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Encyclopedia > North Pole

Coordinates: 90° N 0° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

An Azimuthal projection showing the Arctic Ocean and the North Pole.
An Azimuthal projection showing the Arctic Ocean and the North Pole.
North Pole Scenery
North Pole Scenery

The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is, subject to the caveats explained below, defined as the point in the northern hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets the Earth's surface. It should not be confused with the North Magnetic Pole. Look up north pole, North Pole in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of Arctic ocean from CIA Factbook 2003: Arctic Ocean (image link is [1]). File links The following pages link to this file: Arctic Ocean Categories: Central Intelligence Agency images | Ocean maps ... Map of Arctic ocean from CIA Factbook 2003: Arctic Ocean (image link is [1]). File links The following pages link to this file: Arctic Ocean Categories: Central Intelligence Agency images | Ocean maps ... The Mercator projection shows courses of constant bearing as straight lines. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 70 KB)North Pole Web Cam Photo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 70 KB)North Pole Web Cam Photo. ... Part of the Carta Marina of 1539 by Olaus Magnus, depicting the location of magnetic north vaguely conceived as Insula Magnetu[m] (Latin for Magnetic Island) off modern day Murmansk. ...


The North Pole is the northernmost point on Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole. It defines latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of True North. At the North Pole all directions point south. For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical term. ... True Pizza is a navigational term referring to the direction of the North Pole relative to the navigators position. ...


While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean, amidst waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting sea ice. This makes it impossible to construct a permanent station at the North Pole (unlike the South Pole). However, the Soviet Union, and later Russia, have constructed a number of manned drifting stations, some of which have passed over or very close to the Pole. For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations are important contributors to exploration of the Arctic. ...


The sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 4,261 metres (13,980 ft).[1] The nearest land is usually said to be Kaffeklubben Island, off the northern coast of Greenland about 440 miles (c. 700 km) away, though some perhaps non-permanent gravel banks lie slightly further north. Kaffeklubben Island or Coffee Club Island is a small island lying off the north eastern tip of Greenland, and is considered to be the most northerly point of land on earth. ...

Contents

Precise definition

See also: Polar motion.

The Earth's axis of rotation – and hence the position of the North Pole – was commonly believed to be fixed (relative to the surface of the Earth) until, in the 18th century, the mathematician Leonhard Euler predicted that the axis might "wobble" slightly. Around the beginning of the 20th century astronomers noticed a small apparent "variation of latitude", as determined for a fixed point on Earth from the observation of stars. Part of this variation could be attributed to a wandering of the Pole across the Earth's surface, by a range of a few meters. The wandering has several periodic components and an irregular component. The component with a period of about 435 days is identified with the 8 month wandering predicted by Euler and is now called the Chandler wobble after its discoverer. This "wobble" means that a (fixed) definition of the Pole based on the axis of rotation is not useful when metre-scale precision is required This article needs to be wikified. ... Leonhard Paul Euler (pronounced Oiler; IPA ) (April 15, 1707 – September 18 [O.S. September 7] 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist, who spent most of his life in Russia and Germany. ... The Chandler wobble is a small variation in Earths axis of rotation, discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891. ...


It is desirable to tie the system of Earth coordinates (latitude, longitude, and elevations or orography) to fixed landforms. Of course, given continental drift and the rising and falling of land due to volcanoes, erosion and so on, there is no system in which all geographic features are fixed. Yet the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service and the International Astronomical Union have defined a framework called the International Terrestrial Reference System. The North Pole of this system now defines geographic North for precision work, and it does not quite coincide with the rotation axis. This article is about the geographical term. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... Orography is the average height of land, measured in geopotential meters, over a certain domain. ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service is the body responsible for maintaining global time and reference frame standards, notably through its Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) groups. ... IAU redirects here. ... The International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) describes procedures for creating reference frames suitable for use with measurements on or near the Earths surface. ...


Expeditions

See also: Polar exploration and List of firsts

Polar exploration Polar Explorers Roald Amundsen Robert Falcon Scott Robert Peary Fridtjof Nansen Category: ... This is a list of the first man/woman/object etc. ...

