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Encyclopedia > North Shore (Lake Superior)
Split Rock Lighthouse on North Shore of Lake Superior
Split Rock Lighthouse on North Shore of Lake Superior

The North Shore of Lake Superior runs from Duluth, Minnesota, United States, at the southwestern end of the lake to Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, in the north to Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, in the east. The shore is characterized by alternating rocky cliffs and cobblestone beaches, with rolling hills and ridges covered in boreal forest inland from the lake, through which scenic rivers and waterfalls descend as they flow to Lake Superior. Americans often refer only to the Minnesota shoreline from Duluth to the international border at Grand Portage as the North Shore. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Split Rock Lighthouse Split Rock Lighthouse State Park is a Minnesota state park on the north shore of Lake Superior. ... Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario, Canada and Minnesota, USA, to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ... Duluths canal connects Lake Superior to the Duluth-Superior harbor and the St. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Nickname: Motto: Superior by nature Location of Thunder Bay, Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Northwestern Ontario District Thunder Bay District CMA Thunder Bay Settled 1679 as Fort Caministigoyan See histories of Port Arthur and Fort William Amalgamation 1 January 1970 Government [1][2]  - Type Municipal Government  - Mayor Lynn... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Nickname: Motto: Naturally Gifted Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario District Algoma District Incorporated 1887 (town), 1912 (city) Government  - City Mayor John Rowswell  - Governing body The Corporation of the City of Sault Sainte Marie  - MPs Tony Martin  - MPPs David Orazietti Area  - City  276 sq mi (715 km²) Elevation  630 ft (192... “Precipice” redirects here. ... Cobble is a geologic term for a rock or rock fragment with a grain size with dimensions between 64–256 mm (2. ... Ninety Mile Beach Australia. ... The panoramic view from Connors Hill, near Swifts Creek, Victoria A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain, in a limited area. ... A ridge is a geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance. ... Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Grand Portage is an unorganized territory located in Cook County, Minnesota, on Lake Superior, at the northeast corner of the state near the Ontario border. ...

Contents

History

Pre-colonization

Ojibwe Wigwam at Grand Portage painted by Eastman Johnson in 1857
Ojibwe Wigwam at Grand Portage painted by Eastman Johnson in 1857

Lake Superior was settled by Native Americans about 8,000 BC when the Wisconsin Glaciers began to retreat. By 500 BC, the Laurel people had established settlements in the area and had begun to trade metal with other native peoples. The Laurel people were animists and probably created many of the pictographs present on rock faces along the North Shore and other Canadian rock faces in order to communicate with spirits. In the 12th century AD, on the easternmost portion of the North Shore, the ancestors of the Ojibwa migrated into the area. These people left behind small pits dug in the ground which archaeologists now call Pukaskwa Pits. On the Minnesotan portion of the north shore, there are only three archaeological sites, so it cannot be determined who lived there at the time. By the 18th century, the Ojibwa had settled the length of the North Shore approximately as far as the modern Canadian-Minnesotan Border. The Minnesotan portion of the North Shore was settled mostly by the Cree, and the Dakota lived to the south. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1515x1056, 627 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ojibwa Eastman Johnson Wikipedia:WikiProject Indigenous peoples of North America/Anishinaabe/Images Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1515x1056, 627 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ojibwa Eastman Johnson Wikipedia:WikiProject Indigenous peoples of North America/Anishinaabe/Images Metadata This file contains additional information... Eastman Johnson (1824 - 1906) was a U.S. painter. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... This article is about the native North American people. ... Pukaskwa Pits are small holes dug in the ground by ancestors of the Ojibwa. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... Look up Dakota in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Fur trade

