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Encyclopedia > North Korean defectors
North Korean defectors
Hangul:
탈북자
Hanja:
Revised Romanization: Talbukja
McCune-Reischauer: T'albukcha

A number of individuals have defected from North Korea Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ...


Different terms are in official and unofficial use in East Asian languages to refer to this group of refugees. On 9 January 2005, the South Korean Ministry of Unification announced that it will use saeteomin (새터) instead of talbukja, a term about which North Korean officials expressed displeasure.[1] January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ministry of Unification is a branch of the South Korean government that is charged with working toward the reunification of Korea. ...

Contents

Background

Since the division of the Korean peninsula after World War II and from the end of the Korean War (1950–1953), many people have defected from North Korea, mainly due to political, ideological and economic reasons. Many more are caught during the attempted defection. The usual course is to cross the border into Northeast China before fleeing to a third country. However, the People's Republic of China, a close ally of Pyongyang, refuses to grant North Korean defectors refugee status and considers them illegal economic migrants. If the defectors are caught in China, they are repatriated back to North Korea where they face years of punishment or even death in North Korean gulags. The Korea Peninsula or Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... The foreign relations of North Korea are often tense and unpredictable. ... For the 1983 Genesis song, see Illegal Alien (song) Illegal immigration refers to migration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. ... The human rights record of North Korea is extremely difficult to fully assess due to the secretive and closed nature of the country. ...


In China

China has between 20,000 and 400,000 North Korean refugees, mostly in the northeast, making them the largest population outside of North Korea; these are not typically considered to be members of the ethnic Korean community, and the Chinese census does not count them as such. Some North Korean refugees who are unable to obtain transport to South Korea instead marry ethnic Koreans in China and settle there, blending into the community; however, they are still subject to deportation if discovered by the authorities.[1] Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ...


In Russia

A study by Kyunghee University estimated that roughly 10,000 North Koreans live in the Russian Far East; many are escapees from North Korean work camps there.[2] Kyunghee University(Kyung Hee University) is a private universitiy in South Korea. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ...


In South Korea

See also: List of North Korean defectors in South Korea

This is a List of North Korean defectors in South Korea. ...

Reward

In 1962, the government of South Korea introduced the "Special law on the protection of defectors from the North" which, after revision in 1978, remained effective until 1993. According to the law, every defector was eligible for a generous aid package. After their arrival in the South, defectors would receive an allowance. The size of this allowance depended on the category to which the particular defector belonged (there were three such categories). The category was determined by the defector’s political and intelligence value. Apart from this allowance, defectors who delivered especially valuable intelligence or equipment were given large additional rewards. Prior to 1997 the payments had been fixed in gold bullion, not in South Korean won – in attempts to counter ingrained distrust about the reliability of paper money. The government of South Korea is divided into three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. ... ISO 4217 Code KRW User(s) Republic of Korea Inflation 2. ...


The state provided defectors with good apartments that became their personal property without them having to pay anything. Anyone who wished to study was granted the right to enter a university of his or her choice. Military officers were allowed to continue their service in the South Korean military where they were given the same rank that they had held in the North Korean army. For a period of time after their arrival defectors were also provided with personal bodyguards. The Republic of Korea Armed Forces, or ROK Armed Forces (Hangul: 대한민국 국군; Hanja: 大韓民國 國軍; Revised Romanization: Dae-han-min-guk Guk-gun), is one of the largest standing armed forces in the world. ... Korean Peoples Army refers to the armed personnel of the military of North Korea. ...


Recently, South Korea has passed controversial new measures intended to slow the flow of asylum seekers as it has become worried that a growing number of North Koreans crossing the Yalu and Tumen rivers into China will soon seek refuge in the South. The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ... The Tumen River, also known as the Duman River (in Korean), is a river in northeast Asia, on the border between China and North Korea in its upper reaches, and between North Korea and Russia in its lower stretches. ...


The regulations tighten defector screening processes and slash the amount of money given to each refugee from $28,000 to $10,000. South Korean officials say the new rules are intended to prevent ethnic Koreans living in China from entering the South, as well as stop North Koreans with criminal records from gaining entry.


