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Encyclopedia > Northern California

Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. The region contains the San Francisco Bay Area, the state capital, Sacramento; as well as the substantial natural beauty of the redwood forests, the northern California coast, the Big Sur coastline area, the Sierra Nevada including Yosemite Valley and Lake Tahoe, and Mt. Shasta, the second-highest peak in the Cascade Range. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... USGS satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... “Sacramento” redirects here. ... This article is about the species commonly called Coast Redwood. For the species commonly called Giant Sequoia, see Sequoiadendron. ... The North Coast of the U.S. state of California is a mostly rural coastline on the Pacific Ocean stretching from the city of San Francisco to the border of Oregon characterized by cliffs, hills, and tide pools. ... Map of Big Sur Big Sur is a sparsely populated region of the central California coast where the Santa Lucia Mountains rise abruptly from the Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada mountains of the United States. ... Mount Shasta, a 14,179-foot (4,322 m) stratovolcano, is the second-highest peak in the Cascade Range and the second-highest point in California (after Mount Whitney). ... “Cascades” redirects here. ...


Native Americans arrived in Northern California perhaps as early as 5,000 to 8,000 BCE, and successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America. The arrival of European explorers from the early 1500s to the mid-1700s, did not lead to European settlements in Northern California. The Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... Postcard of the reconstructed Mission Santa Bárbara The California missions are a series of settlements established by Spanish Catholic Franciscans, to Christianize the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier land. ... For other uses, see Monterey (disambiguation). ... Sonoma County is a county located on Californias Pacific coast north of the San Francisco Bay Area. ...

The “Painted Ladies” of Alamo Square in San Francisco
The “Painted Ladies” of Alamo Square in San Francisco

Contents

By [email protected] ... By [email protected] ... Victorian houses known as the Painted Ladies at Alamo Square park in San Francisco. ... “San Francisco” redirects here. ...

Description

Yosemite Valley in the Sierra Nevada.

Definitions of what areas constitute "Northern California" vary considerably. The term usually refers to the area north of the ten counties of Southern California, anything northward of San Luis Obispo County or the Tehachapi Mountains, while others distinguish the Northern and Central Coast areas from the San Luis Obispo County to Santa Cruz County. Moreover many residents of far Northern California define their region as encompassing only those areas to the north of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. This definition becomes problematic for inland regions; the Central Valley is a distinct region in itself both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in Northern versus Southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley are usually placed in Northern California. Division of the Sierra Nevada and Eastern California regions into Northern, Central, and Southern California is even more problematic. Tunnel View, 4/14/2002 -- Claude A. Muncey -- released under GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tunnel View, 4/14/2002 -- Claude A. Muncey -- released under GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... San Luis Obispo County is a county located on Californias central Pacific coast, between Los Angeles and the Bay Area. ... Tehachapi Mountains The Tehachapi Mountains are a short transverse range in southern California in the United States, running SW-NE to connect the Coast Ranges on the west with the southern end of the Sierra Nevada mountains on the east. ... The Central Coast is an area of California, United States, extending from Santa Cruz in the north to Santa Barbara in the south, but centering primarily on Monterey and San Luis Obispo counties. ... USGS satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... “Sacramento” redirects here. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... Eastern California is not a well-defined term. ...

Geography and climate

Mount Shasta at 14,179 ft (4,321 m) dominates the northern part of Northern California.

The region is highly diverse, but can be generally characterized by its beautiful coastline, redwood forests, marine to warm Mediterranean climates and, apart from the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento area, low population density. It is also a land of wine country, the high mountains of the Sierras, the southern Cascade Ranges, Trinity Alps, and the Klamath Mountains, lakes, and windswept sagebrush steppe, in the northeast portion of the state. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1397x748, 362 KB) Mt. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1397x748, 362 KB) Mt. ... Mount Shasta, a 14,179-foot (4,322 m)[1] stratovolcano, is the second-highest peak in the Cascade Range and the fifth highest peak in California. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... USGS satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Sacramento is a Spanish- and Portuguese-language word meaning sacrament; it is a common toponym in parts of the world where those tongues were or are spoken. ... Wine Country is a region of Northern California in the United States, known as a wine-growing region since 1838. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... “Cascades” redirects here. ... The Trinity Alps near Granite Lake in July 2005 The Trinity Alps are mountains in Northern California. ... The Trinity Alps near Granite Lake in July 2005 Rogue River Gorge, Oregon The Klamath Mountains, sometimes called the salmon mountains, are a rugged lightly populated mountain range in northwest California and southwest Oregon, the highest peaks being Mount Eddy (6 ft / 2 m) in Siskiyou County, California, Thompson peak... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses...


History

Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, Northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America.[1] This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Shasta (or Chasta) are an indigenous people of Northern California and Southern Oregon in the United States. ... Miwok—also spelled Miwuk or Me-Wuk—refers to native Californians who lived in what is now Northern California. ... The Yokuts were an ethnic group of Native Americans that lived in California. ...