The first white explorer to reach Lake Superior was a Frenchman named Etienne Brule who was sent out by Samuel de Champlain to search for the northwest passage in 1623 or 1624.[1] His exploration allowed Champlain to create the first map of the lake in 1632.[1] Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jogues, Jesuit missionaries, were the next significant explorers, who tried to establish a more permanent missionary post further west but only got as far as Sault Ste. Marie.[2] In 1658, two French explorers, Radisson and Groseilliers, became the first whites to circumnavigate Lake Superior by sailing south along the North Shore. When they returned, they brought a flotilla of Native Americans with fur pelts, beginning interest in the fur trade in the Lake Superior region. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pierre-Esprit Radisson Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636 – 1710) was a French-born explorer and fur trader. ... The term white people (also whites or white race) has been defined as being a member of a group or race characterized by light pigmentation of the skin and to a human group having light-colored skin, especially of European ancestry. ... Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Anthem: La Marseillaise Metropolitan France() – on the European continent() – in the European Union()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Paris Official languages French Government Unitary republic  -  President Jacques Chirac  -  Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin Formation  -  Celtic Gaul 1200 BC   -  Franks 11 BC   -  Kingdom of France... Étienne Brûlé (1592 - 1632) was a French explorer in Canada in the 17th century. ... A much-reproduced fictional portrait of Champlain by Théophile Hamel (1870) (no authentic portrait has survived)[1]) Samuel de Champlain , the father of New France, was born around 1580 in the town of Brouage, a seaport on Frances west coast. ... Year 1623 (MDCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Charles Raymbault (1602 in France - 1643 in Quebec) was a Jesuit missionary. ... Saint Isaac Jogues (January 10, 1607 – October 18, 1646) was a Jesuit missionary who travelled and worked among the Native Americans in North America. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Pierre-Esprit Radisson Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636 – 1710) was a French-born explorer and fur trader. ... Médard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696) was a French explorer and fur trader in Canada. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ...


Conflicts between native tribes began to escalate towards war during this period when an alliance of Anishinabe tribes was formed and defeated the Ojibwa in a battle west of Sault Sainte Marie in 1662. This warfare between the tribes along Lake Superior prevented European trade in the area for several years. In 1670, the Hudson Bay Company was founded, which began the fur trade nonetheless. In the late 1670s, Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, helped negotiate a more permanent peace between these tribes, thus providing safe trade across Lake Superior for the French. With this, the foundations for European settlement on the North Shore were laid. Fort Kaministiquia, around modern Thunder Bay was established in 1683. In 1688 Jacques de Noyon became the first European to visit the Boundary Waters region west of Lake Superior. Anishinaabe is a self-description often used by people belonging to the indigenous Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonkin peoples of North America, who share closely related Algonkian languages. ... This article is about the native North American people. ... Sault Ste. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hudsons Bay Company building in Montreal The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC) is the oldest corporation in Canada and is one of the oldest in the world still in existence. ... Events and Trends Newton and Leibniz independently discover calculus. ... Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut (c. ... Daniel Greysolon Dulhut had built a fort, (Fort Caministigoyan), at the Kaministiquia River in 1679. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Jacques de Noyon (1668 – 1745) was a French Canadian explorer and coureur des bois. ... The Boundary Waters is a region of wilderness and semi-wilderness lakes, rivers, and forests straddling the border between Minnesota (USA) and Ontario, Canada. ...


A war between Britain and France, followed by a sharp drop in fur prices, slowed exploration for several decades. In 1732, the French-Canadian La Vérendrye built Fort St. Pierre on Rainy Lake near the head of the Rainy River in order to gain access to the west. Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye (November 17, 1685 – December 5, 1749) was a French Canadian military officer, fur trader and explorer. ... Fort St. ... The Rainy River is a river, approximately 85 mi (140 km), that forms part of the U.S.-Canada border separating northern Minnesota and northwestern Ontario. ... The Rainy River is a river, approximately 85 mi (140 km), that forms part of the U.S.-Canada border separating northern Minnesota and northwestern Ontario. ...

The Great Hall at Grand Portage

In 1763, according to the terms of the Treaty of Paris, the British took possession of all French holdings east of the Mississippi River, including the North Shore. In 1784, the North West Company, the newly organized rival to the Hudson Bay Company, started moving traders into its new fort at Grand Portage. With new headquarters on the North Shore, the North West Company began to build 40 new forts and ports all along the North Shore and northern Minnesota. In 1821 the North West Company was forced to merge with the Hudson Bay Company. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 366 pixelsFull resolution (1312 × 601 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Great hall. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 366 pixelsFull resolution (1312 × 601 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Great hall. ... Grand Portage National Monument, located within the boreal forest on the north shore of Lake Superior in northeastern Minnesota, preserves a vital center of fur trade activity and Anishinaabeg Ojibwe heritage dating back to the 18th century. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Today, the North West Company is a grocery vendor in remote communities across northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland. ... Grand Portage National Monument, located within the boreal forest on the north shore of Lake Superior in northeastern Minnesota, preserves a vital center of fur trade activity and Anishinaabeg Ojibwe heritage dating back to the 18th century. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


With the eventual depletion of fur-bearing animals, the fur trade and associated settlement diminished.