Pre-1900

As early as the sixteenth century, many eminent people believed that the North Pole was in a sea, and in the nineteenth century it was called the Polynia or circumpolar sea.[2] It was therefore hoped that passage could be found through ice floes at favorable times of the year. Several expeditions set out to find the way, generally with whaling ships, already commonly used in the cold northern latitudes. A polynya (US common spelling) or polynia (UK common spelling) (Russian: полынья; IPA: ice hole) is any non-linear area of open water surrounded by sea ice. ...


One of the earliest expeditions to set out with the explicit intention of reaching the North Pole was that of British naval officer William Edward Parry, who in 1827 reached latitude 82° 45' North. The Polaris expedition, an 1871 American attempt on the Pole led by Charles Francis Hall, ended in disaster. William Edward Parry Sir William Edward Parry (December 19, 1790 – 8 or 9 July 1855) was an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer. ... The Polaris expedition (1871) was led by Charles Francis Hall to explore the North Pole. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


In April 1895 the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen and Fredrik Hjalmar Johansen reached latitude 86° 14´ North, skiing after leaving Nansen's ship Fram. In 1897 the Swedish engineer Salomon August Andrée with two companions tried to reach the North Pole in the hydrogen balloon Örnen ('Eagle'), but they stranded 300 km north of Kvitøya, the northeasternmost part of the Svalbard Archipelago, and perished on this lonely island. In 1930 the remains of this expedition were found by the Norwegian Bratvaag Expedition. Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ... Fredrik Hjalmar Johansen (1867 - January 4, 1913) was one of Norways most famous polar explorers and gymnasts. ... Fram (Forward) was a ship used in expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912. ... S.A. Andrée Salomon August Andrée (1854 – 1897) was a Swedish engineer and aeronaut who perished during a failed attempt to reach the Geographic North Pole by hydrogen balloon. ... Map of Svalbard, showing Kvitøya in the north-east Kvitøya (English: The White Island) is an island in the Svalbard archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... The Bratvaag Expedition was a Norwegian expedition in 1930 led by Dr. Gunnar Horn, whose official tasks were hunting seals and to study glaciers and seas in the Svalbard Arctic region. ...


1900–1940

The American explorer Frederick Albert Cook stated that he reached the North Pole in 1908, but his claim is not widely accepted. Frederick Cook in arctic gear Frederick Cook on South Michigan Avenue in Chicago A photo from Cooks 1909 arctic expedition, which he alleged was taken at or near the North Pole Frederick Albert Cook (June 10, 1865 – August 5, 1940) was an American explorer and physician. ...


The conquest of the North Pole is traditionally credited to American Navy engineer Robert Edwin Peary, who claimed to have reached the Pole on April 6, 1909, accompanied by American Matthew Henson and four Inuit men named Ootah, Seeglo, Egigingwah, and Ooqueah. However, Peary's claim remains controversial. The party that accompanied Peary on the final stage of the journey included no one who was trained in navigation and could independently confirm his own navigational work, which some claim to have been particularly sloppy as he approached the Pole. Robert Edwin Peary (May 6, 1856 - February 20, 1920) was an American explorer who is usually credited as the first person, on April 6, 1909, to reach the Geographic North Pole. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Matthew Alexander Henson (August 8, 1866 – March 9, 1955) was an American explorer and long-time companion to Robert Peary; amongst various expeditions, their most famous was a 1909 expedition which claimed to be the first to reach the Geographic North Pole. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


The distances and speeds that Peary claimed to have achieved once the last support party turned back seem incredible to some people, almost three times that which he had accomplished up to that point. Peary's account of a journey to the Pole and back – the only strategy that might have allowed him to travel at such a speed – is contradicted by Henson's account of tortuous detours to avoid pressure ridges and open leads. But support for Peary came again in 2005 when the British explorer Tom Avery and four companions recreated the outward portion of Peary's journey with replica wooden sleds and Canadian Eskimo Dog teams, reaching the North Pole in 36 days, 22 hours – nearly five hours faster than Peary. Avery writes on his web site that "The admiration and respect which I hold for Robert Peary, Matthew Henson and the four Inuit men who ventured North in 1909, has grown enormously since we set out from Cape Columbia. Having now seen for myself how he travelled across the pack ice, I am more convinced than ever that Peary did indeed discover the North Pole."[3] Tom Avery was born on December 17 1975 in London, England and is an explorer, mountaineer, author and motivational speaker. ... The Canadian Eskimo Dog, otherwise known as the Qimmiq, is a larger breed of Arctic dog commonly found pulling sleds fortheir Inuit counterparts. ...


