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Encyclopedia > North Sea
North Sea
North Sea -
Location Atlantic Ocean
Coordinates 56°N 3°E / 56, 3
Primary sources Forth, Ythan, Elbe, Weser, Ems, Rhine/Waal, Meuse, Scheldt, Spey, Tay, Thames, Humber, Tees, Wear, Tyne
Basin countries Norway, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, France and the U.K. (England, Scotland)
Max length 600 mi (970 km)[1]
Max width 350 mi (560 km)
Surface area 222,000 mi2 (575,000 km2)[2]
Average depth 308 ft (94 m)[3]
Max depth c.2,165 ft/660 m[2]
Water volume 94 000 km

The North Sea is a marginal, epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European continental shelf. It is more than 600 miles long and 350 miles wide, with an area of around 222,000 square miles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea. The North Sea connects with the rest of the Atlantic through the Dover Strait and the English Channel in the south and through the Norwegian Sea in the north. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 458 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1300 × 1700 pixel, file size: 1. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... Mid to upper reach of the Ythan Estuary The Ythan Estuary (57 20 30 N, 01 57 30 W) is the tidal component of the Ythan River, emptying into the North Sea approximately 19 kilometers north of Aberdeen, Scotland. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... // For the river in Hampshire, see River Ems. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Waal. ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... The River Spey is a river in Scotland that runs 107 miles (172 km) to the Moray Firth at Spey Bay, making it the second longest river in Scotland. ... The River Tay looking eastwards from Perth The River Tay, in terms of flow (193 kilometres or 120 miles), is the longest river in Scotland. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... River Hull tidal barrier. ... The Tees is a river in Northern England. ... The River Wear (pronounced Wee-er) is a river in the North East of England. ... The Tyne looking west and upstream from the Newcastle bank towards the Gateshead Millennium Bridge The Tyne Bridge across the River Tyne between Newcastle and Gateshead. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... “UK” redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... A marginal sea is a part of ocean partially enclosed by land such as islands, archipelagos, or peninsulas. ... An epeiric sea--also known as an epicontinental sea--is a large but shallow body of salt water that lies over a part of a continent. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The Strait of Dover (Fr. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is part of the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of Norway, located between the North Sea (i. ...


The North Sea averages about 100 m (325 ft) deep, with a maximum depth of 700 m (2300 ft) and in some areas shallows can be a mere 15 m deep. The North Sea lies above what used to be the triple junction between three continental tectonic plates in the early Paleozoic Era. Movement on the faults associated with these tectonic phenomena can still cause earthquakes and small tsunamis. The sea's coastal features are the result of glacial movements rather than tectonics. Deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the coastline of the northern part of the North Sea, whereas the southern coasts consist of sandy beaches and mudflats. These flatter areas are particularly susceptible to flooding, especially as a result of storm tides. Elaborate systems of dikes have been constructed to protect coastal areas. The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... There are various types of faults: In document ISO/CD 10303-226, a fault is defined as an abnormal condition or defect at the component, equipment, or sub-system level which may lead to a failure. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological formation. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ... Mudflats in Brewster, Massachusetts extending hundreds of yards offshore at the low tide. ... A storm tide is a tide with a high flood period caused by a storm. ... Afsluitdijk, a 32 km dike in the Netherlands. ...


The development of European civilization has been heavily affected by the maritime traffic on the North Sea. The Romans and the Vikings sought to extend their territory across the sea. Both the Hanseatic League and the Netherlands sought to dominate commerce on the North Sea and through it to access the markets of the world. Britain's development as a sea power depended heavily upon its dominance in the North Sea, where some of its rivals sought power, first the Netherlands and finally Germany and to a lesser extent Russia and the Scandinavian nations. Commercial enterprises, growing populations, and limited resources gave the nations on the North Sea the desire to control or access the North Sea for their own commercial, military, and colonial ends. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ...


Its importance has turned from the military to the economic. Traditional economic activities, such as fishing and shipping, have continued to grow and other resources, such as fossil fuels and wind energy, have been discovered and developed.

Contents

Naming

The name of the North Sea originates from its relationship to the land of the Frisians. Frisia lies directly to the south of the North Sea, to the west of the East Sea (Oostzee, the Baltic Sea), to the north of the former South Sea (Zuiderzee, today's IJsselmeer) and the today reclaimed Middle Sea (Middelzee). The name “North Sea” is attested in Middle High German and probably harks back to the name given by the Frisians, who settled on its south coast. Even the early Spanish name was Mar del Norte.[4] Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Landsat photo The Zuider Zee (Dutch: Zuiderzee, pronounced ZIGH-der-zee) was a former shallow inlet of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 meters and a coastline... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ... The Middelzee, (Middle sea, Frisian: Middelsee) also called Bordine was the mouth of the river Boorn (Frisian: Boarn) where the tides ran free. ...


From the point of view of the German Hanseatic towns of the Middle Ages, the sea to the east was the “East Sea” (Baltic Sea in German is literally the Ostsee), and the sea to the north, the North Sea. The spread of maps used by Hanseatic merchants popularized this name throughout Europe. Other common names in use for long periods were Mare Frisia, and Mare Frisicum, Oceanum- or Mare Germanicum as well as their English equivalents, Frisian Sea and German Ocean or Sea. Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


"German Sea" or "Germanic Sea"[5] (from the Latin Mare Germanicum) was commonly used in English and other languages along with "North Sea", until the early eighteenth century. By the late nineteenth century, both "German-" and "Germanic Sea" were rare, scholarly usages. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Location

The North Sea

For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf. The only exception is a narrow area of the northern North Sea off Norway. The North Sea is bounded by Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. Map of North Sea, from the US Department of Energy: http://eia. ... Map of North Sea, from the US Department of Energy: http://eia. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ...


In the south-west, the North Sea becomes the English Channel beyond the Straits of Dover. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat. In the north, it opens in a widening funnel shape to the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the very north-eastern part of the Atlantic. For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... The Strait of Dover (Fr. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The Skagerrak strait runs between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat strait, which leads to the Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Sea The Kattegat (Danish), or Kattegatt (Swedish), is a bay of the North Sea and a continuation of the Skagerrak, bounded by Denmark and Sweden. ... The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is part of the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of Norway, located between the North Sea (i. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ...


Apart from the obvious boundaries formed by the coasts of the countries which border it, the North Sea is generally considered to be bounded by an imaginary line from Lindesnes, Norway to Hanstholm, Denmark running towards the Skagerrak. However, for statistical purposes, the Skagerrak and the Kattegat are sometimes included as part of the North Sea.[6] The northern limit is less well-defined. Traditionally, an imaginary line is taken to run from northern Scotland, by way of Shetland, to Ålesund in Norway. According to the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic[7]of 1962 it runs further to the west and north from longitude 5° West and latitude 62° North, at the latitude of Geirangerfjord in Norway. Missing image Image:Lindesnes kart. ... Hanstholm is the name used for a small elevated area in Hanstholm municipality of Viborg County, located in the northern part of Denmark. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... County Møre og Romsdal District Sunnmøre Municipality NO-1504 Administrative centre Ã…lesund Mayor (2003) Arve Tonning (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 388 98 km² 93 km² 0. ... The official logo of the OSPAR Convention The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic or OSPAR Convention is the current legislative instrument regulating international cooperation on environmental protection in the North-East Atlantic. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Geirangerfjord (Geirangerfjorden) is a fjord in the region Sunnmøre which is located southernmost in the county Møre og Romsdal in Norway. ...


The surface area of the North Sea is approx. 575,000 square kilometers (222,000 sq mi)[3] with a volume of around 54,000 cubic kilometers (13,000 cu mi).[2] This places the North Sea at the 13th largest sea.[8] Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... The cubic metre (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...


Geology

Geological history

North Sea cliff
North Sea cliff

The bed of the North Sea forms two basins. The main northern one lies to the north of a ridge between Norfolk and Frisia, and had its origin in the Devonian. The southern basin, if not flooded, would drain towards the Strait of Dover and thence to the English Channel. This basin dates from the Carboniferous.[9] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 904 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Vendsyssel © 2004 by Tomasz Sienicki [user: tsca, mail: tomasz. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 904 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Vendsyssel © 2004 by Tomasz Sienicki [user: tsca, mail: tomasz. ... The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... The term sedimentary basin is used to refer to any geographical feature exhibiting subsidence and consequent infilling by sedimentation. ... This article is about the use of the term in geography and physical geology. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Satellite image of the Strait of Dover The Strait of Dover (French: Pas de Calais, i. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ...


During the most recent glaciation, the Devensian much of the northern basin was covered by the ice sheet, and the remainder, including the southern basin, was tundra. However, during the Cromerian interglacial, there was a natural dam of chalk, the Weald-Artois Anticline."[10] Although the ridge probably collapsed during the Kansan glaciation it still formed the highest part of the land bridge between continental Europe and Great Britain.[11] The Wisconsin (in North America), Weichsel (in Scandinavia), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland) and Würm glaciation (in the Alps) are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and reached its... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²).[1] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... The Cromerian interglacial is a name for an interglacial period which occurred between 700,000 and 450,000 years ago. ... The Needles, situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... The Weald-Artois Anticline was a chalk ridge running between what are now the regions of the Weald in southern England and Artois in western France, roughly between the towns of Dover and Calais. ... The Kansan Glaciation (known in UK as the Anglian Glaciation and sometimes referred to as the Illinoian Glaciation, Elster glaciation in northern Europe and the Mindel glaciation in the Alps) was a very severe glacial period in the Pleistocene. ...