Early American settlement

When American settlers moved westward, the governments of the United States and Britain began to dispute the border between the territory that would become Minnesota and the territory which would become Ontario. Many geologic surveys were taken because of these disputes, which revealed the rich mineral resources in this area. In 1854, the LaPointe Treaty ceded all Ojibwa lands to the United States. Because of this, white settlers moved into the region, in order to mine the natural resources, thus beginning American settlements on the Minnesotan portion of the North Shore. Land claims were made near modern Duluth, Knife River, Beaver Bay, Buchanan, Burlington Bay, French River, Stewart River, and Silver Creek. 99 fishermen had settled in northern Minnesota by 1857, when an economic panic caused most of the claims to be abandoned. In 1865, the Vermilion Lake Gold Rush brought a new wave of settlement to the North Shore. The Treaty of La Pointe may refer to either of two treaties made and signed in La Pointe, Wisconsin between the United States and the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Native American peoples. ... Beaver Bay is a city located in Lake County, Minnesota. ... The Vermilion Lake Gold Rush was a small rush to Vermilion Lake, Minnesota, when prospectors found small specks of gold in quartz stone in 1865. ...


American settlement began in earnest in 1869. When the Lake Superior & Mississippi Railroad was built, people could easily move across the country in days instead of months. In 1869, Duluth grew from 14 families in January to a population of 3,500 in July. Construction on the Duluth Harbor was started to allow steamboat shipping between Duluth and Buffalo, Detroit, and Chicago. The town of Beaver Bay was founded in 1869 as a fishing community, and Grand Marais was founded by Henry Mayhew and Sam Howenstine in 1871. Another panic in 1873 put an end to this growth, and Duluth shrunk to a population of 1,300. The Lake Superior and Mississippi Railroad was the first rail link between the Twin Cities and Duluth and came into existence in 1863 when financier Jay Cooke selected Duluth as the northern end of a new railroad. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Nickname: Motto: “Urbs in Horto” (Latin: “City in a Garden”), “I Will” Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Beaver Bay is a city located in Lake County, Minnesota. ... A view of downtown Grand Marais, the harbor, and Lake Superior. ...


In the 1880s, growth began again in Minnesota, and significant growth began for the first time in Canada. The Canadian Pacific Railway was opened in 1881 and brought a wave of settlers from the west. In Minnesota, Two Harbors was founded and became a major iron ore port and a source of labor for the inland iron mines on the North Shore. Besides mining, fishing became the other major industry of north shore communities. In 1885, 195 commercial fishermen lived in Duluth. Duluth fish catches increased to a peak of 10,000 tons of fish caught in 1915. It has since declined. Current annual fish catches have fallen to under 1,000 tons per year. An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... Two Harbors is a city located in Lake County, Minnesota. ...

One of the engines that took iron ore to Two Harbors. This engine is preserved near the lakeshore in Two Harbors
One of the engines that took iron ore to Two Harbors. This engine is preserved near the lakeshore in Two Harbors

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4610x3180, 2262 KB) Summary Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway 2-8-8-4 (Yellowstone type) articulated steam locomotive #229, as preserved at Two Harbors, Minnesota, USA. From the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service Historic American Engineering... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4610x3180, 2262 KB) Summary Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway 2-8-8-4 (Yellowstone type) articulated steam locomotive #229, as preserved at Two Harbors, Minnesota, USA. From the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service Historic American Engineering... Two Harbors is a city located in Lake County, Minnesota. ...

Iron industry

In 1875, Philadelphia financier Charlemagne Tower, who owned extensive interests in the Northern Pacific Railroad, began to investigate the possibility of iron mining inland from the North Shore. Although the scare of 1873 had depressed the price of iron to $5.50 per ton, by the 1880s it was back to about $9.25 per ton. Tower started acquiring land in the Vermilion Range, where ore had an iron content of 69%. Tower also acquired the rights to the Duluth Iron & Railway Co., which entitled him to ten square miles (26 sq.km) of land for every mile (1.6 km) of rail built between Duluth and Agate Bay (Two Harbors), 25 miles (40 km) northeast along the shore. Speculators bought up land at Agate Bay, but the rail line was not completed until 1887, so all travel to Agate Bay was originally by steamboat. Between 1884 and 1885, two large wooden loading docks were built in the harbor for shipping iron. In 1887, when the railroad was completed, the Minnesota Iron Company owned 95.7 miles (154.0 km) of track, 26,800 acres (108 km²) of property, 13 locomotives, 340 cars, the loading docks at Two Harbors, and five pit mines. Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Financier (IPA: /ËŒfi nãn ˈsjei/) is an elegant term for a person who handles large sums of money, usually involving money lending, financing projects, large-scale investing, or large-scale money management. ... Charlemagne Tower, (1848 – February 24, 1923). ... Northern Pacific Railway Categories: Stub | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | Idaho railroads | Minnesota railroads | Montana railroads | North Dakota railroads | Oregon railroads | Washington railroads | Wisconsin railroads ... The Vermilion Range exists between Tower and Ely, Minnesota, and contains significant deposits of iron ore. ... The Duluth and Iron Range Railway was founded in 1874. ... Two Harbors is a city located in Lake County, Minnesota. ...

