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Encyclopedia > North Korea
조선민주주의인민공화국
朝鮮民主主義人民共和國
Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk[1]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Flag of North Korea Coat of arms of North Korea
Flag Coat of arms
Motto강성대국
(Powerful and prosperous nation)
AnthemAegukka
Capital
(and largest city)
Pyongyang
39°2′N, 125°45′E
Official languages Korean
Demonym North Korean, Korean
Government Juche Socialist Republic
 -  Eternal President of the Republic Kim Il-sung
(deceased) a
 -  Chairman of the National Defence Commission Kim Jong-ilb
 -  President of the Supreme People's Assembly Kim Yong-namc
 -  Premier Kim Yong-il
Establishment
 -  Independence declared March 1, 1919 
 -  Liberation August 15, 1945 
 -  Formal declaration September 9, 1948 
Area
 -  Total 120,540 km² (98th)
46,528 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.87
Population
 -  2007 estimate 23,301,725[2] (48th)
 -  Density 190/km² (55th)
492/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006[3] estimate
 -  Total $40.00 billion (91st)
 -  Per capita $1,900 (147th)
Currency North Korean won (₩) (KPW)
Time zone Korea Standard Time (UTC+9)
Internet TLD .kp
Calling code +850
a Died 1994, named "Eternal President" in 1998.
b Kim Jong-il is the nation's most prominent leading figure and government figure head, although he is neither the head of state nor the head of government; his official title is Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, a position which he has held since 1994.
c Kim Yong-nam is the "head of state for foreign affairs".

North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK[4]), a state located in East Asia, in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula, with its capital in the city of Pyongyang. This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... The national emblem of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea bears the design of a grand hydroelectric power plant under Mount Paektu, the sacred mountain of the revolution, and bearing the beaming light of a five-pointed red star, with ears of rice forming an oval frame, bound with... The Flag of North Korea was adopted on September 8, 1948, as the national flag and ensign. ... The National Emblem of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea bears the design of a hydroelectric power plant under Mount Paektu and bearing the beaming light of a five-pointed red star, with ears of rice forming an oval frame, bound with a red ribbon bearing the inscription The... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Aegukga is also the name of the national anthem of South Korea. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The demographics of North Korea are difficult to assess due to the limited amount of data available from the country. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... The position of Eternal President of the Republic is established by a line in the preface to the North Korean constitution. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... The National Defense Commission of North Korea serves as the highest political body in the vertical governing structure of North Koreas system of governance. ... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ... Kim Yong Nam is the current Chairman of the Presidium of the [[Supreme Categories: Korea-related stubs ... Kim Yong Nam (born 1928) is a North Korean official. ... The current Premier of North Korea is Pak Pong-ju. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Kim Not to be confused with Kim Jong-il, the de facto leader of North Korea Kim Yong-Il (born May 2, 1944) is the current Premier of North Korea. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... The March First Movement, or the Samil Movement, was one of the earliest displays of Korean nationalism during the Japanese rule. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Victory over Japan Day (V-J Day) is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which took place on August 15, 1945, ending the Second World War. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... USD redirects here. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... 5000 KPW issued in 2002 The won is the currency of North Korea. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... The Korea Standard Time (KST) is the standard timezone in North and South Korea and is 9 hours ahead of UTC (UTC+9): ie. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... North Korea has no Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD), but . ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The country calling code for North Korea is 850. ... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ... The Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea is the supreme commander of the North Korean military and the most powerful person in the North Korea. ... Kim Yong Nam (born 1928) is a North Korean official. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical region. ... This article is about the Korean Peninsula. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ...


To the south, separated by the Korean Demilitarized Zone, lies South Korea, with which it formed one nation until division following World War II. At its northern Amnok River border are China and, separated by the Tumen River in the extreme north-east, Russia. For Panmunjom or Joint Security Area, see Joint Security Area. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Manchu name Manchu: (Tumen ula) Mongolian name Mongolian: Russian name Russian: The Tumen or Dumen River is a 521 km-long river that serves as part of the boundary between China, North Korea, and Russia, rising in the Changbai/Jangbaek Mountains and flowing into the Sea...


North Korea is widely considered to be a Stalinist dictatorship.[5][6][7][8][9][10] The country's government styles itself as following the Juche ideology of self reliance, developed by Kim Il-sung, the country's former president. The current leader is Kim Jong-il, the late president Kim Il-sung's son. Relations are strongest with other officially socialist states, Vietnam, Laos, especially China and Russia, as well as with Cambodia and Myanmar. Following a major famine in the early 1990s, following the collapse of the Soviet Union (previously a major economic partner), leader Kim Jong-il instigated the "Military-First" policy in 1995, increasing economic concentration and support for the military. Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The North Korean famine occurred during the mid 1990s in North Korea and lasted until about 2001, when the country had mostly recovered from the Arduous March, but it was not until 2004 that North Korea finally announced that it would need no further assistance from foreign aid suppliers. ... Sŏngun, often spelled Songun, is North Koreas “Military First” policy, which prioritizes the Korean Peoples Army in the affairs of state and allocates national resources to the army first. ...


North Korea's culture is officially promoted and heavily controlled by the government. The Mass Games are government-organized events glorifying its two leaders, involving over 100,000 performers. A 1998 mass gymnastics display in Pyongyang. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of North Korea
See also: History of Korea and Division of Korea

For the history of Korea before its division, see History of Korea. ... This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ...

Formation

In the aftermath of the Japanese occupation of Korea, which ended with Japan's defeat in World War II in 1945, the Soviet Union accepted the surrender of Japanese forces and controlled the area north of the 38th parallel, with the United States controlling the area south of this parallel. Virtually all Koreans welcomed liberation from Japanese imperial rule, yet objected to the re-imposition of foreign rule upon their country. The Soviets and Americans disagreed on the implementation of Joint Trusteeship over Korea, with each establishing its socio-economic system upon its jurisdiction, leading, in 1948, to the establishment of ideologically opposed governments.[11] The United States and the Soviet Union then withdrew their forces from Korea. Growing tensions and border skirmishes between north and south led to a civil war, known as the Korean War. Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Soviet redirects here. ... The 38th parallel north is a line of latitude that cuts across Asia, the Mediterranean and the United States. ... On the Earth, a circle of latitude is an imaginary east-west circle that connects all locations with a given latitude. ... Look up Liberation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...


On June 25, 1950, the (North) Korean People's Army crossed the 38th parallel, with the war aim of peninsular reunification under their political system. The war continued until July 27, 1953, when the United Nations Command, the Korean People's Army, and the Chinese People's Volunteer Army signed the Korean War Armistice Agreement.[12] Since that time the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) has separated the North and South. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Korean Peoples Army refers to the armed personnel of the Joseph Stalin. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN redirects here. ... The Chinese Peoples Volunteer Army (PVA) (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a volunteer army deployed by the Chinese government during the Korean War. ... For Panmunjom or Joint Security Area, see Joint Security Area. ...


