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Encyclopedia > Northern Basque Country
Location of the Basque Country
Northern Basque Country in green
Northern Basque Country in green

The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: Pays Basque Nord, Basque: Iparralde) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. With 2.869 sq. km., it is delimited in the north by the department of Landes, in the west by the Bay of Biscay, in the south by the southern Basque Country and in the east by Béarn (although in the Bearnese village of Esquiule Basque is spoken), which is the eastern part of the department. It is a popular tourist destination and is somewhat distinct from neighbouring parts of either France or the southern Basque Country. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Basque: Pirinio-Atlantiarrak or Pirinio-Atlantikoak) is a département in the southwest of France which takes its name from the Pyrenees mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. ... Landes is a département in southern France. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... The Southern Basque Country (Basque: Hegoalde) consists of the Basque Country (autonomous community) and Navarre. ... Coat of arms of the viscounts of Béarn. ...


Basques describe the northern Basque Country as the union of three "French provinces" in the northeast of the traditional Basque Country: The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ...

  • Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque, Lower Navarre in English), until 1789 kingdom of Navarre (linked to the kings of France). 1.284 sq.km.
  • Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque). 800 sq.km.
  • Soule (Zuberoa in Basque). 785 sq.km.

Its Basque name is Iparralde ("Northern side") while the part of the Basque Country located in Spain is called Hegoalde ("Southern side"). The Basque Country of France and Spain. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Coat of Arms of Labourd Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum, Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Mauléon, capital of Soule Soule (Zuberoa, Xiberu or Xüberoa in Basque, Sola in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ...


Its population has been: 126.493 (in 1801); 162.365 (1851); 226.749 (1979)(79% in Labourd, 13% in Lower Navarre, 8% in Soule); 259.850 (1990)(81%; 13%; 6% respectively); 262.000 (1999 census).


According to an inquiry of 2001, 24.7% were bilinguals (french-basque), 11.5% were french-speakers who understand basque, and 63.4% were not basque-speakers. But the results were very different in three zones; in the inner land (Basse Navarre and Soule) 76% speak or understand basque; in the coast (Labourd)they are 43% ; and in the B.A.B. urban zone (Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz) only a 17% speak or understand basque (according to an other inquiry, the 20% of the B.A.B. people can speak or understand gascon language).


There is a Basque nationalist political movement, born in 1963 with the Enbata mouvement (forbidden in 1974) and now with Abertzaleen Batasuna and others, which seeks a split of Pyrénées-Atlantiques in two French departments: Pays Basque and Béarn; some other nationalist parties are EAJ, EA and Batasuna which have a reduced, almost symbolic presence, especially when compared to the southern Basque Country. The representation of these political parties historically takes less than 15% of the votes in the district elections. The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... The Abertzaleen Batasuna (Abertzale Unity) is a Basque political party in France. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties and are now grouped into 22 metropolitan and four overseas régions. ... Coat of arms of the viscounts of Béarn. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Eusko Alkartasuna, Basque and Spanish regional political party, translated as Basque Solidarity and abbreviated as EA, is a party which describes itself as a Basque national, democratic, popular, progressive and non-denominational party. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the 1980s and 90s, there was a paramilitary group called Iparretarrak (the northerners) using violence to seek independence but it has been inactive for almost a decade now. Iparretarrak (the Northerners in Basque) is an illegal armed Basque nationalist organization operating in the French Basque Country. ...


On January 29, 1997, the area was made an official "pays" of France under the name "Pays Basque", that is, a representative body promoting several activities, but without own budget. is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


History

Billingual French-Basque language signage in Saint-Pée-sur-Nivelle.
Billingual French-Basque language signage in Saint-Pée-sur-Nivelle.
Basque Country flag, widely seen in Iparralde
Basque Country flag, widely seen in Iparralde

The Northern Basque Country was for long largely undifferentiated from other areas of what is now Gascony. When Caesar conquered Gaul he found all the region south and west of the Garonne inhabited by a people known as the Aquitani, who were not Celtic and are modernly regarded as Basques (see Aquitanian language). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 3008 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 3008 pixels, file size: 1. ... Saint-Pée-sur-Nivelle (Basque Senpere) is a large village in the traditional Basque province of Labourd, now a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département of southern France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Basque_Country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Basque_Country. ... Ikurriña The Ikurriña flag is a Basque symbol and the official flag of the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community (Comunidad Autónomas) of contemporary Spain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Aquitanii (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people of horsemen living in what is now SW France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne. ... Aquitanian language was spoken in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne), region later known as Gascony before the Roman conquest and, probably much later until the Upper Middle Ages. ...