Miner on the edge of the Hull-Rust-Mahoning mine, 1941
Miner on the edge of the Hull-Rust-Mahoning mine, 1941

This growth attracted the interest of Henry H. Porter, a Chicago railroad owner, who bought 25,000 acres (100 km²) of land further up the North Shore than Tower’s holdings around Two Harbors and Tower, a mining settlement named after its founder. Porter coerced Tower into selling the Minnesota Iron Company for 8.5 million dollars. He built Chandler Mine, Pioneer Mine, Zenith Mine, Savoy Mine, and Sibley Mine between 1889 and 1899. In 1896, the iron traveling through Two Harbors exceeded 2,000,000 tons. Two Harbors steadily built more docks and replaced the wooden docks with concrete over the course of the next several decades. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Hull-Rust-Mahoning Mine, in Hibbing, Minnesota, is the largest open pit iron mine in the world. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Iron production continued steadily for many more decades, but in the 1950s, traditional iron mines had exhausted most of their resources. However, it had been known for many years that northern Minnesota had an ore called taconite, which could be refined into iron through a process called beneficiation. A taconite processing plant was built further north along the North Shore at Silver Bay and it quickly became the major taconite shipping port. Minnesotan taconite produces over half of the iron mined in Minnesota at the present date. Taconite is an iron-bearing, high-silica, flint-like rock. ... Beneficiation is a variety of processes whereby extracted ore from mining is reduced to particles that can be separated into mineral and waste, the former suitable for further processing or direct use. ... Silver Bay is a city located in Lake County, Minnesota. ...


Lumber industry

Northern Minnesota is essentially covered with one large forest. Although the potential for a lumber industry was recognized early in the course of European settlement, the distances that it would have to be shipped made it uneconomical. However, in the 1880s, Michigan exhausted most of its forests. With the new branches of the Northern Pacific Railroad running through Duluth, lumber industries moved into Wisconsin and Minnesota. Duluth and Superior began milling large amounts of lumber to be shipped by rail, but in the 1890s, Duluth began shipping logs out across the lake to the east. Lumberjacks in turn began moving north and rafting logs down to Duluth along the lake from Knife River, Castle Danger, Grand Marais, and the Pigeon River. Because of conservation efforts, most of the forests along the North Shore are now protected from deforestation, essentially ending the lumber industry. Duluth had only one remaining lumber mill by 1925, but it still receives shipments of lumber which are used in its paper mills. Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Northern Pacific Railway Categories: Stub | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | Idaho railroads | Minnesota railroads | Montana railroads | North Dakota railroads | Oregon railroads | Washington railroads | Wisconsin railroads ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... The city of Superior sits at the junction of U.S. Highway 2 and U.S. Highway 53, and is the county seat of Douglas County, Wisconsin. ... A view of downtown Grand Marais, the harbor, and Lake Superior. ... The Pigeon River forms part of the border between the State of Minnesota and the Province of Ontario on the north shore of Lake Superior. ...


Tourism

In 1855, when a lock system first allowed steamboats onto the lake, rich Americans from the east began to travel onto Lake Superior for recreational purposes. The rich would then canoe or be ferried from Duluth up the North Shore, and would stay in hunting and fishing camps. In the 1920s, the North Shore highway was built, which helped make the North Shore accessible by land. At the same time, commercial fishermen began to go out of business as catches declined. Many of these fishermen built cabins and resorts, which were inhabited by more rich people on recreational trips. Certain exclusive clubs also bought land for resort and sport purposes. In the far north, the Naniboujou holding company built an exclusive lodge for the rich and famous, which was frequented by, among others, Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey. Further south, a group of Duluth businessmen, the Tettegouche Club, bought 9,346 acres (37.8 km²) of land for use as a private retreat. Canal locks in England. ... The Dubuque-Wisconsin Bridge, Dubuque, Iowa. ... George Herman Ruth, Jr. ... William Harrison Jack Dempsey (June 24, 1895 – May 31, 1983) was an American boxer who held the world heavyweight title between 1919 and 1926. ...