European explorers

The first European explorers, flying the flags of Spain and of England, sailed along the coast of California from the early 1500s to the mid-1700s, but no European settlements were established. The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese navigator sailing for the Spanish Crown. In 1542, Cabrillo led an expedition that landed at San Diego Bay, and continued north to explore a coastal route to reach the Asian mainland. But Cabrillo died during this voyage, and the remainder of the exploration was led by Bartolomé Ferrelo, who sailed perhaps as far north as the Rogue River in today's Oregon.[2] Bartolomé Ferrelo, also known as Bartolomé Ferrer, born 1499 in Bilbao Spain, died 1550 in Mexico. ... Rogue River Gorge, Oregon The mouth of the Rogue River in the Pacific Ocean at Gold Beach, Oregon The Rogue River is located in southwest Oregon. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ...


Beginning in 1565, the Manila Galleons crossed the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Spanish possession of the Philippines, laden with silver and gemstones from Mexico. There, the wealth was used to purchase Asian trade goods such as spices, silk, and porcelain. The Manila Galleons then followed prevailing winds across the northern Pacific, and reached the North American continent typically off the coast of Northern California. The Manila Galleons then coasted southward to the port of Acapulco in Mexico, where the Asian goods were destined for shipment to Spain and sale in Europe. The Manila Galleons were Spanish galleons that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Philippines and Acapulco in New Spain (now Mexico). ... Acapulco (Officially: Acapulco de Juárez) is a city and major sea port in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 300 km (190 miles) southwest from Mexico City. ...


In 1579, Northern California was visited by the English explorer Sir Francis Drake who landed north of today's San Francisco and claimed the area for England; the next official visit by the British would be some two hundred years later. Sir Francis Drake, c. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In 1602, the Spaniard Sebastián Vizcaíno explored California's coastline as far north as Monterey Bay, where he went ashore. He ventured inland south along the coast, and recorded a visit to what is likely Carmel Bay. His major contributions to the state's history were the glowing reports of the Monterey area as an anchorage and as land suitable for settlement, as well as the detailed charts he made of the coastal waters used for nearly 200 years.[3][4] Other Spanish explorers sailed along the coastline of Northern California for the next 150 years, but no settlements were established. Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548-1624) was a Spanish soldier, entrepreneur, explorer, and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja California peninsula, Alta California, and Japan. ... A view of Monterey Bay Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean, on the coast of California, south of San Francisco. ... Carmel-by-the-Sea is a city located in Monterey County, California. ...


Spanish era

The first European inhabitants were Spanish missionaries, who built missions along the California coast. The mission at Monterey (Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo) was first established in 1770, and the mission at San Francisco (Mission San Francisco de Asís) was founded in 1776. In all, some 15 missions would eventually stretch along the coast from Sonoma south to Santa Barbara (and still more missions to the southern tip of Baja California). Postcard of the reconstructed Mission Santa Bárbara The California missions are a series of settlements established by Spanish Catholic Franciscans, to Christianize the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier land. ... For other uses, see Monterey (disambiguation). ... Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo was first established on June 3, 1770 in Monterey, California, and was named for Charles Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, Italy. ... Mission San Francisco de Asís is the oldest surviving structure in San Franciso and the sixth religious settlement established as part of the California chain of missions. ... Sonoma City Hall in the town plaza Sonoma is a historically significant town in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, USA. Sonoma is centered around its historic town plaza, a remnant of the towns Spanish colonial past. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , County Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - City 111. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ...


In 1786, the French signaled their interest in the Northern California area by sending group of French scientists and artists on a voyage of exploration to Monterey, California. They compiled an account of the California mission system, the land and the people.


Explorers and fur trappers from the Russian Empire established settlements in Alaska (beginning in 1784), and then expanded hunting and trading down the west coast of North America. By the early 1800s, fur trappers of the Russian Empire hunted for sea otter pelts as far south as San Diego. In 1812, the Russian-American Company set up a fortified trading post at Fort Ross, near present day Bodega Bay some sixty miles north of San Francisco. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... The Russian-American Company was a semi-official colonial trading company started by Grigory Shelikhov and Nikolai Rezanov and chartered by tsar Paul I in 1799. ... Fort Ross is a former Russian fur trade outpost in what is now Sonoma County, California (United States). ... Bodega Bay and Bodega Harbor Bodega Bay is a small shallow, sand-choked inlet of the Pacific Ocean on the coast of northern California in the United States. ...


The first twenty years of the 19th century continued the slow colonization of the California coast by Spanish missionaries, ranchers, and troops. By 1820, Spanish influence extended inland approximately 25 to 50 miles (80 km) from the missions. Outside of this zone, perhaps 200,000 to 250,000 Native Americans were continuing to lead traditional lives. The Adams-Onís Treaty, signed in 1819 between Spain and the young United States, set the northern boundary of the Spanish claims at the 42nd parallel, effectively creating today's northern boundary of California. The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 (formally titled the Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between the United States of America and His Catholic Majesty, and also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, and sometimes the Florida Purchase Treaty) was a historic agreement between the United States and...


