lough situated at the mouth of the River Lagan on the east coast of Northern Ireland. ...


The whole of Northern Ireland has a temperate maritime climate, rather wetter in the west than the east, although cloud cover is persistent across the region. The weather is unpredictable at all times of the year, and although the seasons are distinct, they are considerably less pronounced than in interior Europe or the eastern seaboard of North America. Average daytime maximums in Belfast are 6.5 °C (43.7 °F) in January and 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) in July. The damp climate and extensive deforestation in the 16th and 17th centuries resulted in much of the region being covered in rich green grassland. An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at high elevations within the tropics. ... North American redirects here. ...


Highest maximum temperature: 30.8 °C (87.4 °F) at Knockarevan, near Garrison, County Fermanagh on 30 June 1976 and at Belfast on 12 July 1983. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital city of Northern Ireland. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ...


Lowest minimum temperature: -17.5 °C (0.5 °F) at Magherally, near Banbridge, County Down on 1 January 1979.[44] WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Counties

Northern Ireland consists of six counties: Northern Ireland is one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 678 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Giants Causeway, Co. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 678 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Giants Causeway, Co. ... For other uses, see Giants Causeway (disambiguation). ... For much of its history, the island of Ireland was divided into 32 counties (Irish language contae or condae, pronounced IPA: ). Two historical counties, County Desmond and County Coleraine, no longer exist, while several county names have changed. ...

These counties are no longer used for local government purposes; instead there are twenty-six districts of Northern Ireland which have different geographical extents, even in the case of those named after the counties from which they derive their name. Fermanagh District Council most closely follows the borders of the county from which it takes its name. Coleraine Borough Council, on the other hand, derives its name from the town of Coleraine in County Londonderry. Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Armagh Area: 1,254 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Enniskillen Area: 1,691 km² Population (est. ... For other places with similar names, see Londonderry (disambiguation) and Derry (disambiguation). ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Omagh Area: 3,155 km² Population (est. ... Northern Ireland is divided into 26 districts for local government purposes. ... Fermanagh District Council is a Local Council in County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. ...


Although counties are no longer used for governmental purpose, they remain a popular means of describing where places are. They are officially used while applying for an Irish Passport, which requires the applicant to state their 'County of Birth' - which then appears in both Irish and English on the Passport's information page, as opposed to the town or city of birth on the United Kingdom Passport. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The county boundaries still appear on Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland Maps and the Phillips Street Atlases, among others. With their decline in official use, there is often confusion surrounding towns and cities which lie near county boundaries, such as Belfast and Lisburn, which are split between counties Down and Antrim (the majorities of both cities, however, are in Antrim) This article is about the capital city of Northern Ireland. ... For the council, see Lisburn City Council. ...


Cities

There are 5 major settlements with city status in Northern Ireland: Cathedral city redirects here. ...

WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... This article is about the capital city of Northern Ireland. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ... For the council, see Lisburn City Council. ... , Newry (from the Irish: Iúr Cinn Trá meaning The Yew Tree at the Head of the Strand, short form An tIúr, The Yew) is the fourth largest city in Northern Ireland and eighth on the island of Ireland. ...

Towns and villages

See also the list of places in Northern Ireland for all villages, towns and cities

Corbet, Cushendall Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This is a list page for villages in Northern Ireland. ... List of settlements in Northern Ireland—data from the 2001 census List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in Northern Ireland List of villages in Northern Ireland Lists of places within counties List of places in County Antrim List of places in County Armagh List of places... Ahoghill (pronounced ah-HOCH-ill, where ch represents the guttural sound in loch; not pronounced A Hog Hill) is a village in the district of Ballymena in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Annalong (in Irish: Áth na Long , ie ford of the ships) is a picturesque seaside village in County Down, Northern Ireland situated at the foot of the Mourne Mountains. ... Ballycastle (Baile an Chaistil in Irish) is a small town in County Antrim in Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Ballykelly (Baile Uí Cheallaigh) is a village 3 miles west of Limavady and contains some of the most interesting buildings erected in Ulster by the Plantation companies. ... , Ballymena (from the Irish: An Baile Meánach meaning middle townland) is a town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland and the seat of Ballymena Borough Council. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 55. ... Ballynahinch is the name of at least two towns in Ireland: Ballynahinch, County Down in Northern Ireland Ballynahinch, County Galway in the Republic of Ireland This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Bangor (in Irish Beannchor) is a town of approximately 80,000 population in County Down, Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Moyle District UK Parliament: North Antrim European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Bushmills Postal District(s): BT57 Population (2001) 1,319 Bushmills (in Irish: Muileann na Buaise) is a village on the north coast of County... Carnmoney was in the past a small village in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, it is now regarded as a suburb of Belfast. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Carrickfergus Borough UK Parliament: East Antrim European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Carrickfergus Postal District(s): BT38 Population (2005) 32,668 Carrickfergus (from the Irish: Carraig Fhearghais meaning Rock of Fergus) is a large town in... Castledawson is a small village in County Londonderry (Derry), Northern Ireland,and was built on the older townland of Shanemullagh. ... Castlerock is a small seaside town in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, UK. It is situated between Coleraine and Londonderry and is very popular with summer tourists, having numerous apartment blocks and two caravan sites. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Coleraine Borough UK Parliament: East Londonderry European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Coleraine Postal District(s): BT51, BT52 Population (2001) 24,042 Coleraine (from the Irish: Cúil Raithin meaning Ferny corner) is a large town... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Welcome sign on the outskirts of Crossmaglen Crossmaglen (Irish:Crois Mhic Lionnáin) is a village in south County Armagh, Northern Ireland, near the border with the Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Antrim Borough UK Parliament: South Antrim European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Crumlin Postal District(s): BT29 (part of) Population (2001) 4,259 [[Crumlin (in Irish: Cromghlinn, ie crooked glen) is a large village in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, situated... Corbet is a small village in County Down, Northern Ireland, near Banbridge. ... Statistics Population (2006 estimate) Cushendall or Bun Abhann Dalla (from the Irish: Cois Abhann Dalla meaning foot of the River Dall)is a village in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. ...