During the early 20th century, the government decided that continued exploitation of the North Shore would destroy it. In 1909, Teddy Roosevelt organized the Superior National Forest, putting over 3 million acres (12,000 km²) of the forests between the North Shore and the Canadian border under protection. The government of Minnesota slowly began to acquire the lands which became the modern North Shore state parks. The first park to be formally organized was Jay Cooke State Park, in 1915. In the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps established several camps organized along the North Shore and built rustic structures in what would become several North Shore state parks. The North Shore still has the old resorts which were built for the rich, but they have since changed hands to less elitist management. Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858–January 6, 1919) was the twenty-fifth (1901) Vice President and the twenty-sixth (1901-1909) President of the United States, succeeding to the office upon the assassination of William McKinley. ... Superior National Forest is a National_Forest located in Northeastern Minnesota between the U.S.-Canadian Border and Lake Superior. ... Jay Cooke State Park is a Minnesota State Park located about ten miles southwest of Duluth, Minnesota, just outside of the small town of Thomson, Minnesota. ... CCC workers on road construction, Camp Euclid, Ohio 1936 The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a work relief program for young men from unemployed families established on March 19, 1933 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first hundred days. ...


Physical geography

Cliffs at Palisade Head on Lake Superior in Minnesota, view northeast to Shovel Point.
Cliffs at Palisade Head on Lake Superior in Minnesota, view northeast to Shovel Point.
Shovel Point; both it and Palisade Head were formed from a lava flow pouring from a continenental rift into the Lake Superior basin.[3]

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1476x975, 286 KB) From the Great Lakes Image Collection North Shore Palisade Head area Lake Superior, Minnesota File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Minnesota North Shore (Lake... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1476x975, 286 KB) From the Great Lakes Image Collection North Shore Palisade Head area Lake Superior, Minnesota File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Minnesota North Shore (Lake... Palisade Head cliffs on Lake Superior, view northeast toward Shovel Point Palisade Head is a large rock formation on the North Shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. ... Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario, Canada and Minnesota, USA, to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1023 × 768 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Aaron Fulkerson - http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1023 × 768 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Aaron Fulkerson - http://www. ... In geology, a rift is a place where the Earths lithosphere is expanding. ...

Geology

The North Shore lies on the north side of the Midcontinent Rift System which ran 1,300 miles (2,000 km) northwest from Michigan, through what is now Lake Superior, and southwest again into Kansas.[4] As the granitic crust was torn apart by continental drift, lava flowed out from 30-60 miles (50-100 km) under the crust and formed a basalt crust instead. Tectonic forces were not strong enough to continue to separate the two sides of the continental rift, and when the rifting stopped, the lava cooled and the heavy crust sank and was filled with sediment. Geological map of North America showing (in white) the Midcontinent Rift, here labeled Keweenawan Rift. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up Crust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black extrusive volcanic rock. ... ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ...


During recent glaciations, a large amount of the basalt and sandstone, which erode much more easily than granite does, was removed by the glaciers. This formed the rough, rugged shoreline on the North Shore today. As the glaciers retreated, they took with them eroded igneous material, much of which covers the rocky beaches on the North Shore. The Wisconsin side of the basin and the bottom of the basin itself, however, filled with the residue from the eroded sandstone and thus are sandy beaches today. A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black extrusive volcanic rock. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Volcanic rock on North America Plutonic rock on North America Igneous rocks form when rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ...


The melting water from the retreat of the glaciers ran into the basin and began to fill what would become the Great Lakes. The shoreline at its maximum reached over 500 feet (150 m) above its current height, and at its minimum fell to 250 feet (75 m) below its current level. When the levels of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron fell 2,000 years ago, it created rapids at Sault Sainte Marie, which restricted the release of water from the lake and brought the shoreline to its present level. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one in the group located entirely within the United States. ... Ipperwash Beach, Lake Huron. ... Sault Ste. ...