Russian era

As the Spanish and Mexicans occupied California from the south, the Russians, from a base in Sitka, Alaska, were moving down the coast. In 1745 the Russian fur traders had reached the Aleutian Islands and began southward expansion, with a primary establishment at Sitka, Alaska. In 1812 the Russians established Fort Rossiya aka Fort Ross, a fur trading outpost in what is today northern coastal Sonoma County. Fort Ross was the southernmost point of expansion, meeting the Spanish northern expansion some 70 miles (113 km) north of San Francisco. The leader of the Russian expedition travelled to San Francisco for much needed supplies and agreed to marry the daughter of the Spanish ambassador, sealing a peaceful deal to establish trade and a border between Spanish California and Russian "New Albion" at the mouth of the Russian River. Fort Ross is a former Russian fur trade outpost in what is now Sonoma County, California (United States). ... Sonoma County is a county located on Californias Pacific coast north of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Russian River may refer to the following rivers; Russian River (California), in California Russian River (Alaska), in Alaska Rivers of Russia, in Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In 1841, as the American presence in California began to increase and politics began to change the region, a deal was made with John Sutter and the Russians abandoned their New Albion settlements.


The Russian era in northern California was short-lived but remnants of Russian colonization remains in place-names such as the Russian River and the town of Sebastopol. Russian River may refer to the following rivers; Russian River (California), in California Russian River (Alaska), in Alaska Rivers of Russia, in Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sebastopol may refer to: Sebastopol, Wales, United Kingdom Sebastopol, California, USA Sebastopol, Mississippi, USA Sebastopol, New South Wales, Australia Sebastopol (cannon), a giant mortar commissioned by Ethiopian Emperor Theodore II Sevastopol, a city in Ukraine, used to be transliterated as Sebastopol in English Sevastopol (disambiguation) Category: ...


Mexican era

After Mexico won its War of Independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico initially retained Spain's missions and settlements along the Pacific coast, and continued Spain's claims to territory as far north as today's border between California and Oregon. In the 1830s, Mexico ended Church control of the missions in California and opened the land to secular development, particularly ranching. By the 1840s, there were small Mexican settlements at the territorial capital at Monterey, San Francisco, Sonoma, and elsewhere along the coast (primarily near the sites of the original missions). The Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians) in these settlements primarily traded cattle hides and tallow with American and European merchant vessels which came to call. Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... Sonoma City Hall in the town plaza Sonoma is a historically significant town in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, USA. Sonoma is centered around its historic town plaza, a remnant of the towns Spanish colonial past. ... A Californio was a Spanish-speaking inhabitant of Alta California who lived there when it was a part of Mexico, before it was taken by the United States after the Mexican-American War. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ...


In 1825, the Hudson's Bay Company established a major trading post at Fort Vancouver just north of today's Portland, Oregon. From this headquarters, for the next 20 years, British fur trappers and hunters used the Siskiyou Trail to travel throughout Northern California, as far south as modern-day Stockton. Trapping parties (or "brigades" as they were known) typically crossed the recognized border at the 42nd parallel, and trapped in the Shasta Cascade region, the Sierra Nevada foothills and Central Valley, without official Mexican permission or even knowledge.[5] Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... Fort Vancouver Fort Vancouver was a 19th century fur trading outpost along the Columbia River that served as the headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Company in the companys Columbia District (known to Americans as the Oregon Country). ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... The Siskiyou Trail stretched from Californias Central Valley to Oregons Willamette Valley; modern-day Interstate 5 follows this pioneer path. ... Nickname: Motto: Stocktons Great, Take A Look! Location in San Joaquin County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Joaquin County Incorporated 1850 Government  - Mayor Edward J. Chavez  - City Manager J. Gordon Palmer, Jr. ... The Shasta Cascade region of California is located in the northeastern and north-central sections of the state bordering Oregon and Nevada, north of the Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada mountain range. ...


The leader of a further French scientific expedition to Northern California, Eugene Duflot de Mofras, wrote in 1840 "...it is evident that California will belong to whatever nation chooses to send there a man-of-war and two hundred men."[6] In 1841, the Mexican military commander in Northern California, General Mariano Vallejo, wrote "there is no doubt that France is intriguing to become mistress of California." Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (7 July 1808 - 12 January 1890) was born at Monterey, California, entered the Monterey Presidial Academy in 1823. ...


By the 1830s, a significant number of non-Californios had immigrated to Northern California. Chief among these was John Sutter, a European immigrant from Switzerland, who was granted 48,827 acres (19,759 ha) centered on the area of today's Sacramento. Sutter built Sutter's Fort, and embarked on plans for an agricultural empire.[7] This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the acre. ... HA, Ha, and ha can refer to various things, depending on case. ... 19th century illustration of Sutters Fort Started in 1839, Sutters Fort, which was originally called New Helvetia[1] (New Switzerland) by its builder, John Sutter, was a 19th century agricultural and trading colony in California. ...