Economic evolution

In the aftermath of the Korean War and throughout the 1960s, the country's state-controlled economy grew at a significant rate. It was considered the second most industrialized nation in Asia, after Japan.[citation needed] During the 1970s, the expansion of North Korea's economy, with the accompanying rise in living standards, came to an end, and a few decades later went into reverse. The country struggled throughout the 1990s, largely due to the loss of strategic trade arrangements with the USSR,[13] and strained relations with China following China's normalization with South Korea in 1992.[14] In addition, North Korea experienced record-breaking floods in 1995 and 1996, followed by several years of equally severe drought, beginning in 1997.[15] This situation, compounded by the existence of only 18 percent arable land[16] and an inability to import goods necessary to sustain industry,[17] led to an immense famine and left North Korea in economic shambles. Large numbers of North Koreans illegally entered the People's Republic of China in search of food. Faced with a country in decay, Kim Jong-il adopted a "Military-First" policy to reinforce the regime.[18] Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Soviet redirects here. ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Sŏngun, often spelled Songun, is North Koreas “Military First” policy, which prioritizes the Korean Peoples Army in the affairs of state and allocates national resources to the army first. ...


Although private property is still formally prohibited, the volume of private trade with China grows year by year. The collapse of the system of state allowances has also contributed to the growth of a multi-sector market economy.[19] Collapse of large state-owned enterprises released a huge amount of workers who engage in cross-border trade with China.


Government and politics

North Korea is a self-described Juche (self-reliance) state.[20] Government is organized as a dictatorship, with a pronounced cult of personality organized around Kim Il-sung (the founder of North Korea and the country's first and only president) and his son and heir, Kim Jong-il. Following Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, he was not replaced but instead received the designation of "Eternal President", and was entombed in the vast Kumsusan Memorial Palace in central Pyongyang. The politics of North Korea take place within a nominally democratic framework; in practice, North Korea functions as a single-party state. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 76 KB) Summary The Tower of Juche Idea statue in central Pyongyang. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 76 KB) Summary The Tower of Juche Idea statue in central Pyongyang. ... The Juche Tower is a monument in Pyongyang, North Korea. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... This article is about the political institution. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ... The position of Eternal President of the Republic is established by a line in the preface to the North Korean constitution. ... The official residence of North Koreas head of state until Kim Il Sungs death. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ...


Although the active position of president has been abolished in deference to the memory of Kim Il-sung,[21] the de facto head of state is Kim Jong-il, who is Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea. The legislature of North Korea is the Supreme People's Assembly, currently led by President Kim Yong-nam. The other senior government figure is Premier Kim Yong-il. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea is the supreme commander of the North Korean military and the most powerful person in the North Korea. ... The Supreme Peoples Assembly (SPA) is the unicameral parliament of North Korea (DPRK). ... Kim Yong Nam (born 1928) is a North Korean official. ... Kim Il Sung (9 September 1948 - 28 December 1972) Kim Il (28 December 1972 - 29 April 1976) Pak Song Chol (19 April 1976 - 16 December 1977) Li Jong Ok (16 December 1977 - 27 January 1984) Kang Song San (27 January 1984 - 29 December 1986) (1st time) Li Gun Mo (29... This is a Korean name; the family name is Kim Not to be confused with Kim Jong-il, the de facto leader of North Korea Kim Yong-Il (born May 2, 1944) is the current Premier of North Korea. ...


North Korea is a single-party state. The governing party is the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, a coalition of the Workers' Party of North Korea and two other smaller parties, the North Korean Social Democratic Party and the Chondoist Chongu Party. These parties nominate all candidates for office and hold all seats in the Supreme People's Assembly. The Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland is a North Korean united front led by the Workers Party of Korea (WPK). ... The Workers Party of North Korea (Korean: ) (1946–1949) was a communist party in North Korea, a predecessor of the current Workers Party of Korea. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Human rights

Many Northern Koreaners have witnessed many deaths due to attacks. Multiple international human rights organizations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, accuse North Korea of having one of the worst human rights records of any nation.[22] North Koreans have been referred to as "some of the world's most brutalized people", due to the severe restrictions placed on their political and economic freedoms.[23] North Korean defectors have testified to the existence of prison and detention camps with an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 inmates (about 0.85% of the population), and have reported torture, starvation, rape, murder, medical experimentation, forced labour, and forced abortions. By comparison, the United States Prison System makes up about 0.82% of the total US population. [24] The human rights record of North Korea is extremely difficult to fully assess due to the secretive and closed nature of the country. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... The annual surveys Economic Freedom of the World and Index of Economic Freedom are two indices which attempt to measure the degree of economic freedom, using a definition for this similar to laissez-faire capitalism, in the worlds nations. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... There have been several reports of alleged North Korean human experimentation. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ... Prisons in the United States are operated by both the federal and state governments as incarceration is a concurrent power under the Constitution of the United States. ...


The system changed slightly at the end of 1990s, when population growth became very low. In many cases, where capital punishment was de facto, it was replaced by less severe punishments. Bribery became prevalent throughout the country. For example, just listening to South Korean radio could result in capital punishment. However, many North Koreans wear clothes of South Korean origin, listen to Southern music, watch South Korean videotapes and even receive Southern broadcasts,[25][26] although they are still prohibited; in most cases punishment is nothing more than a pecuniary fine, and many such problems are normally solved "unofficially", through bribery.[citation needed]


Foreign relations

See also: North Korea-United States relations

Since the ceasefire of the Korean War in 1953, the relations between the North Korean government and South Korea, the United States, and Japan have remained tense. Fighting was halted in the ceasefire, but both Koreas are still technically at war. Both North and South Korea signed the June 15th North-South Joint Declaration in 2000, in which both sides made promises to seek out a peaceful reunification.[27] Additionally, on October 4, 2007, the leaders of North and South Korea pledged to hold summit talks to officially declare the war over and reaffirmed the principle of mutual non-aggression.[28] The foreign relations of North Korea are often tense and unpredictable. ... North Korea-United States relations developed primarily during the Korean War, but in recent years have been largely defined by the United States suspicions regarding North Koreas nuclear programs and North Koreas desire to normalize relations with the U.S., tempered by a stated perception of an imminent... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... // Description In August 2000, after over 50 years’ separation, members of the visiting groups of separated families and relatives in the north and the south had an impressive meeting with their own flesh and blood in Pyongyang and Seoul in August when the Korean people’s reunification zeal heightened after... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


In 2002, U.S. President George W. Bush labelled North Korea part of an "axis of evil" and an "outpost of tyranny". The highest-level contact the government has had with the United States was with U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who made a visit to Pyongyang in 2000,[29] but the two countries do not have formal diplomatic relations.[2] In 2006, approximately 37,000 American soldiers remained in South Korea, with plans to reduce the number to 25,000 by 2008.[30] Kim Jong-il has privately stated his acceptance of U.S. troops on the peninsula, even after a possible reunification.[31] It is claimed by U.S. sources that if North Korea and the United States normalize relations, both Koreas would wish to maintain the presence of US troops, out of fear of China and Japan, but North Korea strongly denies that and demands the removal of American troops (see North Korea-United States relations).[31] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other uses, see Axis of evil (disambiguation). ... World map indicating (in green) the countries of Rices outposts of tyranny. The United States is shown in blue. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ... Korean reunification is a possible future reunification of North Korea and South Korea under a single government. ... North Korea-United States relations developed primarily during the Korean War, but in recent years have been largely defined by the United States suspicions regarding North Koreas nuclear programs and North Koreas desire to normalize relations with the U.S., tempered by a stated perception of an imminent...