The modern shoreline is composed of basalt lava flows. In the south, near Duluth, other materials, such as slate, greywacke, and sandstone, are found a short distance inland; however in the north, the entire bedrock made of basalt and gabbro is exposed in patches miles from shore. When the bedrock hits the surface of the lake at a shallow enough angle, the beach is covered with washed up rocks. When it hits the lake at a steep angle, it breaks off and makes sharp cliffs ending at the lake. Slate Slate Macro Slate roof Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ... Greywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly-sorted, angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... Gabbro specimen. ...


Attractions

There are many natural and man-made attractions along the North Shore of Lake Superior. Picture of Duluth, MN taken in July 2004 from Enger Tower File links The following pages link to this file: Duluth, Minnesota Categories: GFDL images ... Picture of Duluth, MN taken in July 2004 from Enger Tower File links The following pages link to this file: Duluth, Minnesota Categories: GFDL images ... Duluths canal connects Lake Superior to the Duluth-Superior harbor and the St. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Minnesota

Duluths canal connects Lake Superior to the Duluth-Superior harbor and the St. ... The Dubuque-Wisconsin Bridge, Dubuque, Iowa. ... The North Shore Scenic Drive is an All-American Road that follows St. ... Superior National Forest is a National_Forest located in Northeastern Minnesota between the U.S.-Canadian Border and Lake Superior. ... The Superior Hiking Trail is a 205-mile long distance hiking trail along the rocky ridgeline above Lake Superior in northeastern Minnesota. ... The North Country National Scenic Trail (NCNST), which one-day will stretch more than 4,600 miles from Crown Point in eastern New York to Lake Sakakawea in western North Dakota, is the longest of the eight National Scenic Trails authorized by Congress. ... A view of downtown Grand Marais, the harbor, and Lake Superior. ... The Gunflint Trail is a 57-mile paved roadway that begins in Grand Marais, Minnesota and ends at Seagull Lake in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCA), near the US border with Ontario, Canada. ... Lutsen Mountains is a downhill ski and snowboard area located on the North Shore region in Cook County, Minnesota, USA. Lutsen is one of the northernmost ski areas in the United States outside of Alaska. ...

State parks and national monuments

High Falls of the Pigeon River, Grand Portage State Park

To people who camp in the state parks along Minnesota's North Shore, the term North Shore refers to both the shore of the lake and all the rivers which run into the lake. Thus there are numerous "North Shore state parks," most of which are not actually on the lakeshore, and several of which are not even particularly close to it. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1023 × 768 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Aaron Fulkerson - http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1023 × 768 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Aaron Fulkerson - http://www. ... Cascade River State Park is near the northeastern tip of Minnesota on the north shore of Lake Superior. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 401 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Grand Portage State Park in Minnesota. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 401 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Grand Portage State Park in Minnesota. ... The Pigeon River forms part of the border between the State of Minnesota and the Province of Ontario on the north shore of Lake Superior. ... 120 foot waterfall on the Pigeon River is the tallest in Minnesota. ... Car camping is camping in a tent, but nearby the car for easier access and for supply storage. ... This is a list of Minnesota state parks. ...

  • Jay Cooke State Park is on the Saint Louis River, which enters into Lake Superior through the Duluth harbor several miles away.
  • Gooseberry Falls State Park has campgrounds fairly close to Lake Superior, but its main attractions are the five falls on the Gooseberry River and the Gitchi Gummi Trail, which overlooks the north face of the river gorge.
  • Split Rock Lighthouse State Park is popular for its historic Split Rock Lighthouse. Since the lighthouse is separately run by the Minnesota Historical Society, there is a separate fee for admittance.
  • Tettegouche State Park lies at the base of the Baptism River and is famous for the high cliffs overlooking Lake Superior. Palisade Head, the highest cliff in Minnesota, is accessible outside the main entrance to the state park, although a slightly smaller area of lake cliffs, Shovel Point, is within the main park.
  • George H. Crosby Manitou State Park is the only state park on Lake Superior to offer only backpacking campsites, all of which are on the Manitou River at some distance from the lakeshore.
  • Temperance River State Park has camping very close to the shore of Superior. The main attractions are the falls on the Temperance River. According to legend, the Temperance River was named for a very bad pun: the mouth of the river has no sand bar.[citation needed]
  • Cascade River State Park is well known for the seven cascading waterfalls on the Cascade River.
  • Judge C. R. Magney State Park is the northernmost place along Minnesota's North Shore where people can camp. It contains the Devil's Kettle waterfall on the Brule River. The river splits into two streams right before the waterfall, and one continues down the river while the other disappears into a hole in the rock face of the waterfall called the Kettle.
  • Grand Portage State Park, which is near but not the same as Grand Portage National Monument, includes the High Falls on the Pigeon River which separates Minnesota and Ontario. Unlike every other state park on Minnesota's North Shore, there are no camping accommodations in this park.
  • Grand Portage National Monument is home to a reconstruction of a historic fur trading post as well as traditional Ojibwa culture. There is no vehicle-accessible camping in the national monument.