The first claimed flight over the Pole was made on May 9, 1926 by US naval officer Richard E. Byrd and pilot Floyd Bennett in a Fokker tri-motor aircraft. Although verified at the time by the US Navy and a committee of the National Geographic Society, this claim has since been disputed.[4] is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, USN (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was a pioneering American polar explorer and famous aviator. ... Floyd Bennett (25 October 1890 – 25 April 1928) was an aviator who flew with Richard E. Byrd to the North Pole in 1926. ... The Fokker F.VII was a small airliner produced by Anthony Fokkers Atlantic Aircraft Company, and later by other companies under licence. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... This article is about the organization. ...


The first undisputed sighting of the Pole was on May 12, 1926 by Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen and his American sponsor Lincoln Ellsworth from the airship Norge. Norge, though Norwegian owned, was designed and piloted by the Italian Umberto Nobile. The flight started from Svalbard and crossed the icecap to Alaska. Nobile, along with several scientists and crew from the Norge, overflew the Pole a second time on May 24, 1928 in the airship Italia. The Italia crashed on its return from the Pole, with the loss of half the crew. is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... Lincoln Ellsworth (May 12, 1880 - May 26, 1951) was a U.S. explorer. ... USS Akron (ZRS-4) in flight, November 2, 1931 An airship or dirigible is a buoyant lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... Umberto Nobile (January 21, 1885 - July 30, 1978) was a Italian aeronautical engineer and Arctic explorer. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


1940–2000

In May 1945, an RAF Lancaster of the Aries expedition became the first Commonwealth aircraft to overfly the North Geographic and North Magnetic Poles. The plane was piloted by David Cecil McKinley of the Royal Air Force. It carried an 11-man crew, with Kenneth C. Maclure of the Royal Canadian Air Force in charge of all scientific observations. In 2006, Maclure was honoured with a spot in the Canadian Aviation Hall Of Fame.[5] RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... The Avro Lancaster was a British four-engine Second World War bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the British Royal Air Force (RAF). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... RAF redirects here. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ...


Discounting Peary's disputed claim, the first men to set foot at the North Pole were, according to some sources, a Soviet Union party. These are variously described as including Pavel Gordiyenko (or Geordiyenko) and three[6] or five[7] others, or Aleksandr Kuznetsov and 23 others,[8] who landed a plane (or planes) there on April 23, 1948. According to Antarctica.org, three Li-2 planes landed, carrying a total of seven men.[9] is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft which revolutionised air transport in the 1930s and 1940s, and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ...


On May 3, 1952, U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Joseph O. Fletcher and Lieutenant William P. Benedict, along with scientist Albert P. Crary, landed a modified C-47 Skytrain at the North Pole. Some sources consider this (rather than the Soviet mission) to be the first ever landing at the Pole.[10] is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph O. Fletcher (b. ... Lieutenant Colonel William P. Benedict was an American pilot from California. ... Albert Paddock Crary (1911 - 1987), was a pioneer polar geophysicist and glaciologist and the first person to set foot on both the North (1952 with Lieutenant Colonel Fletcher) and South Poles. ... The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ...


The United States Navy submarine USS Nautilus (SSN-571) crossed the North Pole on August 3, 1958, and on March 17, 1959, the USS Skate (SSN-578) surfaced at the Pole, becoming the first naval vessel to do so. USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the worlds first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first vessel to complete a submerged transit across the North Pole. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Skate (SSN-578), the second submarine of the United States Navy named for a type of ray, was the lead ship of the Skate class of nuclear attack submarines. ...


Setting aside Peary's claim, the first confirmed surface conquest of the North Pole was, according to many sources, that of Ralph Plaisted, Walt Pederson, Gerry Pitzl and Jean Luc Bombardier, who traveled over the ice by snowmobile and arrived on April 19, 1968. However, although the United States Air Force independently confirmed their position, some have suggested that the expedition crossed some stretches of the ice cap by air, and should not therefore be considered a genuine surface conquest.[11] Ralph Plaisted made the first confirmed trek to the Geographic North Pole over the sea ice in 1968. ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ...