Donaghadee Harbour and lighthouse Donaghadee (in Irish: Domhnach Daoi, ie Daoi’s Church) is a small town in County Down, Northern Ireland, situated on the east coast, about 18 miles from Belfast and about eight miles north east of Newtownards. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Down District UK Parliament: South Down European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Downpatrick Postal District(s): BT30 Population (2001) 10,316 Downpatrick (from the Irish: Dún Pádraig meaning Patricks fort) is a town... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Banbridge District UK Parliament: Lagan Valley European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Dungiven (Irish: Dún Geimhín; meaning Givens fort) is a large village in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, on the main Belfast to Derry road. ... There are a number of settlements called Dromore: In Northern Ireland: Dromore, Omagh Dromore, Banbridge This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Donaghcloney [ A common alternative spelling is DONACLONEY] is a small village in County Down, Northern Ireland. ... For other uses, see Enniskillen (disambiguation). ... Glengormley is a town located in the borough of Newtownabbey, bordering the north-western edge of Belfast in Northern Ireland. ... Garvagh (Irish: Garbh Achadh; meaning Rough field) is a town in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, 18 kilometres (11 miles) south of Coleraine on the A29 route, the main trunk road between Coleraine and Maghera. ... Gilford is a village situated in County Down, Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Lisburn UK Parliament: Lagan Valley European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Hillsborough Postal District(s): BT26 Area:  ? km² Population (2001) 3,400 Hillsborough (Cromghlinn in Irish, Cromlyn in anglicized Gaelic) is a pretty and historical large Georgian village in County... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... , Larne (from the Irish: Latharna meaning Lothair-na—the domain of a Viking chieftain) is a substantial seaport and industrial town on the east coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland with a population of 18,228 people in the 2001 Census. ... , Limavady (IPA: ) (from the Irish: Léim an Mhadaidh meaning leap of the dog) is a market town in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, with Benevenagh as a backdrop. ... , Lurgan (from the Irish: An Lorgain meaning the long low ridge of land), is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland with a population of approximately 38,000. ... Loughbrickland is a small village in County Down, Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Magherafelt UK Parliament: Mid Ulster European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Magherafelt Postal District(s): BT45 Population (2001) 8,372 Magherafelt (from the Irish: Machaire Fiolta meaning Plain of Fioghalta) is a town in County Londonderry... Macosquin is a small village in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, 4 kilometres south of Coleraine, on the road to Limavady. ... Newcastle (An Caislean Nua in Irish) is a town in County Down, Northern Ireland. ... , Newtownards (Irish: Baile Nua na hArda), is a large town in County Down, Northern Ireland. ... Newtownstewart is a village in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. ... , Omagh (from the Irish: An Ómaigh meaning The Sacred (or Virgin) Plain) is the county town of County Tyrone in Northern Ireland, situated where the rivers Drumragh and Camowen meet to form the Strule. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 55. ... , Portadown (from the Irish: Port an Dúnáin meaning port of the fortress) is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... Portaferry (in Irish: Port an Pheire, ie Landing place of the ferry) is a large village in County Down, Northern Ireland, at the southern end of the Ards Peninsula, near the Narrows at the entrance to Strangford Lough. ... Poyntzpass is a small village situated between Portadown and Newry. ... Portballintrae (in Irish: Port Bhaile an Trá, ie harbour of the settlement of the shore) is a small village in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, seven miles east of Portrush and two miles west of the Giants Causeway. ... Rasharkin (in Irish: Ros Earcáin, ie Earcán’s wooded height or Larkins wood) is a small village in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, 12 kilometres (7 miles) south of Ballymoney. ... Rathfriland is a village in County Down, Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Strabane UK Parliament: West Tyrone European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling code: 028, +44 28 Post town: Strabane Postal district(s): BT82 Population (2006 est. ... Scarva is a small village in County Down, Northern Ireland, on the main road west of Banbridge. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Newry and Mourne UK Parliament: South Down European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Newry Postal District(s): BT34 Population (2001) 7,000 Warrenpoint (from the Irish: An Phointe meaning the point - alternatively Rinn Mhic Giolla Rua...

Variations in geographic nomenclature

Many people inside and outside Northern Ireland use other names for Northern Ireland, depending on their point of view. There are a number of alternative names used for the region of the island of Ireland which remained part of the United Kingdom following the secession of the twenty-six counties which formed the Irish Free State in 1922 (now the Republic of Ireland). ...


Unionist/Loyalist

  • Ulster (Ulaidh) is strictly the historic province of Ulster, six of its nine counties are in Northern Ireland. The term "Ulster" is widely used by the Unionist community and the British press as shorthand for Northern Ireland.[47] There have, in the past, been calls for the official name of Northern Ireland to be changed to Ulster.[48]
  • The Province (an Chúige) refers literally the historic Irish province of Ulster but today is used widely, within this community, as shorthand for Northern Ireland.[49] United Kingdom Government documents (when referring to England and Scotland as countries and to Wales as "The Principality", typically refer to Northern Ireland as "the Province"[citation needed].

This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ...

Nationalist/Republican

  • North of Ireland (Tuaisceart na hÉireann) - to link Northern Ireland to the rest of the island, by describing it as being in the 'north of Ireland' and so by implication playing down Northern Ireland's links with Great Britain. (The northernmost point in Ireland, in County Donegal, is in fact in the Republic.)[50]
  • North-East Ireland (Oirthuaisceart Éireann) - used in the same way as the "North of Ireland" is used.
  • The Six Counties (na Sé Chontae) - language used by republicans e.g. Republican Sinn Féin, which avoids using the name given by the British-enacted Government of Ireland Act 1920. (The Republic is similarly described as the Twenty-Six Counties.)[51] Some of the users of these terms contend that using the official name of the region would imply acceptance of the legitimacy of the Government of Ireland Act.
  • The Occupied Six Counties. The Republic, whose legitimacy is not recognised by republicans opposed to the Belfast Agreement, is described as being "The Free State", referring to the Irish Free State, the Republic's old name.[52]
  • British-Occupied Ireland. Similar in tone to the Occupied Six Counties this term is used by more dogmatic anti-Good Friday Agreement republicans who still hold that the First Dáil was the last legitimate government of Ireland and that all governments since have been foreign imposed usurpations of Irish national self-determination.[53]
  • Fourth Green Field (An Cheathrú Gort Glas). From the song Four Green Fields by Tommy Makem which describes Ireland as divided with one of the four green fields (the traditional provinces of Ireland) being In strangers hands, referring to the partition of Ireland.

Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County seat: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... This article is about the prior state. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... The First Dáil (Irish: ) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921. ... Four Green Fields is a 1967 folk song by Irish musician Tommy Makem, described in the New York Times as a hallowed Irish leave-us-alone-with-our-beauty ballad. It is probably Makems only composition to have truly entered the common repertoire of Irish folk musicians. ... Tommy Makem (November 4, 1932 – August 1, 2007) was an internationally celebrated folk musician, artist, poet and storyteller from Ireland, most known as a member of The Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem. ... When under Gaelic rule, Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the túatha. ...

Other

  • The North (An Tuaisceart) - used to describe Northern Ireland in the same way that "The South" is used to describe the Republic of Ireland.
  • Norn Iron - is an informal and affectionate local nickname used by both nationalists and unionists to refer to Northern Ireland, derived from the pronunciation of the words "Northern Ireland" in an exaggerated Ulster accent (particularly one from the Greater Belfast area). The phrase is seen as a light-hearted way to refer to the province, based as it is on regional pronunciation. Often refers to the Northern Ireland national football team.

Norn Iron is an informal and affectionate local nickname for Northern Ireland, derived from the pronounciation of the words Northern Ireland in an exaggerated Belfast accent. ... For the Irish FAs all-Ireland international team, see Ireland national football team (IFA). ...

Use of language for geography

Notwithstanding the ancient realm of Dál Riata which extended into Scotland, disagreement on names, and the reading of political symbolism into the use or non-use of a word, also attaches itself to some urban centres. The most famous example is whether Northern Ireland's second city should be called "Derry" or "Londonderry". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1230x890, 176 KB) Description: mural in Derry. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1230x890, 176 KB) Description: mural in Derry. ... Free Derry was the name given to the self-declared autonomous republican region of Derry, Northern Ireland, following the Battle of the Bogside of August 12-August 14, 1969. ... A vandalised road-sign at nearby Strabane, County Tyrone in which the London in Londonderry has been daubed over with black paint. ...


Choice of language and nomenclature in Northern Ireland often reveals the cultural, ethnic and religious identity of the speaker. The first Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland, Seamus Mallon, was criticised by unionist politicians for calling the region the "North of Ireland" while Sinn Féin has been criticised in some newspapers in the Republic for still referring to the "Six Counties".[54] See Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland Deputy First Minister of Scotland Deputy First Minister of Wales This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Seamus Mallon, MP Seamus Mallon (born on 17 August 1936) is a Northern Irish politician and former Deputy Leader of the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party. ...


Those who do not belong to any group but lean towards one side often tend to use the language of that group. Supporters of unionism in the British media (notably the Daily Telegraph and the Daily Express) regularly call Northern Ireland "Ulster".[55] Some nationalist and republican-leaning media outlets in Ireland almost always use "North of Ireland" or the "Six Counties".[56] This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... For other uses, see Daily Express (disambiguation). ...


Government and cultural organizations in Northern Ireland, particularly those pre-dating the 1980s, often use the word "Ulster" in their title; for example, the University of Ulster, the Ulster Museum the Ulster Orchestra, and BBC Radio Ulster. The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-centre university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest single university on the island of Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Corrie Denew Chase. ... The Ulster Orchestra is Northern Irelands only full-time symphony orchestra and one of the major orchestras in the United Kingdom. ... BBC Radio Ulster is a BBC Radio station based in Belfast and is part of BBC Northern Ireland. ...


Many news bulletins since the 1990s have opted to avoid all contentious terms and use the official name, Northern Ireland. The North is still used by some news bulletins in the Republic of Ireland, to the annoyance of some Unionists. Bertie Ahern, the previous Taoiseach, now almost always refers to Northern Ireland in public, having previously only used The North. For Northern Ireland's second largest city, broadcasting outlets which are unaligned to either community and broadcast to both use both names interchangeably, often starting a report with "Londonderry" and then using "Derry" in the rest of the report. However, within Northern Ireland, print media which are aligned to either community (the News Letter is aligned to the unionist community while the Irish News is aligned to the nationalist community) generally use their community's preferred term. British newspapers with unionist leanings, such as the Daily Telegraph, usually use the language of the unionist community,[57] while others, such as The Guardian use the terms interchangeably.[58] The media in the Republic of Ireland use the names preferred by nationalists.[59] Whether this is all an official editorial policy or a personal preference by the writers is unknown. Bartholomew Patrick Bertie Ahern (Irish: Parthalán Pádraig Ó hEachthairn, born 12 September 1951) is an Irish politician who served as Taoiseach of Ireland from 26 June 1997 to 7 May 2008. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... This article or section should include material from The (Belfast) News Letter The News Letter is one of Northern Irelands main daily news papers, published Monday to Saturday. ... The Irish News is the only quality newspaper published in Northern Ireland. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ...


The division in nomenclature is seen particularly in sports and religions associated with one of the communities. Gaelic games use Derry, for example. Nor is there clear agreement on how to decide on a name. When the nationalist-controlled local council voted to re-name the city "Derry" unionists objected, stating that as it owed its city status to a Royal Charter, only a charter issued by the Queen could change the name. The Queen has not intervened on the matter and thus the council is now called "Derry City Council" while the city is still officially "Londonderry". Nevertheless, the council has printed two sets of stationery - one for each term - and their policy is to reply to correspondence using whichever term the original sender used. For other uses, see GAA (disambiguation). ... For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


At times of high communal tension, each side regularly complains of the use of the nomenclature associated with the other community by a third party such as a media organisation, claiming such usage indicates evident "bias" against their community.


Law

Main article: Northern Ireland law

Northern Ireland's legal and administrative systems were adopted from those in place in pre-partition United Kingdom, and was developed by its devolved government from 1922 until 1972. From 1972 until 1999 (except for brief periods), laws and administration relating to Northern Ireland have been handled directly from Westminster. Between the year 1999 and 2002, and since May 2007 devolution has returned to Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland law concerns the legal system in Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist...