The Storegga Slides were a series of underwater landslides, in which a piece of the Norwegian continental shelf slid into the Norwegian Sea. The immense landslips occurred between 8150 BC and 6000 BC, and caused a tsunami up to 20 m (65 ft) high that swept through the North Sea, having the greatest effect on Scotland and the Faeroe Islands.[12][13] The three Storegga Slides count among the largest recorded landslides. ...


Plate tectonics

The North Sea lies over the triple suture of what use to be three separate continents in the Paleozoic
The North Sea lies over the triple suture of what use to be three separate continents in the Paleozoic

The North Sea lies above what used to be the triple junction between three continental tectonic plates in the early Paleozoic Era. Later, in the Mesozoic Era, a North-South trending rift valley or graben formed down the middle of the North Sea. Fault lines along the English Channel cause occasional earthquakes, which can result in damage to structures on land. The axial grabens of the North Sea also form a tectonically active area. Northwestern Europe's continental slope is subject to landslides from earthquakes.[14] Although not a site of major earthquakes or tsunamis, there are intraplate earthquakes which result in the uplifting of the continental crust[15] causing landslides.[12] The Dover Straits earthquake of 1580 is among the first recorded in the North Sea and caused extensive damage in both France and England both through its tremors and a tsunami. The largest earthquake ever recorded in the United Kingdom was the 1931 Dogger Bank earthquake, which measured 6.1 on the Richter Scale and caused a tsunami that flooded parts of the British coast. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A triple junction is the point where three tectonic plates diverge. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... African Rift Valley. ... USGS image A graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Though severe earthquakes in the north of France and southern England are rare,[1] the Dover Straits earthquake of 6 April 1580 appears to have been the largest in the recorded history of England, Flanders or northern France. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Location of the Dogger Bank The Dogger Bank earthquake of 1931 is the strongest earthquake ever recorded in the United Kingdom since measurements began, and measured 6. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ...


The North Sea is located at a triple junction of three continental plates formed during the Palaeozoic: Avalonia, Laurentia and Baltica.[16] Baltica is now the eastern coastline and the Scandinavian countries; Avalonia consists of the southern and western North Sea coast along England, northern Germany and France; and Laurentia marks the northern perimeter of the North Sea with the Atlantic Ocean. The Palaeozoic is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... Avalonia was a paleomicrocontinent also known as a Terrane. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Geological features

The Dogger Bank
The Dogger Bank

The Norwegian trench reaches from the Stad peninsula in Sogn og Fjordane to the Oslofjord. The trench is between 50 and 95 km (30-60 mi) wide and hundreds of meters deep. Off the Rogaland coast, it is 250 - 300 m (820-980 ft) deep, and at its deepest point, off Arendal, it reaches 700 m (2300 ft) deep as compared to the average depth of the North Sea, about 100 m (325 ft). The trench is not a subduction-related oceanic trench. It is mainly a deep erosional scour, while the Western part follows the North-South line of an old Rift Valley formed during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, also known as the Viking Graben. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1300x1700, 372 KB) Location of the Dogger bank. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1300x1700, 372 KB) Location of the Dogger bank. ... Map of the North Sea with Norwegian trench The Norwegian trench (Norwegian: Norskerenna Danish: Norskerenden) is an oceanic trench off the southern coast of Norway. ... Stad (Stadt, Statt or Stadlandet) (the d is pronounced t) is a peninsula in the Norwegian municipality of Selje. ... County NO-14 Region Vestlandet Administrative centre Leikanger County mayor Nils R. Sandal Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 8 18,623 km² 5. ... The Oslofjord (Oslofjorden) is a bay in the south-east of Norway, stretching from Færder in the south to Oslo at the head. ... Rogaland is a county in Norway, bordering Hordaland, Telemark, Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder. ... County Aust-Agder District Sørlandet Municipality NO-0906 Administrative centre Arendal Mayor (2004) Torill Rolstad Larsen (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 289 270 km² 255 km² 0. ... Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ... The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... African Rift Valley. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ...


To the East of Great Britain, the vast morainic plate of the Dogger Bank rises up to 15 to 30 m deep.[17] This article is about geological phenomena. ... Location of the Dogger Bank Dogger Bank (from dogge, an old Dutch word for fishing boat) is a large sandbank in a shallow area of the North Sea about 100 km off the coast of the United Kingdom. ...


The Silver Pit is a valley-like depression 45 km (27 mi) east of Spurn Head in England that has been recognized for hundreds of years by fishermen. Nearby is the Silverpit crater, a controversial structure, which may be a geological structure or may be an impact crater. The Silver Pit is a long valley in the bed of the North Sea, 45 km = 27 miles east of Spurn Head in England. ... Spurn Head is a sand spit at the mouth of the Humber, England. ... Approximate location of the Silverpit crater The Silverpit crater is a sub-sea structure under the North Sea off the coast of the United Kingdom. ... Tycho crater on Earths moon. ...


"The Long Forties" denotes an area of the northern North Sea that is fairly consistently forty fathoms (73 m) deep (thus, on a nautical chart with depth shown in fathoms, a long area with many "40" notations). It is located between the northeast coast of Scotland and the southwest coast of Norway, centered about 57°N 0°30′E. The Long Forties is an area of the northern North Sea that is fairly consistently forty fathoms (73 meters) deep (thus, on a nautical map showing depth, a long area with many 40 notations). ... A fathom is the name of a unit of length in the Imperial system (and the derived U.S. customary units). ... A 1976 United States NOAA chart of part of Puerto Rico A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions. ...


The Broad Fourteens are an area of the southern North Sea that is fairly consistently fourteen fathoms (26 m) deep (thus a broad area with many "14" notations). It is located off the coast of the Netherlands and south of the Dogger Bank, roughly between longitude 3°E and 4°30′E and latitude 52°30′N and 53°30′N. The Broad Fourteens is an area of the southern North Sea that is fairly consistently fourteen fathoms (26 meters) deep (thus, on a nautical map showing depth, a broad area with many 14 notations). ...


Around the edges of the North Sea are a number of sizable islands and archipelagos, including the Shetland, Orkney, and Frisian islands. The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Frisian Islands (without the islands in the german district Dithmarschen and in Denmark) The Frisian Islands form an archipelago in northwestern Europe that spreads across the coasts of three countries, from west to east, The Netherlands and Germany. ...

See more: List of the largest islands of the North Sea

This is a list of the 50 largest islands in the North Sea. ...

Hydrology

Basic data

The salinity of the water is dependent on place and time of year but is generally in the range of 15 to 25 parts per thousand (ppt) around river mouths and up to 32 to 35 ppt in the northern North Sea,[8] still generally lower than North Atlantic salinity, which averages around 35 ppt. Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... The parts-per notations are used to denote low concentrations of chemical elements. ...


The water temperature varies depending on the influence of the Atlantic currents, water depth, and time of year, reaching 21 °C (77 °F) in summer and 6 °C (50 °F) in winter, though Arctic currents can be colder. The eastern side is both the warmest in summer and the coldest in winter. In the deeper northern North Sea, the water remains a nearly constant 10 °C (50 °F) year round because of water exchange with the Atlantic. The greatest temperature variations are found on the very shallow Wadden Sea coast, where ice can form in very cold winters.[8]


The exchange of salt water between the North Sea and Atlantic occurs through the English Channel, as well as in the northern North Sea along the Scottish coast and through the Norwegian Sea. The North Sea receives fresh water not only from inflow of rivers but also from the low salinity Baltic Sea which drains into the North Sea via the Skagerrak. The North Sea rivers drain a land area of 841,500 km² (324,905 sq mi) and supply 296-354 km³ (71-85 cu mi) of fresh water annually. The Baltic rivers drain almost twice as large an area (1,650,000 km², 637,068 sq mi) and contribute 470 km³ (113 cu mi) of fresh water annually.[8] For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ...


Around 160 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers that flow into the North Sea. These rivers drain a large part of Western Europe: a quarter of France, three quarters of Germany, nearly all of Switzerland, half of Jutland, the whole of the Netherlands and Belgium, the southern part of Norway, the Rhine basin of western Austria and the eastern side of Great Britain. This area contains the world's greatest concentration of industry: 15% of the planet's industrial production takes place in the catchment area of the North Sea. For the term related to television programmes, see watershed (television). ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ...