Resettlement

Hanawon opened on July 8, 1999, and is the government resettlement center for North Korean defectors. It is nestled in the South Korean countryside, in Anseong, Gyeonggi Province, about three hours south of Seoul. Originally built to accommodate around 200 inmates for a 3 month resettlement program, the government extended the center in 2002 to double its original size and cut the program from three months to two months because of the increase in the number of North Korean defectors per year. In 2004, to mark the fifth anniversary of the program, a second facility opened south of Seoul. Hanawon can now feed, house, and train 400 people at one time. July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Anseong is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea, 80 km south of Seoul. ... Gyeonggi is the most populous province in South Korea. ...


At Hanawon, the training curriculum is focused on three main goals: easing the socioeconomic and psychological anxiety of North Korean defectors; overcoming the barriers of cultural heterogeneity; and offering practical training for earning a livelihood in the South.


Hanawon imposes heavy restrictions on the travel of North Korean defectors because of security concerns. In addition, security is tight with barbed wire, security guards, and cameras. The threat of kidnap, or personal attacks against individual North Koreans, by North Korean agents is ever-present An estimated 83,000 South Koreans were taken to North Korea during the Korean War. ...


Upon completion of the Hanawon program, defectors find their own homes with a government subsidy. When Hanawon first opened North Koreans were originally offered ₩36 million per person to resettle with ₩540,000 monthly afterward. Now they receive ₩20 million to resettle and ₩320,000 monthly.


Statistics

Approximate total number of defectors from 1953 to 2005: 8000

Source: Ministry of Unification, South Korea 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


In Việt Nam

Until 2004, Việt Nam was described as the "preferred Southeast Asian escape route" for North Korean defectors, largely due to its less-mountainous terrain. Though Việt Nam remains an officially communist country and maintains diplomatic relations with North Korea, growing South Korean investment in Việt Nam has prompted Hanoi to quietly permit the transit of North Korean refugees to Seoul. The increased South Korean presence in the country also proved a magnet for defectors; four of the biggest defector safehouses in Việt Nam were run by South Korean expatriates, and many defectors indicated that they chose to try to cross the border from China into Việt Nam precisely because they had heard about such safehouses.[3] In July 2004, 468 North Korean refugees were airlifted to South Korea in the single largest mass defection; Việt Nam initially tried to keep their role in the airlift secret, and in advance of the deal, even anonymous sources in the South Korean government would only tell reporters that the defectors came from "an unidentified Asian country".[4] Following the airlift, Việt Nam would tighten up border controls and deport several safe-house operators.[3]


In other countries

On May 5, 2006 unnamed North Koreans were granted refugee status by the United States, the first time the U.S. accepted refugees from there since President George W. Bush signed the North Korean Human Rights Act in October 2004. The group, which arrived from an unnamed Southeast Asia nation, included four women who said that they had been the victim of forced marriages. May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Signed into U.S. law by President George W. Bush on October 18, 2004, The North Korean Human Rights Act is intended to make it easier for the United States to assist North Korean refugees by: (1) Providing humanitarian assistance to North Koreans inside North Korea; (2) Providing grants to...


Additionally, Vietnam was described as the "preferred Southeast Asian escape route" for North Korean defectors at least until 2004. In July 2004, 468 North Korean refugees were airlifted from Vietnam to South Korea in what was then the single largest mass North Korean defection. Following the airlift, Vietnam tightend-up border controls and deport several safe-house operators.


See also

This is a list of famous Koreans or famous people of Korean descent. ... The politics of North Korea take place within a formally democratic framework; in practice, North Korea functions as a single-party state. ... The human rights record of North Korea is extremely difficult to fully assess due to the secretive and closed nature of the country. ... Koreans in Vietnam came initially in a military capacity, fighting on both sides of the Vietnam War. ...

References

  1. ^ Haggard, Stephen (December 2006). "The North Korean Refugee Crisis: Human Rights and International Response". U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  2. ^ Lee, Jeanyoung. "Ethnic Korean Migration in Northeast Asia" (PDF). Kyunghee University. Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  3. ^ a b (2006-10-26). "Perilous Journeys; The Plight of North Koreans in China and Beyond". The Nautilus Institute. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  4. ^ "Hundreds of North Koreans to enter South, reports say", Associated Press, 2004-07-23. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ...

External links

Sites

Articles

  • UNHCR protests Chinese deportation of North Koreans

 
 

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