Economy

The Northern Ireland economy is the smallest of the four economies making up the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland has traditionally had an industrial economy, most notably in shipbuilding, rope manufacture and textiles, but most heavy industry has since been replaced by services, primarily the public sector. Tourism also plays a big role in the local economy. More recently the economy has benefited from major investment by many large multi-national corporations into high tech industry. These large organisations are attracted by government subsidies and the highly skilled workforce in Northern Ireland. The economy of Northern Ireland is the smallest of the four Home Nations economies of the United Kingdom. ...


East/West Bias For some time there have been allegations that the east of the province (mainly the Belfast area) has been given preferential treatment over the towns and cities in the western region (mainly Derry/Londonderry), the divisionary boundary being seen as the Bann River which divides Northern Ireland into two regions.


This belief was further advanced when, in 1969, plans were revealed for a second university (Queens University in Belfast being the first). The decision to place this into Coleraine, rather than the second largest city - Derry/Londonderry, was taken against the wishes of many of the unionist leaders in Stormont at the time.


According to figures obtained from Hansard, and questions raised by Foyle MP Mark Durkan in the House of Commons, the parliamentary area of South Belfast has received more funding from Invest NI than all the council areas in the west of the province combined. Furthermore, in terms of civil service jobs, the vast majority are centred in the greater Belfast area.


Culture

See also: Culture of Ulster, Culture of Ireland, and Culture of the United Kingdom

With its improved international reputation, Northern Ireland has recently witnessed rising numbers of tourists who come to appreciate the area's unique heritage. Attractions include cultural festivals, musical and artistic traditions, countryside and geographical sites of interest, pubs, welcoming hospitality and sports (especially golf and fishing). Since 1987 pubs have been allowed to open on Sundays, despite some limited vocal opposition. The Culture of Northern Ireland relates to the traditions of Northern Ireland and its resident communities. ... Ulster is one of the four provinces of Ireland. ... A page from the Book of Kells. ... Union Flag The culture of the United Kingdom is rich and varied, and has been influential on culture on a worldwide scale. ... An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of South West England A pub in the Haymarket area of Edinburgh, Scotland A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada... This article is about the game. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of South West England A pub in the Haymarket area of Edinburgh, Scotland A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada...


Mythology

Ulster Cycle

Main article: Ulster Cycle

The Ulster Cycle is a large body of prose and verse centring around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. This is one of the four major cycles of Irish Mythology. The cycle centres around the reign of Conchobar mac Nessa, who is said to have been king of Ulster around the time of Christ. He ruled from Emain Macha (now Navan Fort near Armagh), and had a fierce rivalry with queen Medb and king Ailill of Connacht and their ally, Fergus mac Róich, former king of Ulster. The foremost hero of the cycle is Conchobar's nephew Cúchulainn. The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... The Ulaid, also known as the Ulaidh and the Ulad, are a people of Early Ireland who gave their name to the Irish Province of Ulster. ... The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Conchobar mac Nessa (also Conchobor, Conchubar, Conchobhar, Conchubhar, Conchúr, Conchúir, Conor) was king of Ulster during the events of the Ulster Cycle. ... Emain Macha, (Old Irish , Emuin Macha, Modern Irish Eamhain Mhacha , Emania) known in English as Navan Fort, is an ancient monument in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... (, Medb, Medhbh, Meabh, Maeve, Maev) is queen of Connacht in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Fergus (or Fearghus) mac Róich (or mac Róeg) is the former king of Ulster during the events of the Ulster Cycle. ... Cuchulain Slays the Hound of Culain, illustration by Stephen Reid from Eleanor Hulls The Boys Cuchulain, 1904 Cúchulainn ( ) (Irish Hound of Culann; also spelled Cú Chulainn, Cú Chulaind, Cúchulain, or Cuchullain) is an Irish mythological hero who appears in the stories of the Ulster Cycle, as well...


Languages

English language

The Mid Ulster dialect of English spoken in Northern Ireland shows influence from Scotland, with the use of such Scots words as wee for 'little' and aye for 'yes'. Some jocularly call this dialect phonetically by the name Norn Iron. There are supposedly some minute differences in pronunciation between Protestants and Catholics, the best known of which is the name of the letter h, which Protestants tend to pronounce as "aitch", as in British English, and Catholics tend to pronounce as "haitch", as in Hiberno-English. However, geography is a much more important determinant of dialect than ethnic background. English is spoken as a first language by almost 100% of the Northern Irish population, though under the Good Friday Agreement, Irish and Ulster Scots (one of the dialects of the Scots language), sometimes known as Ullans, have recognition as "part of the cultural wealth of Northern Ireland".[60] Mid Ulster English (Ulster Anglo-Irish) is the dialect of most people in Ulster, including those in the two main cities. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Irish (Irish Gaelic) language

The Irish language is the native language of the whole island of Ireland.[61] It was spoken predominantly throughout what is now Northern Ireland prior to the settlement of Protestants from Great Britain in the 17th Century. Most placenames throughout Northern Ireland are anglicised versions of their Gaelic originals. These Gaelic placenames include thousands of lanes, roads, townlands, towns, villages and all of its modern cities. Examples include Belfast- derived from Béal Feirste, Shankill- derived from Sean Cill and Lough Neagh- derived from Loch nEathach. The Irish language is a minority language in Northern Ireland, known in Irish as Tuaisceart Éireann or na sé chontae (the six counties). ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ...


In Northern Ireland the Irish language has long been associated with Irish nationalism, however this association only developed gradually. The language was seen as a common heritage and indeed the object of affection by many prominent 19th century Protestant republicans and Protestant unionists. Verbally there are 3 main dialects in the island of Ireland - Ulster, Munster and Connaught. Speakers of each dialect often find others difficult to understand. Speakers in Northern Ireland are naturally from the Ulster dialect.


The early years of the 20th century, the language became a political football throughout Ireland as Republican activists became increasing linked with it. In the 20th century, the language became in Unionist eyes increasingly polarised for political ends and many in that community would blame Sinn Féin in this regard. After Ireland was partitioned, the language was largely rejected in the education system of the new Northern Ireland. It is argued [62]that the predominant use of the English language may have served to exacerbate the Troubles. For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ...