Water circulation

The main pattern to the flow of water in the North Sea is a counter-clockwise rotation along the edges.[18] Water from the Gulf Stream flows in both through the English Channel, whence it continues northeast toward Norway, and around the north of Britain, moving southward along the British coast. This south-moving current slowly loses its shape and strength as smaller currents are pulled off eastwards into the central North Sea. A significant current also sweeps south in the eastern part of the Sea. This is cold North Atlantic water and is strongest in late spring and early summer when the British offshore waters remain cool while the sea off the Netherlands and Germany starts warming up. Water from the Channel, and water flowing out of the Baltic Sea eventually move north along the Norwegian coast back into the Atlantic in what is called the Norwegian Current.[19] The current moves at a depth of some 50 to 100 m (165-330 ft). It has a relatively low salinity due to the brackish water of the Baltic and the fresh water contributed by the rivers and the fjords. Though the current is, on average, cooler than the North Sea water as a whole, warmer water flowing in from the Channel mixed with the cooler waters of the Baltic and North Atlantic result in streams of widely varying temperatures within the current. A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... The Norwegian Current is warm water current that north-easterly along the Atlantic coast of Norway. ... Brackish redirects here. ... Lysefjorden in Norway A fjord (pronounced FEE-ord or fyord, SAMPA: [fi:3:d] or [faI3:d]; sometimes written fiord) is a glacially overdeepened valley, usually narrow and steep-sided, extending below sea level and filled with salt water. ...


The mean residence time of water in the North sea is between 1 and two years.[19] Water in the north is exchanged most quickly while water in the German Bight can flow in circles for years before being pulled northwards.


Within the Sea, fronts based on temperature, salinity, nutrients, and pollution can be clearly identified; they are more clearly defined in summer than in winter. Large fronts are the Frisian Front, which divides water coming from the North Atlantic from water originating in the English Channel, and the Danish Front, which divides southern coastal waters from water in the central North Sea. The inflow of water from large rivers mixes very slowly with North Sea water. Water from the Rhine and Elbe, for example, can still be clearly differentiated from sea water off the northwest coast of Denmark. Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...

The mouth of the Rhine
The mouth of the Rhine
Influent Rivers of the North Sea
River Country Discharge in m³/s in cu ft/s
Rhine / Meuse Netherlands 2,524 89,134
Elbe Germany 856 30,229
Glomma Norway 603 21,295
IJsselmeer Netherlands 555 19600
Weser Germany 358 12,643
Skjern Å Denmark 206 7275
Firth of Tay (includes River Tay and River Earn) Scotland 203 7169
Moray Firth (includes River Spey and River Ness) Scotland 168 5933
Scheldt Belgium/Netherlands 126 4450
Humber England 125 4415
Forth Scotland 112 3955
Ems Germany 88 3108
Tweed England 85 3002
Thames England 76 2684

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 958 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) NASA World Wind screenshot. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 958 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) NASA World Wind screenshot. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Glomma, pronounced and written Glåma in northern regions of the river, is the longest river in Norway, 598 kilometers long. ... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The Firth of Tay is a firth in Scotland between the regions of Fife and City of Dundee into to which Scotlands largest river in terms of flow, the River Tay empties. ... The River Tay looking eastwards from Perth The River Tay, in terms of flow (193 kilometres or 120 miles), is the longest river in Scotland. ... The River Earn viewed from Forteviot bridge. ... The Moray Firth is a roughly triangular area of the North Sea, north and east of Inverness. ... The River Spey is a river in Scotland that runs 107 miles (172 km) to the Moray Firth at Spey Bay, making it the second longest river in Scotland. ... The River Ness is a river flowing from Loch Ness in Scotland, north to Inverness and the Moray Firth. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... River Hull tidal barrier. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... // For the river in Hampshire, see River Ems. ... There are other rivers with this name: see Tweed River The River Tweed at Abbotsford, near Melrose The River Tweed at Coldstream The River Tweed (156 kilometres or 97 miles long) flows primarily through the Borders region of Scotland. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames...

Tides

The tides are caused by the tide wave from the North Atlantic, as the North Sea itself is too small and too flat to have its own tides. Ebb and flow alternate in a cycle of 12.5 hours. The tide wave, owing to the Coriolis effect, flows around Scotland and then in counter-clockwise direction along the English coast and reaches the German Bight some 12 hours after arriving in Scotland. In so doing, it runs around three amphidromic points: a central point lies shortly before the Straits of Dover. It is formed by the tide wave which is transported across the English Channel. It influences the tides in the narrow area of De Hoofden in the Southern Bight between southern England and the Netherlands. The other amphidromic system consists of two points close to each other which form a tide wave. The two other points just off the coast of southern Norway and lying on a line between southern Denmark and the West Frisian Islands form one single area around which the tides flow. Its central point lies on the Jutland Bank at 55° 25' N, 5° 15' E.[8] This article is about tides in the ocean. ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... An amphidromic point is a point within a tidal system where the tidal range is almost zero. ... The West Frisian Islands (Dutch: Waddeneilanden) are a chain of islands in the North Sea off the Dutch coast. ...


As a result, the tidal range in southern Norway is less than half a metre (1.5 ft), but increases the further any given coast lies from the amphidromic point. Shallow coasts and the funnel effect of narrow straits increase the tidal range. The tidal range is at its greatest at The Wash on the English coast, where it reaches 6.80 m (22 ft). In shallow water areas, the real tidal range is strongly influenced by other factors, such as the position of the coast and the wind at any given moment or the action of storms. In river estuaries, high water levels can considerably amplify the effect of high tide. The Wash, as seen looking west from Heacham, Norfolk The Wash is also the name of a 2001 film. ... An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water mixes with fresh water. ...


Coasts

The western coasts of the North Sea are jagged, as they were stripped by glaciers during the ice ages. The coastlines along the southernmost part are soft, covered with the remains of deposited glacials which were left directly by the ice or have been redeposited by the sea. The Norwegian mountains plunge into the sea, giving birth, north of Stavanger, to deep fjords and archipelagoes. South of Stavanger, the coast softens, the islands become fewer. The Eastern Scottish coast is similar, though less marked than Norway. Starting from Flamborough Head in the northeast of England, the cliffs become lower and are composed of less resistant moraine, which erodes more easily, so that the coasts have more rounded contours. In Holland, Belgium and in the East of England (East Anglia) the littoral is low and marshy. The East coast and south-east of the North Sea (Wadden Sea) have coastlines that are mainly sandy and straight owing to longshore currents, in particular in Belgium and in Denmark.[20] This article is about the geological formation. ... County District Jæren Municipality NO-1103 Administrative centre Stavanger Mayor (1995-) Leif Johan Sevland (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 406 71 km² 68 km² 0. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... This article is about geological phenomena. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... Satellite image of the southwestern part of the Wadden Sea. ... In geography, longshore drift (LSD) refers to a process by which sediments move along a beach shoreline. ...


Northern fjords, skerries, and cliffs

Geirangerfjord, Norway

The northern North Sea coasts bear the impression of the enormous glaciers which covered them during the Ice Ages and created a split, craggy coastal landscape. Fjords arose by the action of glaciers, which dragged their way through them from the highlands, cutting and scraping deep trenches in the land. During the subsequent rise in sea level, they filled with water. They very often display steep coastlines and are extremely deep for the North Sea. Fjords are particularly common on the coast of Norway.[21] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 402 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (687 × 1024 pixel, file size: 456 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 402 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (687 × 1024 pixel, file size: 456 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Geirangerfjord (Geirangerfjorden) is a fjord in the region Sunnmøre which is located southernmost in the county Møre og Romsdal in Norway. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ...


Firths are similar to fjords, but are generally shallower with broader bays in which small islands may be found. The glaciers that formed them influenced the land over a wider area and scraped away larger areas. Firths are to be found mostly on the Scottish and northern English coasts. Individual islands in the firths, or islands and the coast, are often joined up by sandbars or spits made up of sand deposits known as “tombolos”.[22] Firth is the Scots word used to denote various coastal waters in Scotland. ... In geography, a bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ... Tombolo at Stockton Island, Ashland County (Wisconsin). ...


Towards the south the firths give way to a cliff coast, which was formed by the moraines of Ice Age glaciers.[23]The horizontal impact of waves on the North Sea coast gives rise to eroded coasts; the eroded material is an important source of sediment for the mudflats on the other side of the North Sea.[24] The cliff landscape is interrupted by large estuaries with their corresponding mud and marshy flats disrupt, notably the Humber and the Thames, in southern England. This article is about geological phenomena. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ...


In southern Norway, as well as on the Swedish Skagerrak coast, skerries are to be found.[25] Formed by similar action to that which created the fjords and firths, the glaciers in these places affected the land to an even greater extent, so that large areas were carried away. The coastal brim (Strandflaten), which is found especially in southern Norway, is a gently sloping lowland area between the sea and the mountains. It consists of plates of bedrock, and often extends for kilometers, reaching under the sea, at a depth of only a few meters. Look up skerry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ...


Southern shoals and mudflats

Mudflats in Germany
Mudflats in Germany

The shallow-water coasts of the southern and eastern coast up to Denmark were formed by Ice Age activity, but their particular shape is determined for the most part by the sea and sediment deposits.[26] The Wadden Sea stretches between Esbjerg, Denmark in the north and Den Helder, Netherlands in the west. This landscape is heavily influenced by the tides and important sections of it have been declared a National Park. The whole of the coastal zone is shallow; the tides flood large areas and uncover them again, constantly depositing sediments. The Southern Bight has been especially changed by land reclamation, as the Dutch have been especially active. The largest project of this type was the diking and reclamation of the IJsselmeer.In the micro tidal area, (a tidal range of up to 1.35 m (4.43 ft)), such as on the Dutch or Danish coasts,[27] barrier beaches with dunes are formed. In the mesotidal area (a tidal range of between 1.35 and 2.90 m (4.43-9.5 ft)), barrier islands are formed; in the macrotidal area (above 2.90 m (9.5 ft) tidal range), such as at the mouth of the Elbe, underwater sandbanks form. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Satellite image of the southwestern part of the Wadden Sea. ... Old watertower in Esbjerg View to Esbjerg harbour from the watertower (May 2005) Map of the municipality Esbjerg is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in Region Syddanmark (South Denmark Region) on the west coast of the Jutland peninsula in southwest Denmark. ... Den Helder is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ... The tidal range is the vertical difference between the highest high tide and the lowest low tide. ... This article is about sand formations. ... In geography, a bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ...