Jay Cooke State Park is a Minnesota State Park located about ten miles southwest of Duluth, Minnesota, just outside of the small town of Thomson, Minnesota. ... The Saint Louis River is a river in Minnesota that flows into Lake Superior. ... Gooseberry Falls State Park is a Minnesota state park on the north shore of Lake Superior. ... Split Rock Lighthouse Split Rock Lighthouse State Park is a Minnesota state park on the north shore of Lake Superior. ... Split Rock Lighthouse Split Rock Lighthouse State Park is a Minnesota state park on the north shore of Lake Superior. ... The Minnesota Historical Society is a Minnesota instutution dedicated to preserving the history of the state. ... High Falls at Tettegouche State Park. ... Palisade Head cliffs on Lake Superior, view northeast toward Shovel Point Palisade Head is a large rock formation on the North Shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. ... George H. Crosby Manitou State Park is a Minnesota state park located between Tettegouche State Park and Temperance River State Park on the North Shore of Lake Superior, near the town of Little Marais. ... Backpacking in the Grand Teton National Park, United States Backpacking (also tramping or trekking or bushwalking in some countries) combines hiking and camping in a single trip. ... One of the parks waterfalls. ... Cascade River State Park is near the northeastern tip of Minnesota on the north shore of Lake Superior. ... Devils Kettle at Judge C.R. Magney State Park Judge C. R. Magney State Park is a Minnesota state park 14 miles (23 km) northeast of Grand Marais on Highway 61 on the North Shore of Lake Superior. ... Devils Kettle at Judge C.R. Magney State Park Judge C. R. Magney State Park is a Minnesota state park 14 miles (23 km) northeast of Grand Marais on Highway 61 on the North Shore of Lake Superior. ... 120 foot waterfall on the Pigeon River is the tallest in Minnesota. ... Grand Portage National Monument, located within the boreal forest on the north shore of Lake Superior in northeastern Minnesota, preserves a vital center of fur trade activity and Anishinaabeg Ojibwe heritage dating back to the 18th century. ... Grand Portage National Monument, located within the boreal forest on the north shore of Lake Superior in northeastern Minnesota, preserves a vital center of fur trade activity and Anishinaabeg Ojibwe heritage dating back to the 18th century. ...

Ontario

Thunder Bay tourism logo

Image File history File links Thunder_bay_logo. ... Image File history File links Thunder_bay_logo. ... Nickname: Motto: Superior by nature Location of Thunder Bay, Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Northwestern Ontario District Thunder Bay District CMA Thunder Bay Settled 1679 as Fort Caministigoyan See histories of Port Arthur and Fort William Amalgamation 1 January 1970 Government [1][2]  - Type Municipal Government  - Mayor Lynn... Nickname: Motto: Superior by nature Location of Thunder Bay, Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Northwestern Ontario District Thunder Bay District CMA Thunder Bay Settled 1679 as Fort Caministigoyan See histories of Port Arthur and Fort William Amalgamation 1 January 1970 Government [1][2]  - Type Municipal Government  - Mayor Lynn... Lake Nipigon (French : lac Nipigon) is the largest lake entirely within the boundaries of the Canadian province of Ontario and is sometimes described as the sixth Great Lake. ... Nickname: Motto: Naturally Gifted Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario District Algoma District Incorporated 1887 (town), 1912 (city) Government  - City Mayor John Rowswell  - Governing body The Corporation of the City of Sault Sainte Marie  - MPs Tony Martin  - MPPs David Orazietti Area  - City  276 sq mi (715 km²) Elevation  630 ft (192...

Provincial and national parks

The majority of Ontario Provincial Parks are undeveloped nature reserves with no formal campgrounds or visitor centers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ... Lake Superior Provincial Park is one of the largest parks in Ontario, covering about 1,550 square kilometres along the northeastern shores of Lake Superior between Wawa, Ontario and Sault Ste. ... Nature Reserve is the designation given by the Ontario Provincial Parks System for parks which protect specific areas of at risk or unique flora or fauna. ...