On April 6, 1969, Sir Wally Herbert and companions Allan Gill, Roy Koerner and Kenneth Hedges of the British Trans-Arctic Expedition became the first men to reach the North Pole on foot (albeit with the aid of dog teams and air drops). They continued on to complete the first surface crossing of the Arctic Ocean – and by its longest axis, Barrow, Alaska to Svalbard – a feat that has never been repeated.[12][13] Because of suggestions of Plaisted's use of air transport, some sources classify Herbert's expedition as the first confirmed to reach the North Pole over the ice surface by any means.[13][14] is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Sir Wally Herbert is a British polar explorer, writer and artist. ... Barrow is a city in North Slope Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska. ...


On August 17, 1977, the Soviet nuclear powered icebreaker Arktika completed the first surface vessel journey to the North Pole. is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Nuclear icebreaker Yamal on its way to the North Pole in August 2001 A nuclear powered icebreaker is a purpose-built ship for use in waters continuously covered with ice. ... The Arktika class is a Russian class of nuclear powered icebreakers. ...


21st century

USS Charlotte at the North Pole in 2005
USS Charlotte at the North Pole in 2005

It is reported that by 2002, 184 people had visited the North Pole, 26 of whom made the journey unsupported.[15] By 2007, journeys to the North Pole by air (landing at a runway prepared on the ice) or by icebreaker had become relatively routine, and are even available to small groups of tourists through adventure holiday companies. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3504x2336, 381 KB) The Los Angles class attack submarine Charlotte (SSN-766) broke through 61 inches of ice to surface at the North Pole during their Arctic transit from Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to Norfolk, Virginia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3504x2336, 381 KB) The Los Angles class attack submarine Charlotte (SSN-766) broke through 61 inches of ice to surface at the North Pole during their Arctic transit from Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to Norfolk, Virginia. ...


In 2005, the United States Navy submarine USS Charlotte (SSN-766) surfaced through 61 inches (155 cm) of ice at the North Pole and spent 18 hours there.[16] USS Charlotte (SSN-766), a Los Angeles-class submarine, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy to be named for Charlotte, North Carolina. ...


In April 2007, Dutch performance artist Guido van der Werve performed a work of art on the North Pole. By standing exactly on the Pole for 24 hours and turning slowly clockwise (the earth is turning counterclockwise), just by following his own shadow, Van der Werve literally did not turn with the world for one day. This performance is called: 'nummer negen [Dutch for Number Nine], the day I didn't turn with the world'. Van der Werve time-lapsed the 24 hours to 9 minutes. [17] This article is about Performance art. ... Guido van der Werve is an Amsterdam based ARTIST, born on the 7th of april 1977 in Papendrecht, a suburb near Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ... The flower of a geranium opening over a period of about two hours. ...


In July 2007, British endurance swimmer Lewis Gordon Pugh completed a 1 km swim at the North Pole. His feat, undertaken to highlight the effects of climate change, took place in clear water that had opened up between the ice floes.[18] Lewis Gordon Pugh (born 5 December 1969) is a swimmer, polar explorer and motivational speaker. ...


A 2007 episode of the BBC motoring show Top Gear, in which the presenters were described as journeying to the "North Pole", was in fact an expedition to the 1996 position of the North Magnetic Pole.[19] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Top Gear is a BAFTA[1], Multi-NTA and Emmy Award-winning BBC television series about motor vehicles, mainly cars. ... Part of the Carta Marina of 1539 by Olaus Magnus, depicting the location of magnetic north vaguely conceived as Insula Magnetu[m] (Latin for Magnetic Island) off modern day Murmansk. ...


2007 descent to North Pole seabed

Main article: Arktika 2007
A Russian flag is planted on the seabed at 90 degrees north

On August 2, 2007, a Russian expedition made the first ever manned descent to the ocean bottom at the North Pole, to a depth of 4.3 km, as part of a research programme in support of Russia's 2001 territorial claim to a large swathe of the Arctic Ocean. The descent took place in two MIR submersibles and was led by Soviet and Russian polar explorer Arthur Chilingarov. In a symbolic act, the Russian flag was placed on the seabed at the exact position of the Pole.[20][21][22][23] Arctic topography Arktika 2007 (Russian: ) was a 2007 expedition in which Russia performed the first ever crewed descent to the ocean bottom at the North Pole, as part of research related to the 2001 Russian territorial claim, one of many territorial claims in the Arctic. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 1 km and 10 km (103 and 104 m). ... Arctic topography Under international law, no country currently owns the North Pole or the region of the Arctic Ocean surrounding it. ... MIR submersible. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Arthur Chilingarov (born in 1939 Leningrad, USSR is a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and a Hero of the Soviet Union of Armenian descent. ... Flag of Russia The flag of Russia is a tricolour. ...