North Korea has long maintained close relations with the People's Republic of China and Russia. The fall of communism in eastern Europe in 1989, and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, resulted in a devastating drop in aid to North Korea from Russia, although China continues to provide substantial assistance. North Korea continues to have strong ties with its socialist southeast Asian allies in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.[32] North Korea has started installing a concrete and barbed wire fence on its northern border, in response to China's wishing to curb refugees fleeing from North Korea. Previously the shared border with China and North Korea had only been lightly patrolled.[33] The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Chinese-Korean Border Fence is a fence constructed on both sides of the 1,416-kilometre border shared between China and North Korea. ...


As a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program, the Six-party talks were established to find a peaceful solution to the growing unrest between the two Korean governments, the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China, Japan, and the United States. North Korea claims to possess nuclear weapons, and the CIA asserts that it has a substantial arsenal of chemical weapons. ... South Korean name Chinese name Japanese name Russian name The six-party talks aim to find a peaceful resolution to the security concerns as a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program. ...


On July 17, 2007, United Nations inspectors verified the shutdown of five North Korean nuclear facilities, according to the February 2007 agreement.[34] is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On October 4, 2007, South Korean President Roh Moo-Hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il signed an 8-point peace agreement, on issues of permanent peace, high-level talks, economic cooperation, renewal of train, highway and air travel, and a joint Olympic cheering squad.[35] is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Propaganda towards South Korea

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) government officially states on its website [36] that the U.S. government controls South Korea, and maintains an army of 40,000 US military personnel there to "avoid the union of the Korean people".


The DPRK also advises that any South Korean attempting to cross into North Korea will be killed by U.S. soldiers. According to the DPRK, any South Korean citizen who talks or reads about North Korea will be punished with incarceration or capital punishment.


This perspective is rejected by the international community at large.


Military

Main article: Korean People's Army

Kim Jong-il is the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea. The Korean People's Army (KPA) is the name for the collective armed personnel of the North Korean military. The army has four branches: Ground Force, Naval Force, Air Force, and the Civil Securities Force. Korean Peoples Army refers to the armed personnel of the Joseph Stalin. ... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ... Supreme Commander of the Korean Peoples Army is the highest post of control of the Korean Peoples Army, army of North Korea. ... The Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea is the supreme commander of the North Korean military and the most powerful person in the North Korea. ... Korean Peoples Army refers to the armed personnel of the Joseph Stalin. ... The North Korean Ground Forces in 1960 may have totalled fewer than 400,000 persons and probably did not rise much above that figure before 1972. ... The Korean Peoples Army Naval Force was established on June 5, 1946. ... Roundel of the KPAAF The Korean Peoples Army Air force (aka North Korean Air Force) is equipped mainly with Soviet-era and non-vital Chinese technology. ...


According to the U.S. Department of State, North Korea has the fourth-largest military in the world, at an estimated 1.21 million armed personnel, with about 20% of men aged 17-54 in the regular armed forces.[37] North Korea has the highest percentage of military personnel per capita of any nation in the world, with approximately 40 enlisted soldiers per 1,000 citizens.[38] Military strategy is designed for insertion of agents and sabotage behind enemy lines in wartime,[37] with much of the KPA's forces deployed along the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone. Department of State redirects here. ... For Panmunjom or Joint Security Area, see Joint Security Area. ...


Nuclear weapons program

On October 9, 2006, North Korea conducted its first nuclear test.[39] The blast was smaller than expected and U.S. officials suggested that it may have been an unsuccessful test or a partially successful fizzle.[40] North Korea has previously stated that it has produced nuclear weapons and according to U.S. intelligence and military officials it has produced, or has the capability to produce, up to six or seven such devices.[41] North Korea claims to possess nuclear weapons, and the CIA asserts that it has a substantial arsenal of chemical weapons. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted on October 9, 2006 by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. ... An American nuclear test. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ...


On March 17, 2007, North Korea told delegates at international nuclear talks it would begin shut down preparations for its main nuclear facility. This was later confirmed on 14 July 2007 as International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors observed the initial shut-down phases of the currently operating 5 MW Yongbyon nuclear reactor, despite there being no official time line declared. In return, the reclusive nation has received 50,000 tons of heavy fuel oil shipped from South Korea. Once the old small nuclear reactor is permanently shut down, North Korea will receive the equivalent of 950,000 tons of fuel oil when the six-nation talks reconvene. Following breakthrough talks held in September 2007, aimed at hastening the end of North Korea's nuclear program, North Korea was to "disable some part of its nuclear facilities" by the end of 2007, according to the US Assistant Secretary of State. is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center[1] is North Koreas major nuclear facility, operating its first nuclear reactors. ... Residual fuel is any petroleum-based fuel which contains the undistilled residue from atmospheric or vacuum distillation of crude oil. ...


The details of such an agreement are due to be worked out in a session held in the People's Republic of China which will involve South Korea, China, Russia and Japan. Terms for the agreement have thus far not been disclosed, nor has it been disclosed what offer was made on the United States's part in exchange. The possibility of removing North Korea from the US list of state sponsors of terrorism has been discussed, which imposes a ban on all arms related trade with countries on the list, along with withholding US aid. Should these bans be lifted, the US may help North Koreans following devastating floods in August 2007. Flooding in North Korea in August 2007 caused extensive damage and loss of life. ...


On 25 April 2008 the US released a video of a Syrian Military complex which featured Chon Chibu the nuclear scientist from the Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center on a sight-seeing trip of Syria. The Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center[1] is North Koreas major nuclear facility, operating its first nuclear reactors. ...


Geography

See also: Korean Peninsula
Map of North Korea
Map of North Korea

North Korea is on the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula, covering an area of 120,540 square kilometres (46,541 sq mi). North Korea shares land borders with China and Russia to the north, and borders South Korea along the Korean Demilitarized Zone. To its west are the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay, and to its east lies Japan across the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea). The highest point in North Korea is Paektu-san Mountain at 2,744 metres (9,003 ft). The longest river is the Amnok River which flows for 790 kilometres (491 mi).[42] Map of North Korea North Korea is located in eastern Asia, on the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... This article is about the Korean Peninsula. ... Download high resolution version (573x603, 24 KB)This is a map of North Korea showing major settlements. ... Download high resolution version (573x603, 24 KB)This is a map of North Korea showing major settlements. ... This article is about the Korean Peninsula. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... For Panmunjom or Joint Security Area, see Joint Security Area. ... ... The Korea Bay, also called the West Korea Bay, is located at the north of the Yellow Sea, between Liaoning Province of China and North Pyŏngan Province of North Korea. ... The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ...


North Korea's climate is relatively temperate, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called changma, and winters that can be bitterly cold.[43] For a week from 7 August 2007 the most devastating floods in 40 years caused the North Korean Government to ask for international help. NGOs, such as the Red Cross, asked people to raise funds because they feared a humanitarian catastrophe.[44] For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Flooding in North Korea in August 2007 caused extensive damage and loss of life. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The capital and largest city is Pyongyang; other major cities include Kaesong in the south, Sinuiju in the northwest, Wonsan and Hamhung in the east and Chongjin in the northeast. Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Kaesong city centre Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty. ... Sinŭiju (Sinŭiju-si) is a city in North Korea, on the border with China and is the capital of North Pyŏngan Province. ... Wonsan is a port city and naval base in southeastern North Korea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chŏngjin (Chŏngjin-si), North Koreas third largest city. ...