American interest

American trappers and "mountain men" began filtering into Northern California in the 1830s.[8] In 1834, American visionary Ewing Young led a herd of horses and mules over the Siskiyou Trail from missions in Northern California to British and American settlements in Oregon. Although this initial effort was met with suspicion by Hudson's Bay Company officials in Oregon, Young returned to Northern California in 1837, where he purchased 700 head of cattle which he drove over the Siskiyou Trail to Oregon. This monumental task required nearly three months through largely uncharted territory.[9] [10] Ewing Young expeditions to American West Ewing Young (1799 - February 9, 1841) was an American trapper from Tennessee who traveled the western United States before settling in Oregon Country. ...


Although a small number of American traders and trappers had lived in Northern California since the early 1830s, the first organized overland party of American immigrants was the Bidwell-Bartleson party of 1841.[11] With mules and on foot, this pioneering group groped their way across the continent using the still untested California Trail. Also in 1841, an overland exploratory party of the United States Exploring Expedition came down the Siskiyou Trail from the Pacific Northwest. In 1844, Caleb Greenwood guided the first settlers to take wagons over the Sierra Nevada. In 1846, the misfortunes of the Donner Party earned notoriety as they struggled to enter Northern California. Main route of California Trail (thick red line), including Applegate-Lassen and Beckwourth variations (thinner red lines) The California Trail was a major overland emigrant route across the Western United States from Missouri to California in the middle 19th century. ... The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean (the Southern Seas) conducted by the United States Navy from 1838–1842. ... The Siskiyou Trail stretched from Californias Central Valley to Oregons Willamette Valley; modern-day Interstate 5 follows this pioneer path. ... Old Caleb Greenwood was a Western U.S. fur trapper and trail guide. ... The Donner Party Memorial at Donner Memorial State Park. ...


Beginning of United States era

When the Mexican-American War was declared on May 13, 1846 between the United States and Mexico, it took almost two months (mid-July 1846) for definite word of war to get to California. U.S. consul Thomas O. Larkin, stationed in Monterey, on hearing rumors of war tried to keep peace between the Americans and the small Mexican military garrison commanded by José Castro. American army captain John C. Frémont with about 60 well-armed men had entered California in December 1845 and was making a slow march to Oregon when they received word that war between Mexico and the U.S. was imminent.[12] Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Thomas Oliver Larkin, was the son of Thomas O. Larkin and Hannah (Cordis). ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ...


On June 15, 1846, some 30 non-Mexican settlers, mostly Americans, staged a revolt and seized the small Mexican garrison in Sonoma. They raised the "Bear Flag" of the California Republic over Sonoma. It lasted one week until the U.S. Army, led by Frémont, took over on June 23.[13] The California state flag today is based on this original Bear Flag, and continues to contain the words "California Republic." The modern Bear Flag of California The flag of California was first flown during the Bear Flag Revolt and was adopted by the California state legislature in 1911. ... A replica of the first Bear Flag now on display at El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, established in 1836 by Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo as a part of Mexicos strategy to halt Russian incursions into the region. ...


Commodore John Drake Sloat, on hearing of imminent war and the revolt in Sonoma, ordered his naval forces to occupy Yerba Buena (present San Francisco) on July 7 and raise the American flag. On July 15, Sloat transferred his command to Commodore Robert F. Stockton, a much more aggressive leader. Commodore Stockton, put Frémont's forces under his orders. On July 19th, Frémont's "California Battalion" swelled to about 160 additional men from newly arrived settlers near Sacramento, and he entered Monterey in a joint operation with some of Stockton's sailors and marines. The official word had been received—the Mexican-American War was on. The American forces easily took over Northern California; within days they controlled San Francisco, Sonoma, and Sutter's Fort in Sacramento.[13] Commodore John D. Sloat John Drake Sloat (July 6, 1781 - November 28, 1867) was a commodore in the United States Navy, and in 1846 claimed California for the United States. ... Binomial name Clinopodium douglasii (Benth. ... Commodore Robert Field Stockton Robert Field Stockton (20 August 1795–7 October 1866) was an United States naval officer, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican-American War. ...


In January 1847, the last significant body of Californios surrendered to Frémont, and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, marked the end of the Mexican-American War. In that treaty, the United States agreed to pay Mexico $18,250,000; Mexico formally ceded Alta California (land that included all of present day California and Nevada, as well as portions of several surrounding states) to the United States, and a new international boundary was drawn. The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ...


Cities

San Francisco is the center of Northern California's largest metropolitan area.
San Francisco is the center of Northern California's largest metropolitan area.