The expedition is the latest in a decades-long series of moves by Russia intended to show that it is the dominant influence in the Arctic.[24] The warming Arctic climate and summer retreat of sea ice there has suddenly turned the attention of countries from China to the United States toward the top of the world, where resources and shipping routes may soon be exploitable.[25]


Day and night

During the summer months, the North Pole experiences twenty-four hours of daylight daily, but during the winter months the North Pole experiences twenty-four hours of darkness daily. Sunrise and sunset do not occur in a twenty-four hour cycle. At the North Pole, sunrise begins at the Vernal equinox taking three months for the sun to reach its highest point at the summer solstice when sunset begins, taking three months to reach sunset at the Autumnal equinox. A similar effect can be observed at the South Pole, with a six-month difference. This day/night effect is in stark contrast to what is observed at the Equator. For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... The midnight sun at Nordkapp, Norway. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... The polar night is the night lasting more than 24 hours, usually inside the polar circles. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The autumnal equinox (or fall equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical autumn. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


This effect is caused by a combination of the Earth's axial tilt and its revolution around the sun. The direction and angle of axial tilt of the Earth remains fairly constant (on a yearly basis) in its plane of revolution around the sun. Hence during the summer, the North Pole is always facing the sun's rays but during the winter, it always faces away from the sun. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ...


Time

In most places on Earth, local time is roughly synchronized to the position of the sun in the sky. Thus, at midday the sun is roughly at its highest. This method fails at the North Pole where the sun is continuously in the sky for six months. There is no permanent human presence at the North Pole, and no particular time zone has been assigned. Polar expeditions may use any time zone that is convenient, such as GMT, or the time zone of the country they departed from. For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ...


Climate

The North Pole is significantly warmer than the South Pole because it lies at sea level in the middle of an ocean (which acts as a reservoir of heat), rather than at altitude in a continental land mass. For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ...


Winter (January) temperatures at the North Pole can range from about −43 °C (−45 °F) to −26 °C (−15 °F), perhaps averaging around −34 °C (−30 °F). Summer temperatures (June, July and August) average around the freezing point (0 °C, 32 °F).[26]


The sea ice at the North Pole is typically around two or three meters thick[27], though there is considerable variation and occasionally the movement of floes exposes clear water.[28] Studies have suggested that the average ice thickness has decreased in recent years due to global warming, though this conclusion is disputed by some.[28] Reports have also predicted that within a few decades the Arctic Ocean will be entirely free of ice in the summer months.[29] This may have significant commercial implications; see "Territorial Claims", below. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Flora and fauna

Polar bears are believed to rarely travel beyond about 82° North due to the scarcity of food, though tracks have been seen in the vicinity of the North Pole, and a 2006 expedition reported sighting a polar bear just one mile from the Pole.[30][31] The ringed seal has been also been seen at the Pole, and Arctic foxes have been observed less than 60 km away at 89°40′ N.[32][33] This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Pusa hispida (Schreber, 1775) The Ringed Seal or Jar Seal (Pusa hispida formerly Phoca hispida) is an earless seal inhabiting the northern coasts. ... This article is about the animal. ...


Birds seen at or very near the Pole include the Snow Bunting, Northern Fulmar and Black-legged Kittiwake, though some bird sightings may be distorted by the fact that birds tend to follow ships and expeditions.[34] Binomial name Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Snow Bunting, (Plectrophenax nivalis), is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a family now separated by most modern authors from the finches Fringillidae. ... Species Fulmar (Linnaeus, 1761) Southern Fulmar (Smith,A, 1840) The two Fulmars are closely related seabirds occupying the same niche in different oceans. ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ...