Economy

A satellite photo of the Korean Peninsula at night. The largest northern group of lights, Pyongyang is dwarfed by the massive southern group showing Seoul, illustrating large differences in outdoor illumination between North Korea and its neighbours.
A satellite photo of the Korean Peninsula at night. The largest northern group of lights, Pyongyang is dwarfed by the massive southern group showing Seoul, illustrating large differences in outdoor illumination between North Korea and its neighbours.
See also: Tourism in North Korea

In the aftermath of the Korean War and throughout the 1960s and '70s, the country's state-controlled economy grew at a significant rate before collapsing. State-owned industry produces nearly all manufactured goods. The government focuses on heavy military industry, following Kim Jong-il's adoption of the Songun "Military-First" policy. Estimates of the North Korean economy cover a broad range, as the country does not release official figures and the secretive nature of the country makes outside estimation difficult. According to accepted estimates, North Korea spends $5 billion out of a gross domestic product (GDP) of $20.9 billion on the military, compared with South Korea's $24 billion out of a GDP of $1.196 trillion. Part of the reason for this is that the military serves a number of roles in addition to national defense. The military assists farmers with crops, local areas with building of infrastrucure, and, as is similar to the National Guard in the United States, assisting during natural disasters.[45][46] Image File history File linksMetadata Korean_peninsula_at_night. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Korean_peninsula_at_night. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Tourism in North Korea is highly controlled by the government, and as such it is not a frequently visited destination — roughly 1,500 Western tourists visit North Korea each year, along with larger numbers of Chinese and other Asians. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Sŏngun, often spelled Songun, is North Koreas “Military First” policy, which prioritizes the Korean Peoples Army in the affairs of state and allocates national resources to the army first. ... GDP redirects here. ...


1990s famine

Main article: North Korean famine

In the 1990s North Korea faced significant economic disruptions, including a series of natural disasters, economic mismanagement, serious fertilizer shortages, and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. These resulted in a shortfall of staple grain output of more than 1 million tons from what the country needs to meet internationally-accepted minimum dietary requirements.[47] The North Korean famine known as "Arduous March" resulted in the deaths of between 300,000 and 800,000 North Koreans per year during the three year famine, peaking in 1997, with 2.0 million total being "the highest possible estimate."[48] The deaths were most likely caused by famine-related illnesses such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, and diarrhea rather than starvation.[48] The North Korean famine occurred during the mid 1990s in North Korea and lasted until about 2001, when the country had mostly recovered from the Arduous March, but it was not until 2004 that North Korea finally announced that it would need no further assistance from foreign aid suppliers. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Grain redirects here. ... The North Korean famine occurred during the mid 1990s in North Korea and lasted until about 2001, when the country had mostly recovered from the Arduous March, but it was not until 2004 that North Korea finally announced that it would need no further assistance from foreign aid suppliers. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ...


In 2006, Amnesty International reported that a national nutrition survey conducted by the North Korean government, the World Food Programme, and UNICEF found that 7 percent of children were severely malnourished; 37 percent were chronically malnourished; 23.4 percent were underweight; and one in three mothers was malnourished and anaemic as the result of the lingering effect of the famine. The inflation caused by some of the 2002 economic reforms, including the Songun or "Military-first" policy, was cited for creating the increased price of basic foods.[49] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... WFP redirects here. ... UNICEF Logo Org type: Fund Acronyms: UNICEF Head: Ann Veneman Status: Active Established: 1946 Website: http://www. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Sŏngun, often spelled Songun, is North Koreas “Military First” policy, which prioritizes the Korean Peoples Army in the affairs of state and allocates national resources to the army first. ...


The history of Japanese assistance to North Korea is more tumultuous than that of the United States from a large pro-Pyongyang community of North Koreans in Japan to public outrage over the 1998 North Korean missile launch and revelation of the abductions of Japanese citizens.[50] In June 1995 an agreement was reached that the two countries would act jointly (Snyder1999).[51] South Korea would provid 150,000 MT of grain in unmarked bags, and Japan would provide 150,000 MT gratis and another 150,000 MT on concessional terms.[52] In October 1995 and January 1996, North Korea again approached Japan for assistance. On these two accasions, which at a crucial moment in the evolution of the famine, opposition from both South Korea and domestic political sources quashed the deals.[53] Beginning in 1997, the U.S. began shipping food aid to North Korea through the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) to combat the famine. Shipments peaked in 1999 at nearly 700,000 tons making the U.S. the largest foreign aid donor to the country at the time. Under the Bush Administration, aid was drastically reduced year after year from 350,000 tons in 2001 to 40,000 in 2004.[54] The Bush Administration took criticism for using "food as a weapon" during talks over the North's nuclear weapons program, but insisted the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) criteria were the same for all countries and the situation in North Korea had "improved significantly since its collapse in the mid-1990s." Agricultural production had increased from about 2.7 million metric tons in 1997 to 4.2 million metric tons in 2004.[55] Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... WFP redirects here. ... The Presidency of George W. Bush, also known as the George W. Bush Administration, began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America. ... USAID logo The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ...


Foreign commerce

China and South Korea remain the largest donors of unconditional food aid to North Korea. The U.S. objects to this manner of donating food due to lack of oversight.[55] In 2005, China and South Korea combined to provide 1 million tons of food aid, each contributing half.[56] In addition to food aid, China reportedly provides an estimated 80 to 90 percent of North Korea's oil imports at "friendly prices" that are sharply lower than the world market price.[57] Own picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Own picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Route map of Pyongyang Metro The Pyongyang Metro is a metro system in Pyongyang, North Korea, consisting of two lines. ...


On 19 September 2005, North Korea was promised fuel aid and various other non-food incentives from South Korea, the U.S., Japan, Russia, and China in exchange for abandoning its nuclear weapons program and rejoining the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Providing food in exchange for abandoning weapons programs has historically been avoided by the U.S. so as not to be perceived as "using food as a weapon".[58] Humanitarian aid from North Korea's neighbors has been cut off at times to provoke North Korea to resume boycotted talks, such as South Korea's "postponed consideration" of 500,000 tons of rice for the North in 2006 but the idea of providing food as a clear incentive (as opposed to resuming "general humanitarian aid") has been avoided.[59] There have also been aid disruptions due to widespread theft of railroad cars used by mainland China to deliver food relief.[60] is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Great Western Railway No. ...


In July 2002, North Korea started experimenting with capitalism in the Kaesong Industrial Region.[61] A small number of other areas have been designated as Special Administrative Regions, including Sinŭiju along the China-North Korea border. China and South Korea are the biggest trade partners of North Korea, with trade with China increasing 15% to US$1.6 billion in 2005, and trade with South Korea increasing 50% to over 1 billion for the first time in 2005.[58] It is reported that the number of mobile phones in Pyongyang rose from only 3,000 in 2002 to approximately 20,000 during 2004.[62] As of June 2004, however, mobile phones became forbidden again.[63] A small number of capitalistic elements are gradually spreading from the trial area, including a number of advertising billboards along certain highways. Recent visitors have reported that the number of open-air farmers' markets has increased in Kaesong and Pyongyang, as well as along the China-North Korea border, bypassing the food rationing system. Kaesŏng Industrial Region (Kaesŏng Kongŏp Chigu) is a special administrative region of North Korea. ... In North and South Korea, Special cities, Metropolitan Cities, and Directly Governed Cities are cities that have a status equivalent to that of Provinces (Do). ... SinÅ­iju Special Administrative Region was a proposed special administrative region (SAR) of North Korea, on the border with China. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Kaesong city centre Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ...