The Dutch West Frisian and the German East Frisian Islands are barrier islands. They arose along the breakers’ edge where the water surge piled up sediment, and behind which sediment was carried away by the breaking waves. Over time, sandplates arose, which finally were only covered by infrequent storm floods. Once plants began to colonize the sandbanks the land began to stabilise.[28] The West Frisian Islands (Dutch: Waddeneilanden) are a chain of islands in the North Sea off the Dutch coast. ... The East Frisian Islands (German: Ostfriesische Inseln) are a chain of islands in the North Sea, off the coast of Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


The North Frisian Islands, on the other hand, arose from the remains of old Geestland islands, where the land was partially removed by storm floods and water action and then separated from the mainland. They are, therefore, often higher and their cores are less exposed to changes than the islands to the south. Beyond the core, however, the same processes are at work, particularly evident on Sylt, where in the south of the island, a break threatens, whilst the harbor at List silts up.[29] The Danish Islands, the next in the chain to the north, arose from sandbanks. Right up into the twentieth century, the silting up of the islands was a serious problem. To protect the islands, small woods were planted. Map of North Frisian Islands The North Frisian Islands are a group of islands in the Wadden Sea, a part of the North Sea, off the western coast of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany and Jutland, Denmark. ... Geestland or Geest is a type of landscape in Northern Germany, the Northern Netherlands and Denmark. ... The German island of Sylt is located in the North Sea off the west coast of Germany and Denmark. ... For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation). ... List is the northernmost village in Germany, located on the North Sea island of Sylt close to Denmark. ...


The island of Helgoland was not formed by sediment deposition; in fact, it is considerably older and is composed of Early Triassic sandstone. Heligoland during World War I. Heligoland (in German, Helgoland and in North Frisian, Lun, Hålilönj) is a small, German, triangular-shaped island approximately 2 km long, though a smaller island east of it is usually also included. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ...


Storm tides

Storm tides threaten, in particular, the coasts of the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and Denmark. These coasts are quite flat, so even a relatively small increase in the water levels is sufficient to put large stretches of land under water. Storms from the west are especially strong, so the most dangerous places are on the south-east coast. Over the years, floods caused by storm tides have cost hundreds of thousands of lives and have significantly helped to shape the coast. Until early modern times, the number of victims from a single storm tide could be in the tens of thousands, even exceeding a hundred thousand, though to what extent these historically-reported casualties are accurate can only be estimated with difficulty. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 620 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Thames Barrier ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 620 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Thames Barrier ... The Thames Barrier is a flood control structure on the River Thames, constructed between 1974 and 1984 at Woolwich Reach, London. ... A storm tide is a tide with a high flood period caused by a storm. ...


The first recorded storm tide flood was the Julianenflut, on February 17, 1164. In its wake the Jadebusen began to form. Ancient records tell also of the First Marcellus Flood, which struck West Frieslandin 1219. A storm tide in 1228 is recorded to have killed more than 100,000 people. The Second Marcellus Flood also known as the Grote Mandrenke in 1362 hit the entire southern coast of the North Sea. Chronicles of the time again record more than 100,000 deaths as large parts of the coast were lost permanently to the sea, including the now legendary town of Rungholt (see Lost city). The Strand island emerged from the remainders. During the Burchardi flood in 1634 the Strand was destroyed. Limfjord was first connected with the North Sea on February 3, 1825 when a flood pierced an opening. In 1862, another flood pierced another opening, the Thyborøn Channel, through the remainder of Agger Tange. is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ... The Arngast lighthouse on the Jadebusen Jadebusen, formerly Jade or Jahde, is a bay on the North Sea coast of Germany. ... West Friesland (also West Frisia; Dutch: West-Friesland; West Frisian: West-Fryslân) is a contemporary region in the northwestern Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... The Grote Mandrenke (Dutch: Great Drowning of Men) was the name of a massive southwesterly Atlantic gale, (see also European windstorm), which swept across England, the Netherlands, northern Germany and Schleswig around January 16, 1362, causing at minimum 25,000 deaths. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Likeliest locations of Rungholt Rungholt was a wealthy city in Nordfriesland, northern Germany. ... In the popular imagination lost cities were real, prosperous, well-populated areas of human habitation that fell into terminal decline and whose location was later lost. ... Strand was an island on the west coast of Nordfriesland in modern Germany. ... The Burchardi Flood, (also known as the second Grote Mandrenke) was a Storm tide that struck the North Sea coast of Nordfriesland (Germany and Denmark) on the night between 11th and 12th of October 1634. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... a bridge over Limfjord (Aalborg/Nørresundby) The Limfjord is a shallow sound in Denmark that separates the island of Vendsyssel-Thy from the rest of Jutland Peninsula. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about 1862 . ...


In the twentieth century the North Sea flood of 1953 flooded several nations' coasts and cost more than 2000 lives.[30] 315 citizens of Hamburg died in the North Sea flood of 1962. The "Century Flood" of 1976 and the "North Frisian Flood" of 1981 brought the highest water levels measured to date on the North Sea coast, but because of the dikes built and improved after the flood of 1962, these led only to property damage.[31] A storm surge occurred on November 9, 2007, causing some flooding. The conditions were likened to those that had caused the damage and large loss of life in 1953. Fortunately, in 2007, nowhere near as much damage was caused although the Thames Barrier was closed twice to protect London. The North Sea flood of 1953 and the associated storm combined to create a major natural disaster which affected the coastlines of the Netherlands and England on the night of 31 January 1953 – 1 February 1953. ... Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg 1962 The North Sea flood of 1962 was a natural disaster affecting mainly the coastal regions of Germany and in particular the city of Hamburg in the night from February 16 to February 17, 1962. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Afsluitdijk, a 32 km dike in the Netherlands. ... The Thames Barrier is a flood control structure on the River Thames, constructed between 1974 and 1984 at Woolwich Reach, London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Coastal preservation

The Afsluitdijk (Closure-dike) is a major dam in the Netherlands.
The Afsluitdijk (Closure-dike) is a major dam in the Netherlands.
Oosterscheldekering, North Sea Protection Works or Delta Works.
Oosterscheldekering, North Sea Protection Works or Delta Works.

The southern coastal areas were originally amphibious. The land included countless islands and islets which had been divided by rivers, streams, and wetlands and areas of dry land were regularly flooded. In areas especially vulnerable to storm tides, people settled first on natural areas of high ground such as spits and Geestland. As early as 500 BC, people were constructing artificial dwelling hills several meters high. It was only around the beginning of the High Middle Ages in 1200 AD that inhabitants began to connect single ring dikes into a dike line along the entire coast, thereby turning amphibious regions between the land and the sea into permanent solid ground. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 518 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,960 × 1,270 pixels, file size: 887 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 518 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,960 × 1,270 pixels, file size: 887 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Afsluitdijk The Afsluitdijk (Closure-dike) is a major dam in the Netherlands, constructed between 1927 and 1933 and running from Den Oever on Wieringen in North Holland province, to the village of Zurich (mun. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 605 KB) Oosterscheldekering, Netherlands File links The following pages link to this file: Oosterscheldekering Dutch fight against the water Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 605 KB) Oosterscheldekering, Netherlands File links The following pages link to this file: Oosterscheldekering Dutch fight against the water Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... The Oosterscheldekering (Eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier), between the islands Schouwen-Duiveland and Noord-Beveland, is the largest of the 13 ambitious Delta works series of dams, designed to protect a large part of the Netherlands from flooding. ... A spit is a deposition landform found off coasts. ... Geestland or Geest is a type of landscape in Northern Germany, the Northern Netherlands and Denmark. ... Artificial dwelling hills (also known as Wierde, Warft, and Werf) are hills that were created by humans to have a dry shelter during high tide. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ...


The modern form of the dikes began to take form in the 17th and 18th centuries, built by private enterprises in the Netherlands. The Dutch dike builders exported their designs to other North Sea regions. The North Sea Floods of 1953 and 1962 were impetus for further raising of the dikes as well as the shortening of the dike line through land reclamation and river weirs so as to present as little surface area as possible to the punishment of the sea and the storms.[32] Currently, 27% of the Netherlands is below sea level protected by dikes, dunes, and beach flats.[33] The bridge and weir mechanism at Sturminster Newton on the River Stour, Dorset. ...


Coastal preservation today consists of several levels. The dike slope reduces the energy of the incoming sea, so that the dike itself does not receive the full impact. Dikes that lie directly on the sea are especially reinforced. The dikes have, over the years, been repeatedly raised, sometimes up to 10 m (32 feet) and have become flatter in order to better reduce the erosion of the waves. Modern dikes are up to 100 m (328 ft) across. Behind the dike, there runs an access road and generally a thinly inhabited area. In many places, another dike follows after several kilometers.