Northern California's largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose, Oakland, and their many suburbs, and the Silicon Valley high-tech region. The California state capital, Sacramento, and the state's largest inland city, Fresno, are also in Northern California. Other important cities in the region include Stockton 45 miles (72 km) south of Sacramento and within easy access of the Bay Area, Redding at the northern end of the Central Valley, Chico, in the mid-north of the Valley, Eureka on the northern coast. South of the Bay Area, much of America's produce is grown in the Salinas Valley. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 651 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Northern California Port of San Francisco User:Digon3 User:Digon3/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 651 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Northern California Port of San Francisco User:Digon3 User:Digon3/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... USGS satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... “San Francisco” redirects here. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... “Oakland” redirects here. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... For the Nintendo 64 game, see Space Station Silicon Valley. ... High tech refers to technology that is at the cutting-edge—the most advanced technology currently available. ... “Sacramento” redirects here. ... “Fresno” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Stocktons Great, Take A Look! Location in San Joaquin County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Joaquin County Incorporated 1850 Government  - Mayor Edward J. Chavez  - City Manager J. Gordon Palmer, Jr. ... Nickname: Location Redding in Shasta County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Settled 1873 Incorporated October 4, 1887 Government  - Mayor Dick Dickerson  - City Council Rick Bosetti Ken Murray Patrick H. Jones  - City Manager Kurt Startman Area  - City 154. ... Nickname: Location of Chico in California Coordinates: , Country State County Settled 1843 Founded 1860 Incorporated January 8, 1872 Government  - Mayor Andrew Holcombe  - City Council Scott Gruendl Steve Bertagna Larry Wahl Ann Schwab Mary Flynn Tom Nickell  - City Manager Area  - City 71. ... Motto: Eureka - (I have found it!) Map of California showing the location of Eureka Coordinates: Country United States State California County Humboldt Founded 1850 Incorporated April 18, 1856 (town) Re-incorporated February 19, 1874 (city) Government type Mayor-council  - Mayor Virginia Bass  - City manager David Tyson Area    - City  14. ... The Salinas Valley in the Central Coast region of California lies along the Salinas River between the Gabilan Mountains and the Santa Lucia Range. ...


Educational Institutions

Northern California hosts a number of the most prestigious and renowned universities and academic institutions in the world. Five of the ten University of California campuses: UC Berkeley, UC Davis, UC Santa Cruz, UC San Francisco, and the newly created UC Merced, and eleven California State University campuses: Chico State, San Francisco State, Fresno State, Humboldt State, Sonoma State, San Jose State, the California Maritime Academy, CSU East Bay (formerly CSU Hayward), CSU Stanislaus, Sacramento State, and CSU Monterey Bay. Of the private institutions are included Stanford University, the University of San Francisco, Santa Clara University, St. Mary's College, Mills College and University of the Pacific. Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The University of California, Davis, commonly abbreviated to UC Davis or UCD is one of the ten University of California campuses. ... The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC or UC Santa Cruz) is a coeducational public university located in Santa Cruz, California. ... The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) is a public university located in San Francisco, California. ... University of California, Merced The University of California, Merced (UC Merced), located in the San Joaquin Valley at Merced, California, is the tenth University of California campus. ... The California State University (CSU) is one of three public higher education systems in the state of California, the other two being the University of California system and the California Community College System. ... California State University, Chico is the second-oldest campus in the California State University system, and home to the Chico University Arboretum. ... San Francisco State University is a branch of the California State University system. ... Categories: University stubs | California State University | Universities and colleges in California ... This article is about Humboldt State University in California. ... Sonoma State University is a campus of the California State University system located in Rohnert Park, California (about seven miles south of Santa Rosa). ... San José State University, commonly shortened to San Jose State and SJSU, is the oldest university in what became the California State University system. ... The California Maritime Academy (also known as CMA, Cal Maritime and CSU, Maritime) is one of 23 campuses in the California State University system and is one of only seven degree-granting maritime academies in the United States. ... California State University, East Bay (also known as CSUEB, Cal State East Bay, and formerly known as California State University, Hayward) is a campus of the California State University system. ... California State University, Stanislaus, a campus in the California State University system, was established in 1957 in Turlock, California. ... California State University, Sacramento, better known as Sacramento State, Sac State, or CSUS, is a public university located in the city of Sacramento, California. ... California State University, Monterey Bay, in the California State University system, is located in the city of Seaside, California, on the Monterey Peninsula. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ... University of San Francisco (USF) is a private Jesuit and Catholic University in San Francisco, California, United States. ... The Santa Clara Mission is a notable on-campus landmark. ... Saint Marys College of California is a private, coeducational college located in Moraga, California, United States. ... Founded in 1852 and established in Oakland, California, in 1871, Mills College is an independent liberal arts womans college, with graduate programs for women and men. ... Not to be confused with Pacific University. ...