In an event in 2003 dubbed the "Pong Su incident", a North Korean cargo ship allegedly attempting to smuggle heroin into Australia was seized by Australian officials, strengthening Australian and United States' suspicions that Pyongyang engages in international drug smuggling. The North Korean government denied any involvement.[64] The Pong Su Incident was a suspected case of North Korean government drug trafficking, involving the Australian seizure of a DPRK ship, the Pong Su. ...


Tourism

Tourism in North Korea is organized by the state owned Tourism Organisation ("Ryohaengsa"). Every group of travelers as well as individual tourist/visitors are permanently accompanied by one or two "guides" who normally speak the mother tongue of the tourist. The whole program is dictated by the guides; any contact with North Koreans is subdued, whenever possible. While tourism has increased over the last few years, tourists from Western countries remain few. The majority of the tourists that do go come from China and Japan. For citizens of the US and South Korea it is practically impossible to obtain a visa for North Korea. Exceptions for US citizens are made for the yearly Arirang Festival. Arirang Festival This North Korean festival is held in the Rungnado May Day Stadium in Pyongyang, North Korea to celebrate the late Communist leader Kim Il-sungs birthdate on 15 April. ...


In the area of the Kŭmgangsan-mountains, the company Hyundai established and operates a special Tourist area. Travels to this area, one of the nicest region on the Korean peninsula, are possible also for South Koreans and US citizens, but only in organized groups from South Korea. ("see also Kŭmgangsan Tourist Region"). KÅ­mgangsan (Diamond Mountain) is the second-tallest mountain in North Korea, with a height of 1638 metres. ... South Korean business tycoon Chung Ju-yung, founder and honorary chairman of Hyundai Group, 1998 Hyundai refers to a group of companies founded by Chung Ju-yung in South Korea, and related organizations. ...


Transport

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tourism in North Korea is highly controlled by the government, and as such it is not a frequently visited destination — roughly 1,500 Western tourists visit North Korea each year, along with larger numbers of Chinese and other Asians. ...

Demographics

North Korea's population of roughly 23 million is one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous in the world, with very small numbers of Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, South Korean and European expatriate minorities. The demographics of North Korea are difficult to assess due to the limited amount of data available from the country. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Religion

North Korea religiosity
religion percent
Atheist
 
71.2%
Cheondoism
 
12.9%
Korean shamanism
 
12.3%
Christianity
 
2.1%
Buddhism
 
1.5%

Both Koreas share a Buddhist and Confucian heritage and a recent history of Christian and Cheondoism ("religion of the Heavenly Way") movements. The North Korean constitution states that freedom of religion is permitted.[65] According to Human Rights Watch, free religious activities no longer exist in the DPRK as the government sponsors religious groups only to create an illusion of religious freedom.[66] In practical terms all religion in North Korea is superseded by a cult of personality devoted to the deceased ruler Kim Il-Sung and his heir, Kim Jong-Il. For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... There are a number of shamanistic practices that are developed in Korea, where the role of a shaman is most frequently taken by women. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Traditionally, religion North Korea primarily consists of Buddhism and Confucianism, as well as, though to a lesser extent, Christianity and syncretic Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way). ... The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism developed in Korea. ... It has been suggested that Christianization of Korea be merged into this article or section. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Pyongyang was the centre of Christian activity in Korea before the Korean War. Today, two state-sanctioned churches exist, which freedom of religion advocates say are showcases for foreigners.[67][68] Official government statistics report that there are 10,000 Protestants and 4,000 Roman Catholics in North Korea.[69] The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


According to a ranking published by Open Doors, an organization that supports persecuted Christians, North Korea is currently the country with the most severe persecution of Christians in the world.[70] Human rights groups such as Amnesty International also have expressed concerns about religious persecution in North Korea.[71] Open Doors is an international Christian mission, helping the Church in countries where Christians are persecuted for their faith or cannot practise their faith freely. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


According to government's statistics, as of 2000 Cheondoism is the largest organized religion in North Korea, which adherents constitute about 12.9% of the total population.[72] Cheondoists are followed by Christians (2.1%) and Buddhists (1.5%).[73] Korean shamanism, an unorganized system of beliefs, is followed by 12.3% of the North Koreans.[74] This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... There are a number of shamanistic practices that are developed in Korea, where the role of a shaman is most frequently taken by women. ...


Language

North Korea shares the Korean language with South Korea. There are dialect differences within both Koreas, but the border between North and South does not represent a major linguistic boundary. While prevalent in the South, the adoption of modern terms from foreign languages has been limited in North Korea. Hanja (Chinese characters) are no longer used in North Korea, although still occasionally used in South Korea. Both Koreas share the phonetic writing system called Chosongul in North Korea and Hangul South of the DMZ. The official Romanization differs in the two countries, with North Korea using a slightly modified McCune-Reischauer system, and the South using the Revised Romanization of Korean. This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ... Jamo redirects here. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ...


Culture

Scene from Mass Games in Pyongyang.
Scene from Mass Games in Pyongyang.

There is a vast cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il and much of North Korea's literature, popular music, theater, and film glorify the two men. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A 1998 mass gymnastics display in Pyongyang. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... This article is about the traditional culture of Korea. ... Since the establishment of the Han Dynasty colonies in the northern Korean Peninsula 2,000 years ago, Koreans have been under the cultural influence of China. ... This article is about the political institution. ...


A popular event in North Korea is the Mass Games. The most recent and largest Mass Games was called "Arirang". It was performed six nights a week for two months, and involved over 100,000 performers. Attendees to this event report that the anti-West sentiments have been toned down compared to previous performances. The Mass Games involve performances of dance, gymnastic, and choreographic routines which celebrate the history of North Korea and the Workers' Party Revolution. The Mass Games are held in Pyongyang at various venues (varying according to the scale of the Games in a particular year) including the May Day Stadium. A 1998 mass gymnastics display in Pyongyang. ... Arirang Festival This North Korean festival is held in the Rungnado May Day Stadium in Pyongyang, North Korea to celebrate the late Communist leader Kim Il-sungs birthdate on 15 April. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, gracefulness, and kinesthetic awareness, and includes such skills as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... Look up Choreography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Culture is officially protected by the North Korean government. Large buildings committed to culture have been built, such as the People's Palace of Culture or the Grand People's Palace of Studies, both in Pyongyang. Outside the capital, there's a major theatre in Hamhung and in every city there are State-run theatres and stadiums. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Korean culture came under attack during the Japanese rule from 1910-1945. Japan enforced a cultural assimilation policy. Koreans were forced to learn and speak Japanese, adopt the Japanese family name system and Shinto religion, and forbidden to write or speak the Korean language in schools, businesses, or public places.[75] In addition, the Japanese altered or destroyed various Korean monuments including Gyeongbok Palace and documents which portrayed the Japanese in a negative light were revised. This methodical alteration process was done by the Editing Agency of Korean History. Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi... Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Gyeongbokgung (Gyeongbok Palace) is a palace located in northern Seoul, South Korea. ... The Agency for Editing of Korean History (KyÅ«jitai: ; Shinjitai: ; Rōmaji: Chōsenshi HenshÅ«kai) was established in June 1925 by the Japanese government of Royal edict in order to legitimate Japans 1910 annexation of Korea. ...