  • Pigeon River Provincial Park lies on the Canadian side of the Pigeon River.
  • Sleeping Giant Provincial Park is a large natural environment park on the Sibley Peninsula which offers camping.
  • Shesheeb Bay Provincial Park is a small nature reserve park on the Black Bay Peninsula.
  • Gravel River Provincial Park is a small undeveloped nature reserve]] on the Gravel River running into Lake Superior.
  • Rainbow Falls Provincial Park offers camping.
  • Prairie River Mouth Provincial Park is a nature reserve park which is totally undeveloped except for one footpath.
  • Neys Provincial Park is on a remote peninsula jutting into Lake Superior which offers camping.
  • Red Sucker Point Provincial Park is a small nature reserve on the shore of Lake Superior.
  • Lake Superior Provincial Park is by far the largest provincial park on the lakeshore. It is a natural environment park with full, modern camping facilities and many different inland trails.
  • Montreal River Provincial Park is a nature reserve which is only accessible by boat.
  • Pancake Bay Provincial Park is a recreation park with camping facilities. The location of the Edmund Fitgerald shipwreck is near the park.
  • Batchawana Bay Provincial Park is a recreation park on a rare sandy beach (most North Shore beaches are stone) with day use facilities.
  • Pukaskwa National Park is the largest national park in Ontario. It has limited camping facilities.

Sleeping Giant Provincial Park is a park located on the Sibley Peninsula in northwestern Ontario, northeast of Thunder Bay. ... Natural Environment Park is the designation given by the Ontario Provincial Park System to parks which act as both recreational parks and Nature Reserves. ... Sibley Peninsula - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image:File0002. ... Neys Sign on HWY 11, West of Marathon, ON Neys Provincial Park is a Natural Environment Class park within the Ontario Parks system. ... Lake Superior Provincial Park is one of the largest parks in Ontario, covering about 1,550 square kilometres along the northeastern shores of Lake Superior between Wawa, Ontario and Sault Ste. ... Natural Environment Park is the designation given by the Ontario Provincial Park System to parks which act as both recreational parks and Nature Reserves. ... Pancake Bay is a sheltered, south-facing bay on the eastern shore of Lake Superior, north of Sault Ste. ... Recreation Park is the name given by the provincial park service of Ontario for parks which usually contain many campgrounds, modern facilities, beaches, boat launches, picnic areas, hiking, and other utilities used in modern recreational camping. ... SS Edmund Fitzgerald (nicknamed The Fitz or The Big Fitz) was a lake freighter that sank suddenly during a gale storm on Lake Superior on November 10, 1975. ... A sunset on Batchawana Bay Provincial Park. ... Pukaskwa National Park is a national park located in Ontario, Canada. ...

See also

The South Shore of Lake Superior stretches from Superior, Wisconsin, USA at the southwestern end of the lake along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to Sault Ste Marie, Michigan, USA in the east. ... Isle Royale National Park is a U.S. National Park in the state of Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... The Boundary Waters is a region of wilderness and semi-wilderness lakes, rivers, and forests straddling the border between Minnesota (USA) and Ontario, Canada. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Minnesota, The Minnesota Arrowhead Country. p.29. Albert Whitman, Chicago, 1941.
  2. ^ Workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Minnesota, The Minnesota Arrowhead Country. p.30. Albert Whitman, Chicago, 1941.
  3. ^ Ojakangas, Richard W.; Charles L. Matsch (1982). Minnesota's Geology, Illus. Dan Breedy, Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0953-5. 
  4. ^ Michigan State University Dept. of Geography, The Mid-Continent Rift Zone Retrieved 5 January 2007

External links

  • Official Minnesota State travel website: North Shore
  • Minnesota State Parks: Minnesota DNR
  • Ontario Parks: [1]
  • History of Minnesota's Lake Superior: [2]
  • A History of Lake Superior from the First Human Habitation to 2000: [3]
  • Laurel: [4]
  • The Mysterious Pukaskwa Pits: [5]
  • Ojibwe: [6]
  • The Naniboujou Lodge: [7]
  • Superior National Forest: [8]
  • Geology Map: [9]
  • Superior Facts: [10]
  • An Introduction to the Geology of the North Shore [11]

 
 

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