Regions & Parks

California Portal
San Francisco Bay Area Portal
Central Valley Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... For other uses, see Alcatraz (disambiguation). ... Aerial view of Angel Island. ... Upper Parks nature, part of Bidwell Park Bidwell Park is a municipal park located in Chico, California. ... The Emerald Triangle is a collection of three counties in Northern California, consisting of Mendocino, Humboldt, and Trinity. ... Gold Country (also Mother Lode Country) is a region of northeastern California famed for the mines and mineral deposits which so famously brought the 49ers west for the California Gold Rush. ... The Golden Gate National Recreation Area is a U.S. National Recreation Area, administered by the National Park Service, which surrounds the San Francisco Bay area. ... Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park. ... Map of Lassen area showing hydrothermal features (red dots) and volcanic feature or remnant (yellow cones). ... Mount Shasta, a 14,179-foot (4,322 m)[1] stratovolcano, is the second-highest peak in the Cascade Range and the fifth highest peak in California. ... The Coastal redwood is the tallest tree species on Earth. ... The Sacramento River is the longest river in the U.S. state of California. ... The Shasta Cascade region of California is located in the northeastern and north-central sections of the state bordering Oregon and Nevada, north of the Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada mountain range. ... The Turtle Bay Exploration Park, also known as the Redding Arboretum or McConnell Arboretum & Gardens, 300 acres (120 hectares), including 200 acres (80 hectares) of undeveloped arboretum and 20 acres (8 hectares) of botanical garden) spans the Sacramento River in Redding, California, USA. The Park began in the mid 1980s... The Tri-Valley region of California is based around the San Francisco Bay Area cities of Pleasanton, Livermore, Dublin and San Ramon in the three valleys from which it takes its name: Amador Valley, Livermore Valley and San Ramon Valley. ... Vineyard on Sonoma Mountain with background of the Mayacamas Mountains Wine Country is a region of Northern California in the United States that is known world-wide[1] as a premium wine-growing region since the mid-19th century. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Yosemite National Park (pron. ... The Yuba-Sutter Area is a smaller metropolitan community including Yuba and Sutter Counties in Northern California, USAs Central Valley. ...

Counties

Official website: http://www. ... Alpine County is the smallest county, by population, in the U.S. state of California. ... jay is gay Amador County is a county located in the Sierra Nevada of the U.S. state of California. ... Butte County is a county located in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, north of state capital Sacramento. ... Calaveras County is a county located in the Gold Country of the U.S. state of California. ... Colusa County is a county located in Californias Central Valley, northwest of Sacramento. ... Contra Costa County is a suburban county in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. ... Del Norte County is the northwesternmost county in the U.S. state of California, located on the Pacific coast south of Oregon. ... El Dorado County is a county located in the Gold Country of the U.S. state of California, in the Sierra Nevada. ... Fresno County is a county located in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, south of Stockton and north of Bakersfield. ... Glenn County is a county located in the California Central Valley north of Sacramento County. ... Humboldt County is a county located on the northwest coast of the U.S. state of California, on the Pacific Ocean. ... Inyo County is a county located in east-central California, on the east side of the Sierra Nevada south of Yosemite National Park. ... Lake County is a county located in the north central portion of the U.S. state of California, north of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Lassen County is a county located in the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... Madera County is a county of California, located in the Central Valley north of Fresno County. ... Marin County (pronounced muh-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Mariposa County is a county in the U.S. state of California, located in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. ... Islands off Mendocino A Beach in the City of Elk Mendocino County is a county located on the north coast of the U.S. state of California, north of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sonoma County and west of the Central Valley. ... Merced County is a county located in Californias Central Valley, north of Fresno and southeast of San Jose. ... Modoc County is a county located in the far northeast corner of the U.S. state of California, bounded by the state of Oregon to the north and the state of Nevada to the east. ... Mono County is a county located in the east central portion of the U.S. state of California, to east of the Sierra Nevada between Yosemite National Park and Nevada. ... Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. ... “Napa Valley” redirects here. ... Nevada County is a county located in Californias Sierra Nevada, in the Mother Lode country. ... Placer County is a county located in California, USAs Sierra Nevada, in the Gold Country. ... Plumas County is a county located in Californias Sierra Nevada. ... Sacramento County is a county of the U.S. state of California. ... San Benito County is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U.S. state of California, south of San Jose. ... This article is about the city in California. ... San Joaquin County is a county located in Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, just east of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Official website: http://www. ... Santa Clara County is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. ... Santa Cruz County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, just south of the San Francisco Bay Area, it forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay. ... Shasta County is a county located in the northern portion of the U.S. state of California, in the Cascade Mountains. ... Sierra County is a county located in Californias Sierra Nevada, northeast of Sacramento on the border with Nevada. ... Siskiyou County is a county located in the far northernmost part of the U.S. state of California, in the Shasta Cascade region on the Oregon border. ... Solano County is a county located in central part of the U.S. state of California, about halfway between San Francisco and Sacramento and is one of the nine San Francisco Bay Area counties. ... Sonoma County is on the northwest coast of California, one of the northernmost parts of the greater San Francisco Bay Area, U.S. Its population at the 2000 census was 458,614. ... Stanislaus County is a county located in Californias California Central Valley, between Stockton and Fresno. ... Sutter County is a county located along the Sacramento River in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, north of state capital Sacramento. ... Tehama County (pronounced teh-HAY-muh) is a county located in the northern part of the U.S. state of California. ... Trinity County is a county located in northwestern California, along the Trinity River and among the Klamath Mountains. ... Tuolumne County is a county located in the U.S. state of Californias Sierra Nevada. ... Yolo County is located in the northern part of the U.S. state of California, bordered by the counties of Sacramento, Solano, Napa, Lake, Colusa, and Sutter. ... Yuba County is located in the U.S. state of Californias Central Valley, north of Sacramento, along the Feather River. ...