The erection by some Local District Councils of legal bilingual street names (English/Irish)[63], invariably in predominantly Catholic/Nationalist/Republican districts, may be perceived as creating a 'chill factor' by Unionists and as such not conducive to fostering good cross community relationships. However other regions in the United Kingdom, such as Wales and Scotland, enjoy the use of Bilingual signs in Welsh and Scots Gaelic respectively. Because of this, nationalists in Northern Ireland argue for equality in this regard. In responses to the 2001 census in Northern Ireland 10% of the population claimed "some knowledge of Irish"[64], 4.7% to "speak, read, write and understand" Irish[64]. It was not asked as part of the census but in a poll, 1% of respondents said they speak it as their main language at home.[65] Following a public consultation, the decision was taken not to introduce specific legislation for the Irish language at this time, despite 75% of respondants stating that they were in favour of such legislation.[66]


Ulster Gaelic Dialect of the Irish language Ulster Gaelic/Ulster Irish or Donegal Gaelic/Irish, is the dialect which is nearest to Scots Gaelic. Some aspects of the dialect are more similar to Scots Gaelic than to the Gaelic dialects of Connacht and Munster. The dialects of East Ulster - those of Rathlin Island and the Glens of Antrim - were very similar to the Scots Gaelic dialect formerly spoken in Argyll, the part of Scotland nearest to Rathlin Island. The Ulster Gaelic is the most central dialect of Gaelic, both geographically and linguistically, of the once vast Gaelic speaking world, stretching from the south of Ireland to the north of Scotland. At the beginning of the 20th century, Munster Irish was favoured by many revivalists, with a shift to Connaught Irish in the 1960s, which is now the preferred dialect by many in the Republic. Many younger speakers of Irish experience less confusion with dialects due to the expansion of Irish-language broadcasting (TG4) and the exposure to a variety of dialects. There are fewer problems regarding written Irish as there is a standardised spelling and grammar, created by the government of the Republic, which claimed to reflect a compromise between various dialect forms. However, Ulster Irish speakers find that Ulster forms are generally not favoured by the standard.


The dialect is often stigmatised in the non Ulster counties of the Republic of Ireland, although all learners of Irish in Northern Ireland use this form of the language. Self-instruction courses in Ulster Irish include Now You’re Talking and Tús maith. The writer Séamus Ó Searcaigh RIP, once warned about the Irish Government's attempts at producing a Caighdeán or Standard for the Gaelic language in Ireland in 1953, when he wrote that what will emerge will be "Gaedhilg nach mbéidh suim againn inntí mar nár fhás sí go nádúrtha as an teangaidh a thug Gaedhil go hÉirinn" (A Gaelic which is of no interest to us, for it has not developed naturally from the language brought to Ireland by the Gaels). The Ulster Irish dialect is spoken throughout the area of the historical nine county Ulster, in particular the Gaeltacht region of County Donegal and the Gaeltacht Quarter of West Belfast.


Ulster Scots

Ulster Scots comprises varieties of the Scots language spoken in Northern Ireland. Aodán Mac Poilín[67] states that "While most argue that Ulster-Scots is a dialect or variant of Scots, some have argued or implied that Ulster-Scots is a separate language from Scots. The case for Ulster-Scots being a distinct language, made at a time when the status of Scots itself was insecure, is so bizarre that it is unlikely to have been a linguistic argument." Approximately 2% of the population claim to speak Ulster Scots,[68] however the number speaking it as their main language in their home is negligible.[65] Night classes at colleges can now be taken[citation needed] but for a native English speaker "[the language] is comparatively accessible, and even at its most intense can be understood fairly easily with the help of a glossary."[67] The St Andrews Agreement recognises the need to "enhance and develop the Ulster Scots language, heritage and culture".[69] Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ...


Ethnic minority languages

There are an increasing number of ethnic minorities in Northern Ireland. Chinese and Urdu are spoken by Northern Ireland's Asian communities; though the Chinese community is often referred to as the "third largest" community in Northern Ireland, it is tiny by international standards. Since the accession of new member states to the European Union in 2004, Central and Eastern European languages, particularly Polish, are becoming increasingly common. Since its creation, Northern Ireland has attracted immigrants from all over the world. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ...


Sign language

The most common sign language in Northern Ireland is British Sign Language (BSL), but as Catholics tended to send their deaf children to schools in Dublin (St Joseph's Institute for Deaf Boys and St. Mary's Institute for Deaf Girls), Irish Sign Language (ISL) is commonly used in the Nationalist community. The two languages are not related: BSL is in the British family (which also includes Auslan), and ISL is in the French family (which also includes American Sign Language). Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... British Sign Language (BSL) is the sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK), and is the first or preferred language of an unknown number of Deaf people in the UK (published estimates range from 30,000 to 250,000 but it is likely that the lower figures are more... Irish Sign Language (ISL) is the sign language of Ireland, used primarily in the Republic of Ireland. ... Auslan is the sign language used by the Australian Deaf community. ... It has been suggested that ASL Grammar be merged into this article or section. ...


Education

Education in Northern Ireland differs slightly from systems used elsewhere in the United Kingdom. Unlike most areas of the United Kingdom, in the last year of Primary school, children can sit the eleven plus transfer test, and the results determine whether they attend grammar schools or secondary schools. This system is due to be changed in 2008 amidst some controversy. Education in Northern Ireland differs slightly from the system used elsewhere in the United Kingdom. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... The Eleven Plus is an examination which was given to students in their last year of primary education in the United Kingdom under the Tripartite System. ... A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...


Northern Ireland's state (controlled) schools are open to all children in Northern Ireland, although in practice are mainly attended by those from Protestant or non-religious backgrounds . There is a separate publicly funded school system provided for Roman Catholics, although Roman Catholics are free to attend state schools (and some non-Roman Catholics attend Roman Catholic schools). Integrated schools, which attempt to ensure a balance in enrolment between pupils of Protestant, Roman Catholic and other faiths (or none) are becoming increasingly popular, although Northern Ireland still has a primarily de facto religiously segregated education system. In the Primary School Sector, forty schools (8.9% of the total number) are Integrated Schools and thirty two (7.2% of the total number) are Gaelscoileanna. The Integrated Education movement in Northern Ireland is an attempt to bring together children, parents and teachers from both Catholic and Protestant traditions, the aim being to give pupils an education allowing the opportunity to understand and respect all cultural and religious backgrounds. ... A gaelscoil (Plural: gaelscoileanna) is an Irish-speaking school often also co-educational usually found in Ireland, but outside the Irish speaking Gaeltacht areas. ...