In July 2004, the Complex of Goguryeo Tombs became the first site in the country to be included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The Complex of Goguryeo Tombs lies in North Korea. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Administrative divisions

See also: Provinces of Korea and Special cities of Korea

North Korea is divided into nine provinces, three special regions, and two directly-governed cities (chikhalsi, 직할시, 直轄市) : Administrative divisions of North Korea The administrative divisions of North Korea are organized into three hierarchical levels. ... Map of North Korea The following is a list of cities in North Korea: Pyŏngyang (평양) Anchu-si (안주시, 安州市) Chŏngjin-si (청진시, 淸津市) Danchŏn-si (단천시, 端川市) Dŏkchŏn-si (덕천시, 德川市) Haechu-si (해주시, 海州市) Hamheung-si (함흥시, 咸興市) Hwichŏn-si (희천시, 熙川市... This article describes the historical evolution of Koreas provinces (Do ; Hangul: 도; Hanja: 道). For detailed information on current administrative divisions, please see Administrative divisions of North Korea and Administrative divisions of South Korea. ... In North and South Korea, Special cities, Metropolitan Cities, and Directly Governed Cities are cities that have a status equivalent to that of Provinces (Do). ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative...


Provinces

Division Transliteration Hangul Hanja
Province
Chagang Chagang-do 자강도 慈江道
North Hamgyong Hamgyŏng-pukto 함경북도 咸鏡北道
South Hamgyong Hamgyŏng-namdo 함경남도 咸鏡南道
North Hwanghae Hwanghae-pukto 황해북도 黃海北道
South Hwanghae Hwanghae-namdo 황해남도 黃海南道
Kangwon Kangwŏndo 강원도 江原道
North Pyongan P'yŏngan-pukto 평안북도 平安北道
South Pyongan P'yŏngan-namdo 평안남도 平安南道
Ryanggang * Ryanggang-do 량강도 兩江道
Special regions
Kaesŏng Industrial Region Kaesŏng Kong-ŏp Chigu 개성공업지구 開城工業地區
Kumgangsan Tourist Region Kŭmgangsan Kwangwang Chigu 금강산관광지구 金剛山觀光地區
Sinuiju Special Administrative Region Sinŭiju T'ŭkpyŏl Haengjŏnggu 신의주특별행정구 新義州特別行政區
Directly-governed cities
Pyongyang P'yŏngyang Chikhalsi 평양직할시 平壤直轄市
Rason Rasŏn (Rajin-Sŏnbong) Chikhalsi 라선(라진-선봉) 직할시 羅先(羅津-先鋒) 直轄市

* - Sometimes rendered "Yanggang" (양강도). Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Image File history File links North_Korea_Div. ... Chagang (Chagang-do) is a province in North Korea. ... North Hamgyŏng (Hamgyŏng-pukto) is a province of North Korea. ... South Hamgyŏng (Hamgyŏng-namdo) is a province of North Korea. ... North Hwanghae (Hwanghae-pukto) is a province of North Korea. ... South Hwanghae (Hwanghae-namdo) is a province of North Korea. ... Kangwon (Kangwon-do) is a province of North Korea, with its capital at Wŏnsan. ... North Pyŏngan (Pyŏngan-pukto) is a province of North Korea. ... South Pyŏngan (Pyŏngan-namdo) is a province of North Korea. ... Ryanggang (Ryanggang-do) is a province in North Korea. ... Kaesŏng Industrial Region (Kaesŏng Kongŏp Chigu, 개성공업지구) is a special administrative region of North Korea. ... KÅ­mgangsan Tourist Region is a special administrative region of North Korea. ... SinÅ­iju Special Administrative Region (SinÅ­iju TÅ­kbyŏl Haengjeonggu; 신의주 특별 행정구; 新義州特別行政區) is a special administrative region (SAR) of North Korea, on the border with China. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Rasŏn (formerly Rajin-Sŏnbong) is a Directly Governed City in North Korea, which borders with Jilin province of China and Primorsky Krai of Russia. ...


Major cities

Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... SinÅ­iju (SinÅ­iju-si) is a city in North Korea, on the border with China and is the capital of North Pyŏngan Province. ... Kaesong city centre Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty. ... Nampo is a city and seaport in South Pyŏngan Province, North Korea. ... Chŏngjin (Chŏngjin-si), North Koreas third largest city. ... Wonsan is a port city and naval base in southeastern North Korea. ... Sariwŏn is the capital of North Hwanghae Province, North Korea. ... Hoeryŏng is a city in North Hamgyŏng Province, North Korea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Haeju (Hanja: 海州) is a city in North Korea located in South Hwanghae Province near Haeju Bay. ... Kanggye is the provincial capital of Chagang, North Korea and has a population of 209,000. ... Hyesan is a city in the northern part of the northern Ryanggang province of North Korea. ... Kimchaek, formerly Sŏngjin (성진), is a city in North Hamgyong Province, North Korea. ... Kangso is a city in South Pyongan Province, North Korea. ...