Where the dunes are sufficient to protect the land behind them from the sea, these dunes are planted with beach grass to protect them from erosion by wind, water, and foot traffic.[34] See also: Species Ammophila arenaria Ammophila breviligulata Marram Grass or Beach Grass is a genus of two species of grass growing almost exclusively on coastal sand dunes, where rhizomes on its extensive root system allow it to survive in a very harsh and windswept ecosystem. ...

Blue: Areas below sea level or vulnerable to flooding, either by sea or by rivers. ... The 32 km long Afsluitdijk separates the IJsselmeer from the North Sea, protecting thousands of km² of land. ... The Delta Works are a number of constructions that were built between 1950 and 1997 in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land from the sea. ... The Thames Barrier is a flood control structure on the River Thames, constructed between 1974 and 1984 at Woolwich Reach, London. ... Afsluitdijk The Afsluitdijk (Closure-dike) is a major dam in the Netherlands, constructed between 1927 and 1933 and running from Den Oever on Wieringen in North Holland province, to the village of Zurich (mun. ...

History

For more details on this topic, see History of the North Sea.

The history of the North Sea reveals it to be the major route for conquests between the adjoining countries. ...

Early history

The first records of marine traffic on the North Sea come from the Roman Empire, which began exploring the sea in 12 BC. Great Britain was formally invaded in 43 AD and its southern areas incorporated into the Empire, beginning sustained trade across the North Sea and the English Channel. The Romans abandoned Britain in 410 and in the power vacuum they left, the Germanic Angles, Saxons, and Jutes began the next great migration across the North Sea during the Migration Period, conquering and displacing the native Celtic populations.[35] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC... Events Aulus Plautius, with 4 legions, landed on Britain. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... This article is about the European people. ...

Viking expansion and raiding by century
Viking expansion and raiding by century

The Viking Age began in 793 with the attack on Lindisfarne and for the next quarter-century the Vikings ruled the North Sea. In their superior longships, they raided without fear and established colonies and trading outposts on the Sea's coasts. Image File history File links Viking_Expansion. ... Image File history File links Viking_Expansion. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... Events Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... Longships is the name given to a group of rocks situated 1. ...


As Viking dominance waned. trade on the North Sea came to be controlled by the Hanseatic League. The League, though centered on the Baltic Sea, had important outposts on the North Sea. Goods from all over the world flowed through the North Sea on their way to and from the Hanseatic cities. Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ...


By 1441, the Netherlands had risen as an economic and shipping power to rival the League. By the 16th Century, the Netherlands were the leading economic power. The North Sea was a hotbed of commerce and shipping connecting far-flung colonies with markets all over Europe. This page is about the year 1441. ...


Early modern history

Painting of the Four Days Battle of 1666 by Willem van de Velde
Painting of the Four Days Battle of 1666 by Willem van de Velde

Dutch power during her Golden Age was a concern for growing England, which saw its future in the merchant marine and overseas colonies. This conflict was at the root of the first three Anglo-Dutch Wars between 1652 and 1673. By the end of the War of Spanish Succession, the Dutch were no long a major player in European politics. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x905, 101 KB) Description: Title: de: Die während der viertägigen Seeschlacht 1666 eroberten Schiffe Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 58 × 81 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: Amsterdam Current location (gallery): de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x905, 101 KB) Description: Title: de: Die während der viertägigen Seeschlacht 1666 eroberten Schiffe Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 58 × 81 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: Amsterdam Current location (gallery): de... Combatants England United Provinces Commanders George Monck,Duke of Albemarle Michiel de Ruyter Strength 79 ships 84 ships Casualties 10 English ships lost 4 Dutch ships lost The Four Days Battle was a naval battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... The painting Dutch attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, painted c. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ...


Britain's naval supremacy faced its only real challenge before the 20th Century from Napoleonic France and her continental allies. In 1800, a union of lesser naval powers, called the League of Armed Neutrality, formed to protect neutral trade during Britain's conflict with France. The British Navy defeated the combined forces of the League of Armed Neutrality in the Battle of Copenhagen in 1801 in the Kattegat. Britain later defeated the French Navy in the Battle of Trafalgar off the coast of Spain. Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Constitutional Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Battle of Copenhagen The Battle of Copenhagen (Danish: Slaget på Reden) was a naval battle fought on 2 April 1801 by a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, against a Danish fleet anchored just off Copenhagen. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ...

Combatants Britain German Empire Commanders David Beatty Reginald Tyrwhitt Leberecht Maass Strength 5 battlecruisers 8 light cruisers 33 destroyers 3 submarines 6 light cruisers 19 torpedo boats 12 minesweepers Casualties 35 killed 55 wounded 712 killed 149 wounded 336 captured 3 light cruisers 1 torpedo boat The First Battle of... The Battle of Dogger Bank was a naval battle fought near the Dogger Bank in the North Sea that took place on 24 January 1915, during the First World War, between squadrons of the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet. ... Combatants Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 heavy cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre... The Second Battle of Heligoland Bight was a naval battle of World War I. On 17 November 1917, German minesweepers clearing a path through the British minefield in the Heligoland Bight of the North Sea near the coast of Germany was intercepted by two Royal Navy cruisers Calypso and Caledon... Zeebrugge (French: Zeebruges) is a harbour-town at the coast of Belgium, a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port. ... Combatants British Empire German Empire Commanders Hubert Lynes Strength see British order of battle below Shore defences Casualties Unknown[1] Unknown, negligible The First Ostend Raid (part of Operation ZO) was the first of two attacks by the Royal Navy on the German-held port of Ostend during the late... Combatants Britain German Empire Commanders Roger Keyes Strength HMS Vindictive, four monitors, eight destroyers and five motor launches with aerial support Shore defences Casualties Launch ML254 sunk, 18 dead, 29 wounded [1] Light The Second Ostend Raid (officially known as Operation VS) was the latter of two failed attempts by...

20th Century

The German Cruiser SMS Blücher sinks in the Battle of Dogger Bank on 25 January 1915.
The German Cruiser SMS Blücher sinks in the Battle of Dogger Bank on 25 January 1915.

Tensions in the North Sea were again heightened in 1904 by the Dogger Bank incident, in which Russian naval vessels mistook British fishing boats for Japanese ships and fired on them, and then upon each other. In the resulting confusion, 3 British fishermen, a Russian sailor, and a priest aboard a Russian ship were killed. The incident, combined with Britain's alliance with Japan and the Russo-Japanese War led to an intense diplomatic crisis. The crisis was defused when Russia was defeated by the Japanese and agreed to pay compensation to the fishermen. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... SMS Blücher was an armoured cruiser of the German Kaiserliche Marine, and was the last vessel of its class built by Germany. ... The Dogger Bank incident (also known as incident of Hull) was the assault on British trawlers at the Dogger Bank by the Russian Baltic Fleet in the night of October 21 to October 22, 1904. ... The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed in London on January 30, 1902 by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London). ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict...


During the First World War, Great Britain's Grand Fleet and Germany's Kaiserliche Marine faced each other on the North Sea, which became the main theater of the war for surface action. Britain's larger fleet was able to establish an effective blockade for most of the war that restricted the Central Powers' access to many crucial resources. Major battles included the Battle of Heligoland Bight, the Battle of the Dogger Bank, the Battle of Jutland, and the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight. Britain, though not always tactically successful, maintained the blockade and thus kept the High Seas Fleet in port. Conversely, the German navy remained a threat that kept the vast majority of Britain's capital ships in the North Sea. (:See also: Naval warfare of World War I) Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Grand Fleet during WWI The 2nd Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet. ... The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I European military alliances in 1914. ... Combatants Britain German Empire Commanders David Beatty Reginald Tyrwhitt Leberecht Maass Strength 5 battlecruisers 8 light cruisers 33 destroyers 3 submarines 6 light cruisers 19 torpedo boats 12 minesweepers Casualties 35 killed 55 wounded 712 killed 149 wounded 336 captured 3 light cruisers 1 torpedo boat The First Battle of... The Battle of Dogger Bank was a naval battle fought near the Dogger Bank in the North Sea that took place on 24 January 1915, during the First World War, between squadrons of the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet. ... Combatants Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 heavy cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre... The Second Battle of Heligoland Bight was a naval battle of World War I. On 17 November 1917, German minesweepers clearing a path through the British minefield in the Heligoland Bight of the North Sea near the coast of Germany was intercepted by two Royal Navy cruisers Calypso and Caledon... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... The capital ships of a navy are its important warships; the ones with the heaviest firepower and armor. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli Naval combat in World War I was mainly characterized by the efforts of the Allied Powers, with their larger fleets and surrounding position, to blockade the Central Powers by sea, and the efforts of the...