See:

Bunscoil an Chaistil, Ballycastle, Country Antrim Bunscoil an Iúir, Newry, County Down Bunscoil an Traonaigh, Lisnaskea, County Fermanagh Bunscoil an tSléibhe Dhuibh, Belfast Bunscoil Ard Mhacha, County Armagh Bunscoil Bheann Mhadagáin, Belfast Bunscoil Cholmcille, County Londonderry Bunscoil Eoin Baiste, Portadown, County Armagh Bunscoil Mhic Reachtain, Belfast Bunscoil... List of Primary schools in Northern Ireland This article is a (so far partial) list of Primary schools in operation in Northern Ireland (at August 2006). ... List of Grammar schools in Northern Ireland This article is a list of Grammar schools in operation in Northern Ireland (at July 2006). ... List of Secondary schools in Northern Ireland This article is a list of Secondary schools in operation in Northern Ireland (at July 2006). ... Secondary Schools Armagh Integrated College, Armagh, 2004 Hazelwood Integrated College, 1985 , Belfast Lagan College, Belfast, 1981 Malone Integrated College, Belfast, 1997 New-Bridge Integrated College, Loughbrickland, 1995 Primary Schools Acorn Integrated Primary, Carrickfergus, 1992 All Children´s Controlled Integrated Primary, Newcastle, 1986 Annsborough Controlled Integrated Primary School, Castlewellan, 1997 Bangor...

See also

Northern Ireland Portal
Ireland Portal

Lists Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The Common Travel Area includes the UK, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport free zone) refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man... Northern Ireland does not currently have any national parks established, although a number of AONBs (Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty) have been identified. ... -1... For the Irish FAs all-Ireland international team, see Ireland national football team (IFA). ... A map of Ireland showing the Republic of Ireland-United Kingdom border. ... The Ireland Funds is the largest fundraising organization in the world for people of Irish ancestry and friends of Ireland dedicated to raising funds to support programs of peace and reconciliation, arts and culture, education and community development in Ireland. ...