Fish have been seen in the waters at the North Pole, but these are probably few in number.[34] A member of the Russian team that descended to the North Pole seabed in August 2007 reported seeing no sea creatures living there; however, the seabed itself is at a very great depth.[35]


Territorial claims to the North Pole and Arctic regions

Main article: Territorial claims in the Arctic

Under international law, no country currently owns the North Pole or the region of the Arctic Ocean surrounding it. The five surrounding Arctic states, Russia, the United States, Canada, Norway and Denmark (via Greenland), are limited to a 320 kilometre (200-mile) economic zone around their coasts, and the area beyond that is administered by the International Seabed Authority. Arctic topography Under international law, no country currently owns the North Pole or the region of the Arctic Ocean surrounding it. ... The International Seabed Authority (ISA) is an intergovernmental body based in Kingston, Jamaica, that was established to organize and control all mineral-related activities in the international seabed area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, an area underlying most of the world’s oceans. ...


Upon ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a country has a ten year period to make claims to extend its 200 mile zone.[36] Norway (ratified the convention in 1996[37]), Russia (ratified in 1997[37]), Canada (ratified in 2003[37]) and Denmark (ratified in 2004[37]) have all launched projects to base claims that certain Arctic sectors should belong to their territories.[38] United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ...


Cultural associations

In Western cultures, the geographic North Pole is the residence of Santa Claus. Canada Post has assigned postal code H0H 0H0 to the North Pole (referring to Santa's traditional exclamation of "Ho-ho-ho!").[39] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Canada Post Corporation (French: Société canadienne des postes) is a Canadian postal service operated as a crown corporation. ... A Canadian postal code is a string of six characters that form part of a postal address in Canada. ...


This seemingly mundane fact actually reflects an age-old esoteric mythology of Hyperborea that posits the North Pole, the otherworldly world-axis, as the abode of God and superhuman beings (see Joscelyn Godwin, Arktos: The Polar Myth). The popular mythological figure of the pole-dwelling Santa Claus thus functions as an esoteric archetype of spiritual purity and transcendence ([3]). As Henry Corbin has documented, the North Pole plays a key part in the cultural worldview of esoteric Sufism and Iranian mysticism. "The Orient sought by the mystic, the Orient that cannot be located on our maps, is in the direction of the north, beyond the north" (Corbin, The Man of Light in Iranian Sufism, trans. N. Pearson, 1978). The Pole is also identified with a mysterious mountain in the Arctic Ocean, called Mount Qaf, whose ascent, like Dante's climbing of the Mountain of Purgatory, represents the pilgrim's progress through spiritual states (ibid., p. 44). In Iranian theosophy, the heavenly Pole, the focal point of the spiritual ascent, acts as a magnet to draw beings to its "palaces ablaze with immaterial matter" (ibid., p. 11). For other uses, see Hyperborea (disambiguation). ... Joscelyn Godwin (born 16 January 1945 at Kelmscott, Oxfordshire, England) is a musicologist, writer and translator. ... Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 - October 7, 1978) was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris, France. ...


See also

For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Polaris (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the first man/woman/object etc. ... Inuit Circumpolar Conference or ICC, is an multinational nongovernmental organization representing 150,000 Inuit, living in Canada (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and the Yukon Territory), the United States (Alaska), Greenland, and on the Russian peninsula of Chukotka. ... Current logo Map of current Arctic Council national members in light blue. ... The circumpolar arctic is a region close to the north pole (axis, not magnetic). ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... North Pole is a city located in Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska. ...