Naval movements during the Norwegian Campaign

The Second World War also saw action in the North Sea, though it was restricted more to submarines and smaller vessels such as minesweepers, and Fast Attack Craft.[36] On April 9, 1940, the Germans initiated Operation Weserübung in which almost the entire German fleet was focused north toward Scandinavia in the North Sea as well as in the Skagerrak and Kattegat.[37] Throughout the German occupation of Norway, the Shetland Bus operation ran secretly across the North Sea from Great Britain to Norway. First, Norwegian fishing boats were used, and then three 100 foot (30 m) submarine chasers. (see also: HNoMS Hitra).[38] Download high resolution version (804x1181, 176 KB) Image taken from HyperWar. ... Download high resolution version (804x1181, 176 KB) Image taken from HyperWar. ... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign, lasting from 9 April to 10 June 1940, led to the first direct land confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France — against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... S71 Gepard, Gepard class fast attack craft A Fast Attack Craft (FAC) (German: Schnellboot) is a small (150 to 400 tonnes), fast (up to ca. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... The Shetland bus was the popular name of the escape route and supply route established between occupied Norway and the Shetland Islands (Scotland), operated initially by a large number of small fishing boats and later by three US made submarinechasers; HNoMS Vigra, HNoMS Hitra and HNoMS Hessa. ... USS PC-815 A submarine chaser is a small and fast naval vessel specially intended for anti-submarine warfare. ... The HNoMS Hitra (Norwegian prefix KNM) is a Royal Norwegian Navy submarine chaser that saw action during World War II. She is named after the Norwegian island of Hitra. ...


In the last years of the war and the first years thereafter, huge volumes of weapons were sunk in the North Sea. These comprised mainly grenades, land mines, naval mines, bazookas, cartridges, and some chemical weapons. Though estimates vary widely, it is clear that hundreds of thousand tons of munitions were sunk.[39] A hand grenade is a hand-held bomb, made to be thrown by a soldier. ... A landmine is a type of mine which is placed onto or into the ground and explodes when triggered by a vehicle or person. ... A naval mine is a stationary self-contained explosive device placed in water, to destroy ships and/or submarines. ... The bazooka weapon was one of the first anti-tank weapons based on the HEAT shell to enter service, used by the United States Armed Forces in World War II. It was nicknamed bazooka from a vague resemblance to the musical instrument of the same name (see: bazooka (instrument)). In... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ...


After the war, the North Sea lost much of its military significance because though Cold War adversaries faced off in the Baltic, the North Sea was bordered only by NATO member-states. The North Sea gained significant economic meaning in the 1960s as the states on the North Sea began to exploit its oil and gas resources. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Political status

De facto control of the North Sea played a decisive role in the political power relationships in north-west Europe since the time of the Vikings, and became a question of world politics after the First Anglo-Dutch War. Border countries officially claimed no more than narrow coastal waters until after the Second World War. The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


The countries bordering the North Sea all claim the twelve nautical miles of territorial waters within which they have many rights including exclusive fishing rights. Iceland, however, as a result of the Cod Wars has exclusive fishing rights for 200 mi (320 km) from its coast, into parts of the North Sea. The Common Fisheries Policy of the EU exists to coordinate fishing rights and assist with disputes between EU states and the EU border state of Norway. A nautical mile is a unit of distance, or, as physical scientists like to call it, length. ... Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ... The Cod Wars (also called the Iceland Cod Wars) were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland over Icelands claims of authority over tracts of ocean off their coastline as being their exclusive fishery zone. ... The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ...


After the discovery of mineral resources in the North Sea, Norway claimed its rights under the Continental Shelf Convention. The other countries on the sea followed suit. These rights are largely divided along the median line. The median line is defined as the line "every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points of the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea of each State is measured."[40] The ocean floor border between Germany, the Netherlands, and Denmark was only reapportioned after protracted negotiations and a judgment of the International Court of Justice.[41] The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Environmental concerns led to the MARPOL 73/78 Accords, which created 25 mi and 50 mi (40 and 80 km) zones of protection. The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic is established for the preservation of the ocean in the region. Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands have a trilateral agreement for the protection of the Wadden Sea, or mudflats, which run along the coasts of the three countries on the southern edge of the North Sea. Ship Pollution is an abbreviated form of the Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973. ... The official logo of the OSPAR Convention The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic or OSPAR Convention is the current legislative instrument regulating international cooperation on environmental protection in the North-East Atlantic. ... Satellite image of the southwestern part of the Wadden Sea. ... Mudflats in Brewster, Massachusetts extending hundreds of yards offshore at the low tide. ...


Natural resources

Oil and gas

For more details on this topic, see North Sea oil and List of oil and gas fields of the North Sea.
Oil platform Statfjord A with the flotel Polymarine
Oil platform Statfjord A with the flotel Polymarine
North Sea oil platforms
North Sea oil platforms

In 1958, geologists discovered a natural gas field in Slochteren in the Dutch province of Groningen and it was suspected that more fields lay under the North Sea. However, at this point, the rights to natural resource exploitation on the high seas were still under dispute.[42] // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... This list of oil and gas fields of the North Sea contains links to oil and natural gas reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Jan. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Slochteren is a municipality in the northeastern Netherlands. ... Capital Groningen Queens Commissioner J.G.M. (Hans) Alders Religion (1999) Protestant 29% Catholic 7% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   2,336 km² (8th) 623 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 574,042 (9th) 246/km² (9th) Anthem Grunnens Laid ISO NL-GR Official website www. ...


Test drilling began in 1966 and, then in 1969, Phillips Petroleum Company discovered the Ekofisk oil field (now Norwegian), which at that point was one of the 20 largest in the world and turned out to be distinguished by valuable low-sulfur oil. Commercial exploitation began in 1971 with tankers and after 1975 by a pipeline first to Cleveland, England and then after 1977 also to Emden, Germany. Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, nicknames of Aberdeen have been the Oil Capital of Europe or the Energy Capital of Europe.[43] ConocoPhillips (NYSE: COP) was founded by the merger of the Conoco Inc. ... Ekofisk is an oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. ... Knock Nevis, the largest ship in the world. ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... Emden is a city and seaport in the northwest of Germany, on river Ems. ... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ...


The exploitation of the North Sea oil reserves began just before the 1973 oil crisis, and the climb of international oil prices made the large investments needed for extraction much more attractive. In the 1980s and 1990s, further discoveries of large oil fields followed. Although the production costs are relatively high, the quality of the oil, the political stability of the region, and the nearness of important markets in western Europe has made the North Sea an important oil producing region. The largest single environmental catastrophe in the North Sea was the destruction of the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha in 1988 in which 167 people lost their lives. The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... The Piper Alpha was a North Sea oil production platform operated by Occidental Petroleum (Caledonia) Ltd. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


With more than 450 oil platforms, the North Sea is the most important region in the world for offshore drilling. The British section of North Sea has the most platforms, followed by the Norwegian, Dutch, and Danish sections. Besides the Ekofisk oil field, the Statfjord oil field is also notable as it was the cause of the first pipeline to span the Norwegian trench. The largest natural gas field in the North Sea, Troll Field, lies in the Norwegian trench at a depth of 345 meters (1100 ft). A giant platform was required to access it. The German section has only two oil platforms, the larger of the two being the Mittelplate, and is the least developed North Sea border-country in this respect. The Hibernia platform is the worlds largest oil platform. ... Statfjord is an oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, operated by Statoil. ... Map of the North Sea with Norwegian trench The Norwegian trench (Norwegian: Norskerenna Danish: Norskerenden) is an oceanic trench off the southern coast of Norway. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Troll oil field. ... Mittelplate is Germany’s largest oil field. ...


In 1999, extraction reached an all time high with nearly 6 million barrels (950,000 m³) of crude oil and 280,000,000 m³ (999,000,000 cu ft)of natural gas per day being taken. Today, the North Sea is a well-developed natural resource area, in which few new large discoveries are likely to be made. All the large oil companies have been involved in the extraction. But in the last few years, large companies like Shell and BP have discontinued extraction and, since 1999, the amount extracted has continually fallen due to depleted reserves. Royal Dutch Shell plc is a multinational oil company of British and Dutch origins. ... This article is about the energy corporation. ...


The price of Brent Crude, one of the first types of oil extracted from the North Sea, is used today as a standard price for comparison for crude oil from the rest of the world. Brent Crude is one of the major classifications of oil consisting of Brent Crude, Brent Sweet Light Crude, Oseberg and Forties. ...


Fishing

A trawler in Nordstrand, Germany
A trawler in Nordstrand, Germany

Fishing in the North Sea is concentrated in the southern part of the coastal waters. The main method of fishing is trawling. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 736 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 736 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Nordstrand / Noordströön Nordstrand (Frisian Noordströön) is one of the North Frisian Islands on the North Sea coast of Germany. ... For fishing by dragging a baited line after a boat, see troll (angling). ...


Annual catches grew each year until the 1980s, when a high point of more than 3 million metric tons (3.3 million S/T) was reached. Since then, the numbers have fallen back to around 2.3 million tons (2.5 million S/T) annually with considerable differences between years. Besides the fish caught, it is estimated that 150,000 metric tons (165,000 S/T) of unmarketable by-catch are caught and around 85,000 metric tons (94,000 S/T) of dead and injured invertebrates. In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively-immature juveniles of the target species. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ...