In Roman times, the region was first known as Aquitania, and later, when the name Aquitania was extended until the Loire river, as Novempopulania or Aquitania Tertia. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Gallia Aquitania, a province of The Roman Empire Gallia Aquitania, in ancient geography, was a province of the Roman Empire, located in present-day southwest France and bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis. ... Novempopulania was first known as Aquitania. ...


After the Basque rebellions against Roman feudalism in the late 4th and 5th century, the area eventually formed part of the independent Duchy of Vasconia, being segregated as separate County of Vasconia in the early 9th century. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... The County of Vasconia was a small medieval realm segregated c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


In this period Northern Basques surely participated in the successive battles of Roncevaux against the Franks, in 778, 812 and 824. Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland†, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard but safety for the main force Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of... Events Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain. ... Events Births April 12 - Muhammad at-Taqi, Shia Imam (d. ... Events Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date). ...


Count Sans Sancion fought against the Franks again between 848 and 858 eventually becoming Duke of Vasconia. Sancho II Sánchez or Sans II Sancion[1] (died 864) succeeded his brother Aznar Sánchez as count of Vasconia Citerior (Gascony) in 836, in spite of the objections of Pepin I, King of Aquitaine. ... Events The Borobudur is completed. ... Events Patriarch Ignatius is imprisoned and (December 25) deposed to be succeeded by patriarch Photius I. Louis the German invades West Francia, hoping to secure Aquitaine from his brother Charles the Bald, but fails. ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ...


In 1020 Gascony ceded its juridsiction over Labourd, then also including Lower Navarre, to Sancho the Great of Pamplona. This monarch made it a Viscounty in 1023. The area became disputed by the Angevin Dukes of Aquitaine until 1191 when Sancho the Wise and Richard Lionheart agreed to divide the country, remaining Labourd under Angevin sovereignty and Lower Navarre under Navarrese control. Events Hospice built in Jerusalem by Knights Hospitaller City of Saint-Germain-en-Laye founded Third Italian campaign of Henry II of Germany Canute the Great codifies the laws of England Births Harold II of England (approximate) Empress Agnes of Poitou, regent of the Holy Roman Empire (d. ... Coat of Arms of Labourd Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum, Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Sancho III (c. ... British Viscount Coronet This article is about a European nobility. ... Events The Judge-Governor of Sevilla takes advantage of the disintegration of the caliphate of Córdoba and seizes power as Abbad I, thus founded the Abbadid dynasty. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... Sancho VI Garces, (c. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199. ...


Meanwhile, Soule (Zuberoa) was constitued as an independent viscounty, generally supported by Navarre against the pretensions of the Counts of Béarn, though at times also admitted certain Angevin overlordship.[1] Mauléon, capital of Soule Soule (Zuberoa, Xiberu or Xüberoa in Basque, Sola in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Coat of arms of the viscounts of Béarn. ...


With the end of the Hundred Years' War, Labourd and Soule passed to the Crown of France as autonomous provinces (pays d'êtat). After the conquest of High Navarre by Castile in 1512-21, the still independent north-pyrenean part of Navarre took the lead of the Huguenot party in the French Wars of Religion. In this time the Bible was first translated to Basque language[citation needed]. Eventually Henry II of Navarre would become King of France but kept Navarre as a formally independent state, until in 1610 this separation was suppressed. Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ...


The three Northern Basque provinces would still enjoy of great autonomy until the French Revolution suppressed it radically, as it did elsewhere in France, eventually creating the department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques, half Basque and half Gascon (Bearn, another sovereignty linked to the crown of France) The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Basque: Pirinio-Atlantiarrak or Pirinio-Atlantikoak) is a département in the southwest of France which takes its name from the Pyrenees mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. ...


See also

Basque Portal

Image File history File links Lauburu. ... The Aquitanii (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people of horsemen living in what is now SW France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... Guipuscoa province. ... Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Biscay (Basque Bizkaia, Spanish: Vizcaya) is a province of northern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Coat of Arms of Labourd Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum, Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Mauléon, capital of Soule Soule (Zuberoa, Xiberu or Xüberoa in Basque, Sola in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Basque_Country. ...

References

  1. ^ Baja Navarra y Zuberoa (La Historia y los Vascos - Vascon.Galeon.com)

 
 

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