References

  1. ^ Russian sub plants flag at North Pole, Reuters, Aug 2, 2007
  2. ^ John K. Wright Geographical Review, Vol. 43, No. 3. (Jul., 1953), pp. 338-365 "The Open Polar Sea"
  3. ^ Tom Avery website, retrieved May 2007
  4. ^ The North Pole Flight of Richard E. Byrd: An Overview of the Controversy, Byrd Polar Research Center of The Ohio State University
  5. ^ The Aries Flights Of 1945, Hugh A. Halliday, Legion Magazine
  6. ^ Guinness Book of Records, 1998 edition
  7. ^ Concise Chronology of Approaches to the Poles, R. K. Headland, DIO Vol. 4 No. 3
  8. ^ Concise chronology of approach to the poles, Scott Polar Research Institute
  9. ^ Antarctica.org
  10. ^ Aviation History Facts, U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission
  11. ^ North Pole Exploration Timeline, Adventure Ecology
  12. ^ Obituary of Sir Wally Herbert, Times Online, 13 June, 2007
  13. ^ a b Obituary of Sir Wally Herbert, Guardian Unlimited, 15 June 2007
  14. ^ [1] northpolewomen.com
  15. ^ North Pole Challenge 2006 website
  16. ^ USS Charlotte Achieves Milestone During Under-Ice Transit, Navy NewsStand website, retrieved May 2007
  17. ^ Website of the artist
  18. ^ Swimmer rises to Arctic challenge, BBC news, 15 July 2007
  19. ^ Top Gear Team in Hot Water Over Pole Race
  20. ^ (Russian) Press release of the AARI, July 9, 2007
  21. ^ Russia plants flag under N Pole, BBC News, 2 August 2007
  22. ^ (Russian) News video of Russian descent to North Pole seabed
  23. ^ BBC News video of Russian descent to North Pole seabed
  24. ^ Russia’s North Pole Obsession, The New York Times, August 2, 2007
  25. ^ The Big Melt, The New York Times, October 2005
  26. ^ "Science question of the week", Goddard Space Center
  27. ^ Beyond "Polar Express": Fast Facts on the Real North Pole, National Geographic News
  28. ^ a b The Top of the World: Is the North Pole Turning to Water?, John L. Daly
  29. ^ Arctic sea ice 'faces rapid melt', BBC news story, December 2006
  30. ^ Polar Bear - Population & Distribution, WWF, January 2007
  31. ^ Explorers' Blog, Greenpeace Project Thin Ice, 1 Jul 2006
  32. ^ Ringed seal makes its home on the ice, Antti Halkka
  33. ^ The Arctic Fox, Magnus Tannerfeldt
  34. ^ a b [2]
  35. ^ Russia plants flag under N Pole, BBC News, 2 August 2007
  36. ^ United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Annex 2, Article 4). Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  37. ^ a b c d http://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/status2007.pdf
  38. ^ The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic Hydrocarbons, by Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff and Timothy Fenton Krysiek, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, August 2007
  39. ^ "Canada Post Launches 24th Annual Santa Letter-writing Program", Canada Post press release, November 15, 2006

Aari is an Afro-Asiatic Ethiopia. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
North Pole
  • Arctic Council
  • The Northern Forum
  • North Pole travel guide from Wikitravel
  • North Pole Web Cam
  • The short Arctic summer of 2004
  • The puzzling Arctic summer of 2003
  • FAQ on the Arctic and the North Pole
  • Polar Controversies Still Rage article by Roderick Eime
  • Magnetic Poles locations since 1600 Download the KMZ file. For Google Earth Users.
  • The Polar Race a biennial race to the 1996 certified position of the Magnetic North Pole
  • The Polar Challenge an annual race to the Magnetic North Pole
  • Images of this location are available at the Degree Confluence Project
  • Daylight, Darkness and Changing of the Seasons at the North Pole
  • Video of scientists on sea ice at the North Pole as it begins to crack underfoot
  • Experts warn North Pole will be 'ice free' by 2040
  • Goudarzi, Sara, "Meltdown: Ice Cracks at North Pole". Sept 2006, LiveScience, <Web Link>, Accessed 29 Jan. 2007.
  • "The North Pole Was Here: Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the World (first chapter)"

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... The goals of the Degree Confluence Project are to visit each of the latitude and longitude integer degree intersections on Earth, and post photographs of each location on the World Wide Web. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
North Pole News (761 words)
Beloved by North Pole residents and guests alike, the ceremony features guest speakers, student performances, and a community Christmas Carol Sing-Along.
North Pole is home to some of Alaska's most extreme temperatures - from a record high of 95 in the summer to a record low of -78 in the winter!
North Pole was incorporated on January 16, 1953, and proudly celebrated its 50th Anniversary in 2003.
North Pole - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3024 words)
The Geomagnetic North Pole is the pole of the Earth's geomagnetic field's dipole moment (somewhat confusingly, it is technically the south pole of the dipole).
The Geomagnetic North Pole is the pole of the Earth's geomagnetic field closest to true north.
Astronomers define the north "geographic" pole of a planet or other object in the solar system by the planetary pole that is in the same ecliptic hemisphere as the Earth's north pole.
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