See also

This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Administrative Divisions and Population Figures (#26) (PDF). DPRK: The Land of the Morning Calm. Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (2003-04). Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
  2. ^ a b Korea, North. CIA World Factbook (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-01. North Korea itself does not disclose figures.
  3. ^ Country Profile: North Korea. Foreign and Commonwealth Office, UK (2007-07-20). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  4. ^ Another acronym occasionally used in the media is DPRNK, as for Democratic People's Republic of North Korea.
  5. ^ Spencer, Richard (2007-08-28). North Korea power struggle looms. The Telegraph (online version of UK national newspaper). Retrieved on 2007-10-31. “A power struggle to succeed Kim Jong-il as leader of North Korea's Stalinist dictatorship may be looming after his eldest son was reported to have returned from semi-voluntary exile.”
  6. ^ Brooke, James (2003-10-02). North Korea Says It Is Using Plutonium to Make A-Bombs. The New York Times (online version of New York, United States newspaper). Retrieved on 2007-10-31. “North Korea, run by a Stalinist dictatorship for almost six decades, is largely closed to foreign reporters and it is impossible to independently check today's claims.”
  7. ^ Parry, Richard Lloyd (2007-09-05). North Korea's nuclear 'deal' leaves Japan feeling nervous. The Times (online version of UK's national newspaper of record). Retrieved on 2007-10-31. “The US Government contradicted earlier North Korean claims that it had agreed to remove the Stalinist dictatorship’s designation as a terrorist state and to lift economic sanctions, as part of talks aimed at disarming Pyongyang of its nuclear weapons.”
  8. ^ Walsh, Lynn (2003-02-08). The Korean crisis. CWI online: Socialism Today, February 2003 edition, journal of the Socialist Party, CWI England and Wales. socialistworld.net, website of the committee for a worker’s international. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. “Kim Jong-il's regime needs economic concessions to avoid collapse, and just as crucially needs an end to the strategic siege imposed by the US since the end of the Korean war (1950-53). Pyongyang's nuclear brinkmanship, though potentially dangerous, is driven by fear rather than by militaristic ambition. The rotten Stalinist dictatorship faces the prospect of an implosion. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, which deprived North Korea of vital economic support, the regime has consistently attempted to secure from the US a non-aggression pact, recognition of its sovereignty, and economic assistance. The US's equally consistent refusal to enter into direct negotiations with North Korea, effectively ruling out a peace treaty to formally close the 1950-53 Korean war, has encouraged the regime to resort to nuclear blackmail.”
  9. ^ Oakley, Corey (October 2006). US is threat to peace not North Korea. Edition 109 - October-November 2006. Socialist Alternative website in Australia. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. “In this context, the constant attempts by the Western press to paint Kim Jong Il as simply a raving lunatic look, well, mad. There is no denying that the regime he presides over is a nasty Stalinist dictatorship that brutally oppresses its own population. But in the face of constant threats from the US, Pyongyang's actions have a definite rationality from the regime's point of view.”
  10. ^ Baruma, Ian. LEADER ARTICLE: Let The Music Play On. The Times of India. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. “North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is one of the world's most oppressive, closed, and vicious dictatorships. It is perhaps the last living example of pure totalitarianism - control of the state over every aspect of human life. Is such a place the right venue for a western orchestra? Can one imagine the New York Philharmonic, which performed to great acclaim in Pyongyang, entertaining Stalin or Hitler?”
  11. ^ Korean Embassy (2000). Establishment of the Republic of Korea. AsianInfo.org. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  12. ^ Text of the Korean War Armistice Agreement. Find Law (1953). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  13. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (April 1992). Prospects for trade with an integrated Korean market. Agricultural Outlook. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  14. ^ Kwan, Chi Hung (2003-04-18). China in Transition. Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  15. ^ Olson, Al (2005-12-28). An Antidote to disinformation about North Korea. Global Research. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  16. ^ Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress (2007). North Korea Agriculture. Country Studies. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  17. ^ Federation of American Scientists (2000-06-15). Other Industry - North Korean Targets. Weapons of Mass Destruction.
  18. ^ Hodge, Homer T. (2003-02-07). North Korea’s Military Strategy. US Army War College Quarterly. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  19. ^ Russia’s East Asian Strategy: The Korean Challenge - Brookings Institution
  20. ^ 18. Is North Korea a 'Stalinist' state?. DPRK FAQ; Document approved by Zo Sun Il. Official Webpages of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (2005-05-05). Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  21. ^ 10th Supreme People's Assembly. (1998-09-15). DPRK's Socialist Constitution (Full Text). The People's Korea. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  22. ^ Amnesty International (2007). Our Issues, North Korea. Human Rights Concerns. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  23. ^ Seok, Kay (2007-05-15). Grotesque indifference. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  24. ^ Hawk, David (2003). The Hidden Gulag: Exposing North Korea’s Prison Camps - Prisoners' Testimonies and Satellite Photographs. U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  25. ^ "South Korean Dramas Are All the Rage among North Korean People", The Daily NK, 2007-11-02. 
  26. ^ "North Korean People Copy South Korean TV Drama for Trade", The Daily NK, 2008-02-22. 
  27. ^ North-South Joint Declaration. Naenara (2000-06-15). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  28. ^ Reuters. FACTBOX - North, South Korea pledge peace, prosperity. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  29. ^ Bury, Chris (November 2000). Interview - Madeleine Albright. Nightline Frontline, on PBS.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  30. ^ Xinhua (2005-01-13). S. Korea to cut 40,000 troops by 2008. People's Daily Online. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  31. ^ a b Oberdorfer, Don (2005-07-28). North Korea: Six-Party Talks Continue. The Washington Post Online. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  32. ^ Kim Yong Nam Visits 3 ASEAN Nations To Strengthen Traditional Ties. The People's Korea (2001). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  33. ^ Report: N. Korea building fence to keep people in
  34. ^ CNN. U.N. verifies closure of North Korean nuclear facilities. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  35. ^ Reuters. FACTBOX - North, South Korea pledge peace, prosperity. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  36. ^ DPRK. Korea Reunification. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  37. ^ a b Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (April 2007). Background Note: North Korea. United States Department of State. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  38. ^ Army personnel (per capita) by country. NationMaster (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  39. ^ US confirms nuclear claim. New York Times (2006-10-15). Retrieved on 2006-10-16.
  40. ^ US says Test points to N. Korea nuclear blast. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  41. ^ Post-election push on N Korea. BBC News (2005-11-06). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  42. ^ Caraway, Bill (2007). Korea Geography. The Korean History Project. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  43. ^ Federal Research Division of the US Library of Congress (2007). North Korea - Climate. Country Studies. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  44. ^ "Emergency appeal for DPRK flood survivors", website of the Red Cross
  45. ^ Research Library: Korea, South. ICONS Project (2007-05-29). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  46. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Korea, South
  47. ^ Federal Research Division of the US Library of Congress (2007). North Korea - Agriculture. Country Studies. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  48. ^ a b Lee, May (1998-08-19). Famine may have killed 2 million in North Korea. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  49. ^ Asia-Pacific : North Korea. Amnesty International (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  50. ^ Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland,'Ch6 The political Economy of Aid' Femine in North Korea, Columbia University Press, New York, 2007, Pg 137
  51. ^ Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland,'Ch6 The political Economy of Aid' Femine in North Korea,Columbia University Press,New York,2007,Pg 137Insert footnote text here
  52. ^ Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland,'Ch6 The political Economy of Aid' Femine in North Korea,Columbia University Press,New York,2007,Pg 137Insert footnote text here
  53. ^ Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland,'Ch6 The political Economy of Aid' Femine in North Korea,Columbia University Press,New York,2007,Pg 137Insert footnote text here
  54. ^ Solomon, Jay (2005-05-20). US Has Put Food Aid for North Korea on Hold. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  55. ^ a b Report on U.S. Humanitarian assistance to North Koreans (PDF). United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs (2006-04-15). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  56. ^ North Korea: Ending Food Aid Would Deepen Hunger. Human Rights Watch (2006-10-11). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  57. ^ Nam, Sung-wook (2006-10-26). China's N.K. policy unlikely to change. The Korea Herald. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  58. ^ a b Fourth round of Six-Party Talks. CanKor, on Korean Peace and Security (2005-09-27). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  59. ^ Faiola, Anthony (2006-07-14). S. Korea Suspends Food Aid to North. Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  60. ^ China halts rail freight to North Korea. Financial Times (2007-10-18). Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
  61. ^ French, Howard W. (2002-09-25). North Korea to Let Capitalism Loose in Investment Zone. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  62. ^ MacKinnon, Rebecca (2005-01-17). Chinese Cell Phone Breaches North Korean Hermit Kingdom. Yale Global Online. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  63. ^ North Korea recalls mobile phones. The Sydney Morning Herald (2004-06-04). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  64. ^ N Korean heroin ship sunk by jet. BBC News (2006-03-23). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  65. ^ Chapter 5, Article 68 of the DPRK constitution.
  66. ^ Human Rights in North Korea. Human Rights Watch (July 2004). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  67. ^ United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (2004-09-21). Annual Report of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. Nautilus Institute. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  68. ^ N Korea stages Mass for Pope. BBC News (2005-04-10). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  69. ^ North Korean Religion. Windowss on Asia. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  70. ^ Open Doors International : WWL: Focus on the Top Ten
  71. ^ Korea Report 2002. Amnesty International (2001). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  72. ^ North Korea
  73. ^ North Korea
  74. ^ North Korea
  75. ^ Cumings, Bruce G.. "The Rise of Korean Nationalism and Communism", A Country Study: North Korea. Library of Congress. Call number DS932 .N662 1994. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Lynn Walsh is a leading figure of the Socialist Party of England and Wales, the English and Welsh part of the Committee for a Workers International, and editor of the Socialist Partys monthly magazine, Socialism Today [1]. Walsh joined the Revolutionary Socialist League (RSL), the forerunner of the Socialist... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs (also known as the House Foreign Affairs Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives which is in charge of bills and investigations related to the foreign affairs of the United States. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Korea Herald is one of a handful of English-language newspapers in South Korea. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a US government agency created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 to monitor the status of freedom of thought, conscience, and religion or belief abroad, as defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and related international instruments... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Jasper Becker, Rogue Regime: Kim Jong Il and the Looming Threat of North Korea, Oxford University Press (2005) , hardcover, 328 pages, ISBN 13: 9780195170443
  • Gordon Cucullu, Separated At Birth: How North Korea Became The Evil Twin, Globe Pequot Press (2004) , hardcover, 307 pages, ISBN 1-59228-591-0
  • Bruce Cumings, Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History, W.W. Norton & Company, 1998, paperback, 527 pages, ISBN 0-393-31681-5
  • Bruce Cumings, Origins of the Korean War (Vol. 1) : Liberation and the Emergence of Separate Regimes 1945-1947, Princeton University Press, 1981, paperback, ISBN 0-691-10113-2
  • Bruce Cumings, Origins of the Korean War (Vol. 2) : The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-1950, Cornell University Press, 2004, hardcover, ISBN 89-7696-613-9
  • Bruce Cumings, North Korea: Another Country, New Press, 2004, paperback, ISBN 1-56584-940-X
  • Bruce Cumings, Living Through The Forgotten War: Portrait Of Korea, Mansfield Freeman Center for East Asian Studies, 2004, paperback, ISBN 0-9729704-0-1
  • Bruce Cumings, Inventing the Axis of Evil: The Truth About North Korea, Iran, and Syria, New Press, 2006, paperback, ISBN 1-59558-038-7
  • Delisle, Guy, Pyongyang: A Journey in North Korea, Drawn & Quarterly Books, 2005, hardcover, 176 pages, ISBN 1-896597-89-0
  • Nick Eberstadt, aka Nicholas Eberstadt, The End of North Korea, American Enterprise Institute Press (1999) , hardcover, 191 pages, ISBN 0-8447-4087-X
  • John Feffer, North Korea South Korea: U.S. Policy at a Time of Crisis, Seven Stories Press, 2003, paperback, 197 pages, ISBN 1-58322-603-6
  • Ron Goodden, North Korea commentary (August, 2007)
  • Michael Harrold, Comrades and Strangers: Behind the Closed Doors of North Korea, Wiley Publishing, 2004, paperback, 432 pages, ISBN 0-470-86976-3
  • Helen-Louise Hunter, Kim Il-song's North Korea. Praeger, 1999. ISBN 0-275-96296-2.
  • Kang, Chol-Hwan (2001). The Aquariums of Pyongyang. Basic Books, 2001. ISBN 0-465-01102-0. 
  • Mitchell B. Lerner, The Pueblo Incident: A Spy Ship and the Failure of American Foreign Policy, University Press of Kansas, 2002, hardcover, 408 pages, ISBN 0-7006-1171-1
  • Andrei Lankov, 'North of the DMZ: Essays on Daily Life in North Korea , McFarland & Company (April 24, 2007), paperback, 358 pages, ISBN 978-0786428397
  • John Feffer, North Korea South Korea: U.S. Policy at a Time of Crisis, Seven Stories Press, 2003, paperback, 197 pages, ISBN 1-58322-603-6
  • Oberdorfer, Don. The two Koreas : a contemporary history. Addison-Wesley, 1997, 472 pages, ISBN 0-201-40927-5
  • Kong Dan Oh, and Ralph C. Hassig, North Korea Through the Looking Glass, The Brookings Institution, 2000, paperback, 216 pages, ISBN 0-8157-6435-9
  • Osmond, Andrew, High, Minnow Press, 2004, paperback, 216 pages, ISBN 978-0953944828 Includes a fictional account of the creation of a new state of New Korea.
  • Quinones, Dr. C. Kenneth, and Joseph Tragert, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding North Korea, Alpha Books, 2004, paperback, 448 pages, ISBN 1-59257-169-7
  • Sigal, Leon V., Disarming Strangers: Nuclear Diplomacy with North Korea, Princeton University Press, 199, 336 pages, ISBN 0-691-05797-4
  • Chris Springer, Pyongyang: The Hidden History of the North Korean Capital. Saranda Books, 2003. ISBN 963-00-8104-0.
  • Vladimir, Cyber North Korea, Byakuya Shobo, 2003, paperback, 223 pages, ISBN 4-89367-881-7
  • Norbert Vollertsen, Inside North Korea: Diary of a Mad Place, Encounter Books, 2003, hardcover, 280 pages, ISBN 1-893554-87-2
  • Wahn Kihl, Y. (1983) "North Korea in 1983: Transforming "The Hermit Kingdom"?" Asian Survey, Vol. 24, No. 1: pp100-111
  • Robert Willoughby, North Korea: The Bradt Travel Guide. Globe Pequot, 2003. ISBN 1-84162-074-2.
  • Hyun Hee Kim, "The Tears of My Soul", William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1993, hardcover, 183 pages, ISBN 0-688-12833-5
  • Ducruet, Cesar et Jo, Jin-Cheol (2008) Coastal Cities, Port Activities and Logistic Constraints in a Socialist Developing Country: The Case of North Korea, Transport Reviews, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 1-25: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/462288788-26821155/content~content=a782923580~db=all~tab=content~order=page

... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Cornell University Press, established in 1869, was the first university publishing enterprise in the United States and is one of the countrys largest university presses. ... The New Press is a not-for-profit, United States-based publishing house that operates in the public interest. ... The New Press is a not-for-profit, United States-based publishing house that operates in the public interest. ... Seven Stories Press is an independent publishing company located in New York City, USA that concentrates on fiction and timely, informative nonfiction. ... Front cover of the United States edition of The Aquariums of Pyongyang. ... Seven Stories Press is an independent publishing company located in New York City, USA that concentrates on fiction and timely, informative nonfiction. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

Pictorials

  • Christian Kracht, Eva Munz, Lukas Nikol, "The Ministry Of Truth. Kim Jong Ils North Korea", Feral House, Oct 2007, 132 pages, 88 color photographs, ISBN 978-932595-27-7

0%   Translation In Progress ----- Christian Kracht Christian Kracht ---- (more info) Stage 2 : In Progress (How-to) This request is actually from Articles for Creation, by 84. ...

External links

Korea Portal
Find more about North Korea on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
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Learning resources
  • Official Website of the DPR Korea
  • Naenara - ("My country") DPRK's Official Web Portal run by Korea Computer Company
  • KCNA - Korean Central News Agency, the official news agency of the DPRK
  • North Korea at the Open Directory Project
Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
North Korea - MSN Encarta (463 words)
North Korea, officially Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, country in northeastern Asia that occupies the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula.
North Korea is bounded on the north by China, on the northeast by Russia, on the east by the East Sea (Sea of Japan), on the south by South Korea, and on the west by the Yellow Sea.
The state of North Korea was established in 1948 as a result of the Soviet military occupation of the northern portion of the peninsula after World War II.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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