List of Northern Irish people is a list of notable people from Northern Ireland. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Northern Ireland Act 1998 describes Northern Ireland as "part of the United Kingdom". The term "constituent country" is sometimes applied to Northern Ireland by Unionists and British sources. [1] [2].The term is rejected by most[citation needed] Irish Nationalists.
  2. ^ NSR&O 1921, No. 533. Northern Ireland did not become a state (or pejoratively, a statelet). Its constitutional roots remain the Act of Union, two complimentary Acts, one passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, the other by the Parliament of Ireland.
  3. ^ Northern Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972 (c. 22)
  4. ^ "Historic return for NI Assembly", BBC news, 2007-05-08. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
  5. ^ The Assembly operates on consociational democracy principles requiring cross community support. Due to a lack of cross party support, the Assembly was prorogued by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland.
  6. ^ pdf filePDF (64.6 KiB) "For the purposes of the English conflict of laws, every country in the world which is not part of England and Wales is a foreign country and its foreign laws. This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia... are foreign countries but also British Colonies such as the Falkland Islands. Moreover, the other parts of the United Kingdom - Scotland and Northern Ireland - are foreign countries for present purposes, as are the other British Islands, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey." Conflict of Laws, JG Collier, Fellow of Trinity Hall and lecturer in Law, University of Cambridge
  7. ^ Northern Ireland LIFE & TIMES survey. Question: Generally speaking, do you think of yourself as a unionist, nationalist or neither?, ARK Research, 2005
  8. ^ National Statistics Online - Communities in Northern Ireland Retrieved on 2007-05-11
  9. ^ Northern Ireland became a distinct region of the United Kingdom, by Order in Council on 3 May 1921 (SR&O 1921, No. 533). It did not become a state (or pejoratively, a statelet). Its constitutional roots remain the Act of Union, two complimentary Acts, one passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, the other by the Parliament of Ireland.
  10. ^ On 7 December 1922 (the day after the establishment of the Irish Free State) the Parliament resolved to make the following address to the King so as to opt out of the Irish Free State: ”MOST GRACIOUS SOVEREIGN, We, your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Senators and Commons of Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, having learnt of the passing of the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922, being the Act of Parliament for the ratification of the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland, do, by this humble Address, pray your Majesty that the powers of the Parliament and Government of the Irish Free State shall no longer extend to Northern Ireland". Source: Northern Ireland Parliamentary Report, 7 December 1922 and Anglo-Irish Treaty, sections 11, 12
  11. ^ Dáil Éireann - Volume 13 - 10 December, 1925.
  12. ^ "Anglo-Irish Relations, 1939—41: A Study in Multilateral Diplomacy and Military Restraint" in Twentieth Century British History (Oxford Journals, 2005). ISSN 1477-4674.
  13. ^ BBC NEWS | Northern Ireland | NI set for 100% broadband
  14. ^ (BBC)
  15. ^ Northern Ireland Census 2001, Table KS07a: Religion
  16. ^ Northern Ireland Census 2001, Table KS07b: Community background: religion or religion brought up in
  17. ^ BBC News: Fascination of religion head count
  18. ^ Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency population projections
  19. ^ Ark survey, 2005. Answer to the question "Generally speaking, do you think of yourself as a unionist, a nationalist or neither?"
  20. ^ Ark survey, 2005. Answers to the question "Do you think the long-term policy for Northern Ireland should be for it [one of the following"
  21. ^ Ark survey, 2005. Answers to the question "Do you think the long-term policy for Northern Ireland should be for it to [one of the following"
  22. ^ 2001 Census Cultural Profile for Northern Ireland
  23. ^ Professor John H. Whyte paper on discrimination in Northern Ireland
  24. ^ CAIN website key issues discrimination summary
  25. ^ Lord Scarman, "Violence and Civil Disturbances in Northern Ireland in 1969: Report of Tribunal of Inquiry" Belfast: HMSO, Cmd 566. (known as the Scarman Report)
  26. ^ Northern Ireland Act 2006 (c. 17)
  27. ^ Untitled Document
  28. ^ Breen, R., Devine, P. and Dowds, L. (editors), 1996. "Social Attitudes in Northern Ireland: The Fifth Report" ISBN 0-86281-593-2. Chapter 2 retrieved from http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/othelem/research/nisas/rep5c2.htm on August 24, 2006. Summary: In 1989—1994, 79% Protestants replied "British" or "Ulster", 60% of Catholics replied "Irish."
  29. ^ Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999. Module:Community Relations. Variable:NINATID. Summary:72% of Protestants replied "British". 68% of Catholics replied "Irish".
  30. ^ Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey. Module:Community Relations. Variable:BRITISH. Summary: 78% of Protestants replied "Strongly British."
  31. ^ Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999. Module:Community Relations. Variable:IRISH. Summary: 77% of Catholics replied "Strongly Irish."
  32. ^ Institute of Governance, 2006. "National identities in the UK: do they matter?" Briefing No. 16, January 2006. Retrieved from IoG_BriefingPDF (211 KiB) on August 24, 2006. Extract:"Three-quarters of Northern Ireland’s Protestants regard themselves as British, but only 12 per cent of Northern Ireland’s Catholics do so. Conversely, a majority of Catholics (65%) regard themselves as Irish, whilst very few Protestants (5%) do likewise. Very few Catholics (1%) compared to Protestants (19%) claim an Ulster identity but a Northern Irish identity is shared in broadly equal measure across religious traditions."Details from attitude surveys are in Demographics and politics of Northern Ireland.
  33. ^ [3] University of York Research Project 2002-2003 L219252024 - Public Attitudes to Devolution and National Identity in Northern Ireland
  34. ^ [4] Northern Ireland: Constitutional Proposals and the Problem of Identity, by J. R. Archer The Review of Politics, 1978
  35. ^ [5]PDF (131 KiB) A changed Irish nationalism? The significance of the Belfast Agreement of 1998, by Joseph Ruane and Jennifer Todd
  36. ^ Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999. Module:Community Relations. Variable:IRISH.
  37. ^ Statutory Rule 2000 No. 347
  38. ^ Northern Irish flags from the World Flag Database
  39. ^ FIFA.com: Northern Ireland, Latest News
  40. ^ "DUP minister seeks end to Irish anthem at GAA matches", Belfast Telegraph, 2008-01-17. Retrieved on 2008-05-26. 
  41. ^ John Sugden and Scott Harvie (1995). Sport and Community Relations in Northern Ireland 3.2 Flags and anthems. Retrieved on 2008-05-26.
  42. ^ Peter Berlin. "Long unsung teams live up to anthems: Rugby Union", International Herald Tribune via HighBeam Research, 2004-12-29. Retrieved on 2008-05-26. "the band played Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika and Die Stem for the Springboks and Soldier's Song, the national anthem that is otherwise known as Amhran na bhFiann, and Ireland's Call, the team's official rugby anthem." 
  43. ^ "Gavin Mairs: Why it's time to take a stand on anthems". 
  44. ^ British Meteorological Office figures
  45. ^ Many Nationalists use the name County Derry.
  46. ^ Most Nationalists use the name Derry, while Unionists often use Londonderry, the name specified on the city's Royal Charter.
  47. ^ Examples of usage of this term include Radio Ulster, Ulster Orchestra and RUC; political parties like the Ulster Unionist Party; paramilitary organisations like Ulster Defence Association and Ulster Volunteer Force. Ulster was also used political campaigns such as "Ulster Says No" and Save Ulster from Sodomy.
  48. ^ Parliamentary Reports of the Parliament of Northern Ireland, Vol. 20 (1937).
  49. ^ DUP Press Release "PAISLEY REACTS TO PRIME MINISTER’S STATEMENT". Date unknown. Extract "The DUP will be to the fore in representing the vast majority of unionists in the Province."—example of Ian Paisley referring to Northern Ireland as The Province. Retrieved from Google cache on October 11, 2006.
  50. ^ Example of "North of Ireland"
  51. ^ Sinn Féin usage of "Six Counties"
  52. ^ Examples of usage by the United States-based extreme republican "Irish Freedom Committee"
  53. ^ Usage on "Gaelmail.com", a republican website
  54. ^ Sunday Independent article on Mallon and the use of "Six Counties".
  55. ^ Example of Daily Telegraph use of "Ulster" in text of an article, having used "Northern Ireland" in the opening paragraph.
  56. ^ Daily Ireland usage of "The North" and the "Six Counties".
  57. ^ Daily Telegraph usage
  58. ^ The Guardian example
  59. ^ RTÉ News usage
  60. ^ http://www.nio.gov.uk/agreement.pdfPDF (204 KiB)
  61. ^ Ryan, James G. (1997). Irish Records: Sources for Family and Local History. Flyleaf Press, p. 40. ISBN 978-0916489762. 
  62. ^ Protestants and the Irish Language: Historical Heritage and Current Attitudes in Northern Ireland Rosalind M.O. Pritchard University of Ulster at Coleraine, UK[6]
  63. ^ The Local Government (Miscellaneous Provisions) (Northern Ireland) Order 1995 (No. 759 (N.I. 5))[7]
  64. ^ a b Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency [http://www.nisranew.nisra.gov.uk/Census/Census2001Output/UnivariateTables/uv_tables1.html#irish%20language Census 2001 Output
  65. ^ a b Northern Ireland LIFE & TIMES Survey: What is the main language spoken in your own home?
  66. ^ A Statement by Edwin Poots MLA, Minister of Culture, Arts and Leisure, to the Northern Ireland Assembly on the proposal to introduce Irish Language legislation. 16 October 2007
  67. ^ a b Aodan Mac Poilin, 1999, "Language, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland" in Ulster Folk Life Vol. 45, 1999
  68. ^ Northern Ireland LIFE & TIMES Survey: Do you yourself speak Ulster-Scots?
  69. ^ St Andrews AgreementPDF (131 KiB)