Of the caught fish, about half are used for the production of fish oil and fish meal. Important species of fish caught in the North Sea are mackerel, Atlantic cod, whiting, coalfish, European plaice, and sole. In addition, common shrimp, lobster, and crab, along with a variety of shellfish are harvested.[44] Fish Oil is oil derived from fishes. ... Fish Meal - Menhaden, Herring, Anchovy, Redfish, and Whitefish meal Menhaden is the major source of fish meal produced in the U.S. The fish are taken in Atlantic coastal waters from Maine to Florida and in the Gulf of Mexico. ... Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a well-known food fish belonging to the family Gadidae. ... Whiting (fish) redirects here. ... This article is about the marine fish pollock, for other uses, see Pollock, Texas, Jackson Pollock, Pollock House and Pollock (movie). ... Binomial name Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus, 1758 European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) are a commercially important flatfish occurring on the sandy bottoms of the European shelf. ... The soles are flatfishes of various families. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms Astacus crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) Cancer crangon Linnaeus, 1758 Crago vulgaris (Fabricius, 1798) Crangon maculatus Marcusen, 1867 Crangon maculosa Rathke, 1837 Crangon rubropunctatus Risso, 1816 Crangon vulgaris Fabricius, 1798 Steiracrangon orientalis Czerniavsky, 1884 Crangon crangon (common names include brown shrimp, common shrimp and sand shrimp) is... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ...


In recent decades, overfishing has left many fisheries unproductive, disturbing the marine food chain dynamics and costing jobs in the fishing industry.[45] Herring, cod and plaice fisheries may soon face the same plight as mackerel fishing which ceased in the 1970s due to overfishing.[46] Since the 1960s, various regulations have attempted to protect the stocks of fish such as limited fishing times and limited numbers of fishing boats, among others. However, these rules were never systematically enforced and did not bring much relief. Since then, the United Kingdom and Denmark, two important fishing nations, became members of the EU, and have attempted, with the help of the Common Fisheries Policy, to bring the problem under control.[47] Norway, not a member of the EU, has also reached an agreement with the European Community concerning fishing policy. Regional advisory committees meet with the EU to help enforce policy.[48] The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


In addition to threats due to food-chain disturbances, non-target species often wind up as victims of intense fishing. Sea turtles, dolphins, harbor porpoises, rays, and dozens of fish species are killed or injured by trawlers nets and beams. Denmark's trawler fishing alone accounts for the deaths of 5,000 porpoises a year. Trawling can also have a destructive effect on seabed habitats as the trawler beams drag along the floor can uproot plants and destroy reefs. Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean . ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Phocoena phocoena Linnaeus, 1758 Harbour Porpoise range The Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is one of six species of porpoise, and so one of about eighty cetacean species. ... Orders Rajiformes - common rays and skates Pristiformes - sawfishes Torpediniformes - electric rays See text for families. ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoise Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoise The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ...

Fish caught in the North Sea in metric tons
Country 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1996 2002
Denmark 96,494 284,527 528,127 1,806,191 1,328,251 1,284,365 1,249,656
Norway 296,337 323,381 480,819 498,777 617,741 618,669 691,062
United Kingdom 308,895 343,002 410,775 389,417 343,205 355,385 295,367
Germany 233,481 305,776 284,685 90,217 108,990 63,647 69,836
Netherlands 64,438 92,119 121,524 213,365 256,597 140,765 146,835
Soviet Union / Russia 89,269 352,857 429,182 7,181 1 0 0
France 79,751 149,769 202,948 100,861 64,860 35,262 55,379
Sweden 43,680 71,899 124,790 86,465 116,695 72,863 131,991
Faroe Islands 38,630 17,111 63,725 71,540 23,292 27,572 0
Iceland 0 50,065 21,111 523 0 8 4,668
Belgium 28,036 30,094 26,547 32,065 26,889 18,880 14,657
Total 1,286,230 2,120,137 2,807,950 3,306,127 2,893,422 2,643,719 2,687,299

All numbers from the FAO, cited by the University of British Columbia. For the FAO, the region "North Sea" includes Skagerrak and Kattegat[49] The Skagerrak strait runs between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat strait, which leads to the Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Sea The Kattegat (Danish), or Kattegatt (Swedish), is a bay of the North Sea and a continuation of the Skagerrak, bounded by Denmark and Sweden. ...


Mineral resources

In addition to oil, gas and fish, the states along the North Sea also take millions of cubic meters per year of sand and gravel from the ocean floor. These are used for construction projects, sand for beaches, and coast protection. The largest extractors of sand and gravel in 2003 were the Netherlands (around 30 million m³ {322 million sq ft}) and Denmark (around 10 million m³ {110 million sq ft} from the North Sea). For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ...

Unpolished amber stones, in varying hues
Unpolished amber stones, in varying hues

Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England, having probably been washed up from deposits under the North Sea. Cromer is the best-known locality, but it occurs also on other parts of the Norfolk coast, such as Great Yarmouth, as well as Southwold, Aldeburgh and Felixstowe in Suffolk, and as far south as Walton-on-the-Naze in Essex, whilst northwards it is not unknown in Yorkshire. On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of the Netherlands and Denmark. Amber was also found on the Baltic coast across northern Europe. Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe through the Amber Road. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1202 × 800 pixel, file size: 298 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amber ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1202 × 800 pixel, file size: 298 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amber ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... Cromer is a seaside town and civil parish on the north coast of the English county of Norfolk. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Great Yarmouth, often known to locals simply as Yarmouth, is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ... Statistics Population: 1,458 (2001 Census) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TM510763 Administration District: Waveney Shire county: Suffolk Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Suffolk Historic county: Suffolk Services Police force: Suffolk Constabulary Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: {{{Ambulance}}} Post office and... Map sources for Aldeburgh at grid reference TM4656 Aldeburgh is a town in Suffolk, East Anglia, England; it is located on the Alde river at 52° North, 1° East 1. ... , For the Aircraft manufacturer, see Seaplane Experimental Station, Felixstowe Felixstowe is a North Sea seaport in Suffolk, England. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Statistics Population: 12,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TM251216 Administration District: Tendring Shire county: Essex Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Essex Historic county: Essex Services Police force: {{{Police}}} Ambulance service: East of England Post office and telephone Post town: Postal... This article is about the county of Essex in England. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... The Amber Road (in Lithuanian: Gintaro kelias; Polish: Szlak Bursztynowy, Jantarowy Szlak; in German: Bernsteinstraße; in Hungarian: Borostyán út, in Russian: Янтарный путь) was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber. ...


Renewable energy

A Danish offshore windfarm
A Danish offshore windfarm
Further information: Renewable energy in Scotland

Due to the prevailing strong winds the North Sea, countries on the North Sea, especially England and Denmark, have used the areas near the coast of the sea for wind driven electricity production since the 1990s. The first wind turbines appeared off the English coast near Blyth in the year 2000 and then off the Danish coast in 2002 near Horns Rev. Others have been commissioned, (including OWEZ and Scroby Sands for example) and more are in the planning phase. However, offshore wind farms have met some resistance, for instance in Germany, where concerns have arisen about shipping collisions and damage to the ocean ecology, particularly by the construction of the foundations. Furthermore, the distance from consumers leads to considerable energy losses in transmission.[50] Nonetheless, the first deep water turbines in Scotland are under commissioning for Talisman Energy, who are installing two large machines 25 km (15 mi) offshore adjacent to the Beatrice oilfield. These turbines are 88 m (290 ft) high with the blades 63 m (210 ft) long and will have a capacity of 5 MW each, making them the largest in the world.[51][52] Download high resolution version (1024x357, 49 KB)Danish wind turbines near Copenhagen. ... Download high resolution version (1024x357, 49 KB)Danish wind turbines near Copenhagen. ... Wind, wave and tide make up more than 80% of Scotlands renewable energy potential. ... This article is about the machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy. ... Blyth is a town in the district of Blyth Valley, Northumberland, England. ... This articles section called Teething Problems does not cite any references or sources. ... Windpark Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) is the first large scale offshore wind farm built off the Dutch North Sea coast. ... The Scroby Sands wind farm is a wind farm located in the North Sea, 2. ... A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines in the same location. ... Talisman Energy TSX: TLM is one of Canadas largest petroleum companies. ...


Energy production from the sea is still in its early stages. Though the southern parts of the North Sea, according to most experts, do not have tides, waves or currents strong enough to harness usefully, the Norwegian coast and the intersection with the Irish Sea could be found suitable for waves or ocean currents to provide power. First attempts for a power plant deriving electricity from the waves from 2003-2005 in Denmark were given up. The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) based at Stromness in Orkney is a new Scottish Executive-backed research facility. They have installed a wave testing system at Billia Croo on the Orkney mainland and a tidal power testing station on the nearby island of Eday.[53] A small pilot-facility for the production of blue energy exists in the Norwegian city of Trondheim.[54] Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... Stromness is the second-largest town in the Orkney Islands and is located on the southwestern edge of the mainland of Orkney. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... Eday shown within Orkney Islands Eday is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Blue energy is the energy retrieved from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water with the use of osmosis or reverse electro dialysis (RED) with ion specific membranes. ... County District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2003-) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ...


Tourism

The beaches and coastal waters of the North Sea are popular destinations for tourists. The Belgian, Dutch, German and Danish coasts are especially developed for tourism; while there are tourist spots on the North Sea in England, British beach tourism's busiest resorts are mostly on the English Channel.