Major Cities

Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Nickname: Location of Chico in California Coordinates: , Country State County Settled 1843 Founded 1860 Incorporated January 8, 1872 Government  - Mayor Andrew Holcombe  - City Council Scott Gruendl Steve Bertagna Larry Wahl Ann Schwab Mary Flynn Tom Nickell  - City Manager Area  - City 71. ... Location of Concord in California. ... Daly City is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States with a 2000 population of 103,621. ... Davis is a city in Yolo County, California, United States. ... Motto: Eureka - (I have found it!) Map of California showing the location of Eureka Coordinates: Country United States State California County Humboldt Founded 1850 Incorporated April 18, 1856 (town) Re-incorporated February 19, 1874 (city) Government type Mayor-council  - Mayor Virginia Bass  - City manager David Tyson Area    - City  14. ... The Welcome to Fairfield roadside sign Fairfield Courthouse Fairfield is a city located northeast of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California, USA. it is approximately 45 miles from both San Francisco and Sacramento. ... “Fresno” redirects here. ... For the unincorporated community in Yolo County, California, see Fremont, Yolo County, California. ... Hayward is a city located in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area in Alameda County. ... Livermore is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. ... For other uses, see Monterey (disambiguation). ... Modesto is the county seat of Stanislaus County in the U.S. state of California. ... Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, in the U.S. state of California. ... Napa is the county seat of Napa County, California. ... “Oakland” redirects here. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Yoriko Kishimoto[1] Area  - City 25. ... Location of Pleasanton within Alameda County, California. ... Red Bluff (pop. ... Nickname: Location Redding in Shasta County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Settled 1873 Incorporated October 4, 1887 Government  - Mayor Dick Dickerson  - City Council Rick Bosetti Ken Murray Patrick H. Jones  - City Manager Kurt Startman Area  - City 154. ... Redwood City is a suburb located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. ... Location in Placer County Coordinates: , County Incorporated April 10, 1909 Government  - Mayor Jim Gray[1] Area  - City 79. ... “Sacramento” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Salinas, California Country State County Monterey Government  - Mayor Dennis Donohue Area  - City 19 sq mi (49. ... “San Francisco” redirects here. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... San Mateo is a city in San Mateo County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area. ... San Rafael (IPA: ; originally IPA: ), is the county seat of Marin County, California, United States. ... Location of Santa Clara within Santa Clara County, California. ... For other uses, see Santa Cruz. ... Location in Sonoma County and the state of California Country State County Sonoma Area  - City 40. ... A Genentech-sponsored sign declaring South San Francisco to be the Birthplace of Biotechnology. ... Nickname: Motto: Stocktons Great, Take A Look! Location in San Joaquin County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Joaquin County Incorporated 1850 Government  - Mayor Edward J. Chavez  - City Manager J. Gordon Palmer, Jr. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Otto Lee Area  - City 22. ... Ukiah is the county seat of Mendocino County, California. ... Vallejo (pronounced IPA: in English; in the original Spanish) is a city in Solano County, California, United States. ... Walnut Creek is a largely affluent suburb several miles east of Oakland in Contra Costa County, California, USA, in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Town Square located in downtown Yuba City. ...