The Northern Ireland Act 2006 (2006 c. ... // Constituent country is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a historical, currently non-legally officially recognised country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in... An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Irish: Acht an Aontais 1800) is used to describe two complementary Acts[1] whose official United Kingdom titles are the Union with Ireland Act 1800 (1800 c. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... The Northern Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972 (c. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Under the Interpretation Act 1978 of the United Kingdom, the term British Islands refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, together with the Crown Dependencies: the Bailiwicks of Jersey and of Guernsey (which in turn includes the smaller islands of Alderney, Herm and Sark) in the... College name College of Scholars of the Holy Trinity of Norwich Named after The Holy Trinity Established 1350 Location Trinity Lane Admittance Men and women Master Prof. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in the United Kingdom and in the Commonwealth of Nations which is formally made in the name of the Queen by the Privy Council (Queen-in-Council), or the Governor-General in a Commonwealth realm or Governor by the Executive Council... The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Irish: Acht an Aontais 1800) is used to describe two complementary Acts[1] whose official United Kingdom titles are the Union with Ireland Act 1800 (1800 c. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... This article is about the pre-1972 Parliament of Northern Ireland. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... The Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1922. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... // Population 1,685,267 Place of birth Northern Ireland: 1,534,268 (91. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Belfast Telegraph is a daily evening newspaper published in Belfast, Northern Ireland by Independent News and Media. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ... BBC Radio Ulster is a BBC Radio station based in Belfast and is part of BBC Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Orchestra is Northern Irelands only full-time symphony orchestra and one of the major orchestras in the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... UFF redirects here; they are also the initials of the United Freedom Front, a radical left-wing organisation in the US. The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) is a loyalist paramilitary organization in Northern Ireland, outlawed as a terrorist group in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and which aim... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) is a Loyalist group in Northern Ireland. ... Ulster Says No was the name of a slogan, campaign and mass protest against perceived interference by the Republic of Ireland in the internal affairs of the United Kingdom, specifically that of Northern Ireland. ... Save Ulster from Sodomy was a political campaign launched in 1977 by the Rev. ... Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born 6 April 1926), styled The Revd and Rt Hon. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Further reading

  • Jonathan Bardon, A History of Ulster (Blackstaff Press, Belfast, 1992), ISBN 0-85640-476-4
  • Brian E. Barton, The Government of Northern Ireland, 1920—1923 (Athol Books, 1980).
  • Paul Bew, Peter Gibbon and Henry Patterson The State in Northern Ireland, 1921—72: Political Forces and Social Classes, Manchester (Manchester University Press, 1979)
  • Tony Geraghty (2000). The Irish War. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7117-4. 
  • Robert Kee, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism (Penguin, 1972–2000), ISBN 0-14-029165-2
  • Osborne Morton, 1994. Marine Algae of Northern Ireland Ulster Museum, Belfast.
  • Henry Patterson, "Ireland Since 1939: The Persistence of Conflict" (Penguin, 2006, ISBN 978-1-844-88104-8

Jonathan Bardon (born in Dublin, 1941), OBE, is an Irish historian and author. ... Paul Bew is professor of Irish politics at Queens University, Belfast since 1991. ... Robert Kee (born 1919) is a British journalist and writer, known for his historical works on World War II and on Ireland. ...

External links

Find more about Northern Ireland on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

General

  • BBC Northern Ireland News The Northern Ireland news from BBC News Online
  • Online NI Local Government Portal
  • ni-photos.jmcwd.com Photos From Around Northern Ireland
  • NICVA Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action
  • Community NI Community NI: Northern Ireland voluntary and community sector.

BBC News website in June 2007. ...

Geography

  • Geography in Action The geology of Northern Ireland
  • BBC Learning Northern Ireland: Landscapes Unlocked - Aerial footage from the Sky High series explaining the physical, social and economic geography of Northern Ireland.

History

  • Northern Ireland Elections
  • BBC Nations History of Ireland on bbc.co.uk
  • Conflict Archive on the Internet from the University of Ulster
  • Inconvenient Peripheries : Ethnic Identity and the United Kingdom EstatePDF by Prof. Philip Payton
  • From Partition to Direct Rule: 50 Years of Northern Ireland Parliamentary Papers Online

The domain name bbc. ... The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-centre university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest single university on the island of Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...

Tourism

  • Discover Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Tourist Board
  • Outdoor Activities NI Directory of outdoor activities and activity providers in Northern Ireland. Provided by the Countryside Access & Activities Network and The Northern Ireland Tourist Board
  • Walk NI The definitive guide to walking in Northern Ireland from the Countryside Access & Activities Network and The Northern Ireland Tourist Board
  • Northern Ireland Tourist Guide What has Northern Ireland got to offer tourists?
  • The Northern Ireland Guide - a travel guide to Northern Ireland for tourists and residents alike
  • Armagh Down Tourism
  • Go To Belfast
  • Fermanagh Lakelands
  • Mourne Mountains
  • culturenorthernireland.org


  Results from FactBites:
 
Car Insurance Northern Ireland - Home and Van Insurance (819 words)
We have placed well known insurers that quote online for Northern Ireland in our insurance directory for your convenience.
At Northern Ireland Insurance Centre compare competitive insurance quotes for breakdown insurance and roadside recovery policies to get you roadside assistance when you need it.
Northern Ireland Insurance Centre has a range of insurance agents, brokers and companies who provide competitive insurance quotes for all types of public property, business premises, from small shops to a large shop, retail outlets, churches, schools, offices, let buildings, factories, work places, hotel insurance, restaurant insurance, employers liability insurance and public liability insurance.
Northern Ireland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6034 words)
The population of Northern Ireland was estimated as being 1,710,300 on 30 June 2004.
Northern Ireland was covered by an ice sheet for most of the last ice age and on numerous previous occasions, the legacy of which can be seen in the extensive coverage of drumlins in Counties Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim and particularly Down.
The centrepiece of Northern Ireland's geography is Lough Neagh, at 151 square miles (392 km²) the largest freshwater lake both on the island of Ireland and in the British Isles, and the third largest lake in Western Europe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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