Windsurfing and sailing are popular sports because of the winds. Because of the strong tides and areas of still water, the North Sea is more difficult to sail than the Baltic or the Mediterranean. Mudflat hiking, recreational fishing, and diving, including wreck diving, are all possible. Wadloper in Wadden Sea near Wilhelmshaven, Germany Wadlopen is a recreation enjoyed by Frisians, Dutch, Germans, Danes, and others in the Netherlands, northwest Germany and in Denmark. ... Recreational diving is a type of diving that uses SCUBA equipment for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The coasts of the North Sea are home to nature reserves including the Ythan Estuary, Fowlsheugh Nature Preserve, and Farne Islands in the UK. These locations provide specialised breeding habitat for terns, Atlantic puffins, razorbills, Black-legged Kittiwakes and other seabirds, which makes these coasts popular for birdwatching. It has been suggested that Reserve design be merged into this article or section. ... Mid to upper reach of the Ythan Estuary The Ythan Estuary (57 20 30 N, 01 57 30 W) is the tidal component of the Ythan River, emptying into the North Sea approximately 19 kilometers north of Aberdeen, Scotland. ... Fowlsheugh cliffs in breeding season. ... The Inner Farne seen from Seahouses harbour The Farne Islands (also referred to less formally as the Farnes) are a group of islands off the coast of Northumberland, England. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Genera Sterna (Gelochelidon) (Hydroprogne) (Thalasseus) Chlidonias Phaetusa Anous Procelsterna Gygis Larosterna Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily Sterninae of the gull family Laridae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) is a seabird in the auk family. ... Binomial name Alca torda Linnaeus, 1758 The Razorbill, Alca torda, is a large alcid, 38-43 cm in length, with a 60-69 cm wingspan. ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ...


The Wadden Sea National Parks in Germany are also home to a variety of wildlife including millions of birds, both common seals and grey seals, as well as hundreds of plant and animal species unique to the region. The Wadden Sea National Parks are located along the German coast of the North Sea. ... Binomial name bobbi Linnaeus,, 1758 Common or Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina) are true seals of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name (Fabricius, 1791) Grey Seal range (in blue) The Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean. ...


The climatic conditions on the North Sea coast are thought to be especially healthful. As early as the 19th century travelers used their stays on the North Sea coast as curative and restorative vacations (German:Kur-Urlaub). The sea air, temperature, wind, water, and sunshine are counted among the beneficial conditions that are said to activate the body's defenses, improve circulation, strengthen the immune system, and have healing effects on the skin and the respiratory system. Besides the climate, thalassotherapy spas often use sea waters, mud, brine, algae, and sea salt for curative and restorative purposes. The ancient treatment of thalassotherapy involves bathing in a warm, mineral-rich pool with stimulating hydrotherapy jets to help relieve arthritis and other aches and pains. ...


One peculiarity of the North Sea tourism until the 1990s was the Butterfahrten. These were trips past the German tariff barriers onto the high seas for the purpose of purchasing items much more cheaply than they could be bought in Germany itself. The name comes from the time when butter was an expensive commodity and could be purchased more cheaply from Denmark. Other important wares were the heavily taxed goods like tobacco, spirits, and perfume.


Marine traffic

See also: List of North Sea ports and Category:Shipwrecks in the North Sea

The North Sea is very important for marine traffic and experiences some of the densest concentrations of ships in the world. Great ports of the world are located along its coasts: Rotterdam, the third busiest port in the world by tonnage, Antwerp and Hamburg, both in the top 25,[55] as well as Bremen/Bremerhaven and Felixstowe, both in the top 30 busiest container seaports.[56] This is a list of ports of the North Sea and its influent rivers. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Bremerhaven is a city in the federal state of Bremen, Germany. ... , For the Aircraft manufacturer, see Seaplane Experimental Station, Felixstowe Felixstowe is a North Sea seaport in Suffolk, England. ...


All major ports have easy access to the various sea lanes of the North Sea, which are well-regulated and monitored and must be regularly dredged. Traffic in the North Sea is especially difficult due to the need to share space with fishing boats, oil and gas platforms as well as merchant traffic from Baltic ports. The possibility of bottlenecks at the English Channel, which sees 400 vessels a day[57] and the Kiel Canal, which averages more than 100 per day plus sport traffic (2003 figure)[58] can add to the difficulty. The North Sea coasts are home to numerous canals and canal systems to facilitate traffic between and among rivers, artificial harbors, and the sea. Notable canals include the North Sea Canal, which shortened the connection between the port of Amsterdam to the North Sea[59]--and the Kiel Canal, the world's busiest artificial waterway, which connects the North Sea and the Baltic. This table lists statistics (2002) (Gdańsk, Gdynia, Świnoujście, Szczecin, Helsinki and Tallinn 2004)( Klaipėda 2005) for the major ports of the Baltic Sea. ... The canal near Velsen Map showing the canal. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... The Kiel Canal (in German Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, formerly Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a 98 kilometre long waterway linking the North Sea at Brunsbüttel, Germany to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau, Germany. ...


See also

Articles

 Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... Location of the Dogger Bank Dogger Bank (from dogge, an old Dutch word for fishing boat) is a large sandbank in a shallow area of the North Sea about 100 km off the coast of the United Kingdom. ... The Silver Pit is a long valley in the bed of the North Sea, 45 km = 27 miles east of Spurn Head in England. ...

Lists

This is a list of the 50 largest islands in the North Sea. ... This is an incomplete list of islands of Denmark. ... This is a list of the islands of England, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest English islands by area. ... This is a list of islands of Germany. ... The Netherlands This is a list of islands of the Netherlands. ... This is a list of islands of Norway. ... This is a list of the islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Scottish islands. ... This is a list of Orkney islands in Scotland. ... Members Norway Akershus Aust-Agder Buskerud Hordaland Finnmark Møre and Romsdal Nord-Trøndelag Nordland Rogaland Sogn and Fjordane Sør-Trøndelag Telemark Troms Vest-Agder Vestfold Østfold Sweden Halland Region Västra Götaland Region Denmark North Jutland County Ribe County Ringkjøbing County South Jutland County... The Germanic languages in Europe  Dutch (Low Franconian, West Germanic)  Low German (West Germanic)  Central German (High German, West Germanic)  Upper German (High German, West Germanic)  Anglic (Anglo-Frisian, West Germanic)  Frisian (Anglo-Frisian, West Germanic)  East Scandinavian  West Scandinavian  Line dividing the North and West Germanic languages. ...

Further reading

  • North Sea coast: landscape panoramas (2007, ISBN 9781877339653)
  • The fate of persistent organic pollutants in the North Sea : multiple year model simulations (2007, ISBN 9783540681625)
  • Rural History in the North Sea Area A State of the Art. (2007, ISBN 9782503510057)
  • Mesolithic studies in the North Sea Basin and beyond : proceedings of a conference held at Newcastle in 2003 (2007, ISBN 1842172247)
  • Fishing on common grounds : the consequences of unregulated fisheries of North Sea herring in the postwar period (2005, ISBN 9185196622)
  • Offshore wind energy in the North Sea Region : the state of affairs of offshore wind energy projects, national policies and economic, environmental and technological conditions in Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom (2005, OCLC: 71640714)
  • Bridging Troubled Waters : Conflict and Co-operation in the North Sea Region since 1550 (2005, ISBN 8790982304)

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  56. ^ List of busiest container ports
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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the worlds busiest seaports by cargo tonnage, the total mass of actual cargo transported through the port. ... This is a list of the worlds busiest container seaports. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
North Sea
Look up North Sea in
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  • Etymology and History of names
  • Overview of geography, hydrography and climate of the North SeaPDF (2.94 MiB)
  • Silver Pit theories
  • Silver Pit chart
  • The North Sea Museum in Hirtshals, Denmark
  • Old map : Manuscript chart of the North Sea, VOC, ca.1690 (high resolution zoomable scan)
  • University of Southampton, Reconstruction of Submerged Landscapes
  • North Sea Commission Environment Group Member Profiles 2006

The Jurassic-Cretaceous North Sea Rift Dome and associated Basin Evolution Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... Hirtshals Hirtshals is a municipality in northern Denmark, in the county of North Jutland on the top of peninsula of Jutland (&#8594; Vendsyssel). ...


Coordinates: 56°N 3°E / 56, 3 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
North Sea production wilts | EnergyBulletin.net | Peak Oil News Clearinghouse (808 words)
The decline is concentrated in the British sector of the North Sea, where industry analysts Wood Mackenzie said average production for the first half of 2004 was 1.9 million barrels per day, down around 12 percent from the level of 2.166 million a year ago.
Crude production from the British sector of the North Sea fell to an average of 1.76 million barrels per day in July, a decline of 9.9 percent compared with the same time last year, and a fall of 0.8 percent on the month, according to figures this week from the Royal Bank of Scotland.
The Norwegian North Sea is less mature than the British sector, and the nation's budget forecasts a rise in production next year to 3.3 million barrels per day from the annual daily average of 3.2 million barrels per day anticipated for 2004.
North Sea storm fails to cause major flood - UPI.com (352 words)
North Sea storm fails to cause major flood
When conditions did not turn out as bad as predicted, evacuated residents were permitted to return to their homes.
Oil platforms in the North Sea were evacuated and ferry services to the Orkney and Shetland Islands were shut down.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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