Communication

Telephone area codes

The 209 area code covers Stockton, Merced, Modesto, San Andreas and the Central Valley. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Motto: Stocktons Great, Take A Look! Location in San Joaquin County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Joaquin County Incorporated 1850 Government  - Mayor Edward J. Chavez  - City Manager J. Gordon Palmer, Jr. ... Modesto is the county seat of Stanislaus County in the U.S. state of California. ... Merced (pronounced Mer-SED), is the county seat of Merced County, California in the San Joaquin Valley of Central California. ... Map of California area codes in blue (and border states) with 408 in red North American area code 408 is a California telephone area code which covers Saratoga, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Sunnyvale, Santa Clara, Cupertino and San Jose. ... Santa Clara County is a county located in Californias San Francisco Bay Area. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... Gilroy (IPA: ) is the southmost city in Santa Clara County, California, USA. According to the United States 2000 Census, the city population was 41,464. ... Area code 415 was one of the original three area codes established in California in 1947. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Daly City is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States with a 2000 population of 103,621. ... Marin County is a county located in Californias San Francisco Bay Area, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Map of California area codes in blue (and border states) with 510 in red North American area code 510 is a California telephone area code which covers eastern Bay Area cities such as Hayward, Castro Valley, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, Alameda, Berkeley, Oakland, Piedmont, Richmond, San Pablo, Union City, and... A satellite image of the East Bay The East Bay is a subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, United States and is comprised of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties. ... “Oakland” redirects here. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State California County Contra Costa Government  - Mayor Gayle McLaughlin (G) Area  - City  52. ... For the unincorporated community in Yolo County, California, see Fremont, Yolo County, California. ... The 530 area code covers Chico, Redding, Marysville, Red Bluff, Oroville, Placerville, and Truckee, California. ... Nickname: Location Redding in Shasta County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Settled 1873 Incorporated October 4, 1887 Government  - Mayor Dick Dickerson  - City Council Rick Bosetti Ken Murray Patrick H. Jones  - City Manager Kurt Startman Area  - City 154. ... Nickname: Location of Chico in California Coordinates: , Country State County Settled 1843 Founded 1860 Incorporated January 8, 1872 Government  - Mayor Andrew Holcombe  - City Council Scott Gruendl Steve Bertagna Larry Wahl Ann Schwab Mary Flynn Tom Nickell  - City Manager Area  - City 71. ... Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada mountains of the United States. ... Area Code 559 was created on November 14, 1998, when the southern half of the area code 209 (in service since 1958) reached full capacity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Fresno” redirects here. ... Visalia is a Central California city situated in the heart of California’s agricultural San Joaquin Valley, approximately 230 miles southeast of San Francisco and 190 miles north of Los Angeles. ... North American area code 650 includes most of San Mateo County (except northernmost portion) and the northwestern portion of Santa Clara County, in California. ... USGS Satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... San Mateo is a city in San Mateo County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Redwood City is a suburb located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Yoriko Kishimoto[1] Area  - City 25. ... The 707 area code covers Napa, Vallejo, Fairfield, Santa Rosa, Fort Bragg, Crescent City, Eureka, Ukiah and northwestern California. ... The North Coast of the U.S. state of California is a mostly rural coastline on the Pacific Ocean stretching from the city of San Francisco to the border of Oregon characterized by cliffs, hills, and tide pools. ... Sonoma County is a county located on Californias Pacific coast north of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Motto: Eureka - (I have found it!) Map of California showing the location of Eureka Coordinates: Country United States State California County Humboldt Founded 1850 Incorporated April 18, 1856 (town) Re-incorporated February 19, 1874 (city) Government type Mayor-council  - Mayor Virginia Bass  - City manager David Tyson Area    - City  14. ... Ukiah is the county seat of Mendocino County, California. ... Location in Sonoma County and the state of California Country State County Sonoma Area  - City 40. ... The Welcome to Fairfield roadside sign Fairfield Courthouse Fairfield is a city located northeast of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California, USA. it is approximately 45 miles from both San Francisco and Sacramento. ... Telephone area code 831 consists of Salinas, Hollister, Monterey, Santa Cruz and northern Central Coast, California. ... Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. ... San Benito County is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U.S. state of California, south of San Jose. ... Santa Cruz County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, just south of the San Francisco Bay Area, it forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay. ... Area code 916 was one of the first three original area codes established in California in 1947. ... Sacramento County is a county of the U.S. state of California. ... Sacramento is a Spanish- and Portuguese-language word meaning sacrament; it is a common toponym in parts of the world where those tongues were or are spoken. ... Placer County is a county located in California, USAs Sierra Nevada, in the Gold Country. ... El Dorado County is a county located in the Gold Country of the U.S. state of California, in the Sierra Nevada. ... Map of California area codes in blue (and border states) with 925 in red In the North American Numbering Plan (NANP), area code 925 is an area code that covers parts of the Bay Area, California. ... A satellite image of the East Bay The East Bay is a subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, United States and is comprised of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties. ... Location of Concord in California. ... Walnut Creek is a largely affluent suburb several miles east of Oakland in Contra Costa County, California, USA, in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Location of Pleasanton within Alameda County, California. ... Livermore is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. ...

See also

This article is about the region of Southern California. ... The west coast of North America consists of the modern American states of California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and arguably Alaska and parts of the Yukon. ... Californias Yosemite Valley. ... The Redwood Empire (also Redwood Coast or North Coast) is a region of California that stretches from San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge to the Oregon coast. ...

Notes

  1. ^ R.F. Heizer (1966). California Indian Tribes map. CaliforniaPrehistory.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  2. ^ Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo: A Voyage of Discovery. U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  3. ^ Gary S. Breschini, Ph.D. (2000). Coastal Navigation and Exploration of the Monterey Bay Area. Monterey County Historical Society. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  4. ^ Diary of Sebastian Vizcaino, 1602-1603. Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  5. ^ Hunters and Trappers at Upper Soda Springs. Museum of the Siskiyou Trail. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  6. ^ Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1884-1890). History of California, v.4, p.260.  The online collective works of Hubert Howe Bancroft.
  7. ^ Sutter's Fort Historic State Park. California Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  8. ^ Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1884-1890). History of California, v.4, p.263-64. 
  9. ^ Karen Bassett, Jim Renner, and Joyce White (1998). Ewing Young Route 1834 / 1837. End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  10. ^ Douglas S. Watson (Sep 2006). Diary of Philip Leget Edwards. The California Association of Texas Longhorn Breeders (CATL). Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  11. ^ Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1884-1890). History of California, v.4, p.263-273. 
  12. ^ Captain John Charles Fremont and the Bear Flag Revolt. California State Military Museum. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  13. ^ a b American Transition to Early Statehood. California Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Museum of the Siskiyou Trail

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