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Encyclopedia > North Khorasan Province

North Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان شمالی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. Bojnourd is the centre of the province. Image File history File links IranNorthKhorasan. ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... Bojnurd is the capital city of North Khorasan province, Iran. ...


Other counties are Shirvan, Jajarm, Maneh and Samlaghan, and Esfarayen. Shervan or Shirvan was a former Persian province in Caucasus, a state ruled by the Shervanshahs and the birthplace of the Persian poet Khaqani. ...


North Khorasan is one the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan in 2004. Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


History

View of Mofkham House, Bojnourd, an example of Qajar era Persian architecture.
View of Mofkham House, Bojnourd, an example of Qajar era Persian architecture.

Greater Khorasan has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties and governments in its territory throughout history. Various tribes of the Arabs, Turks, Mongols, Turkemen and Afghans brought changes to the region time and time again. Image File history File linksMetadata Mafkham. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mafkham. ... Bojnurd is the capital city of North Khorasan province, Iran. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Greater Khorasan is an area of land from the past which included parts that are presently in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ...


Ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran ("Iran-Shahr") into eight segments of which the most flourishing and largest was the territory of Greater Khorasan. Esfarayen, among other cities of the province, was one of the focal points for residence of the Aryan tribes after entering Iran. Greater Khorasan is an area of land from the past which included parts that are presently in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ...


The famous Parthian empire was based near Merv in Khorasan for many years. In Arsacides (Parthians) time, Esfarayen was one of the important villages of Neyshabour. Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Merv (Persian name: مرو), in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ...


During the Sassanid dynasty the province was governed by an Espahbod (Lieutenant General) called "Padgoosban" and four margraves, each commander of one of the four parts of the province. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


Khorassan was divided into four parts during the Islamic Conquest of Iran and each section was named after the four large cities, such as Neyshabour, Merv, Herat, and Balkh. The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Merv (Persian name: مرو), in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... Today Balkh is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...


In the year 651, the army of Islamic Arabs invaded Khorasan. The territory remained in the hands of the Abbasid clan until 820, followed by the rule of the Iranian Taherid clan in the year 896 and the Samanid dynasty in 900. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون Abbāsīyūn) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... The famous Samanid mausoleum of Ismail of Samanid in Bukhara. ...


Sultan Mohmud Qaznavi conquered Khorasan in 994 and in the year 1037 Toqrol, the first of the Seljuqian rulers conquered Neyshabour. Mahmud of Ghazni (October 2, 971–April 30, 1030), also known as Yamin ad-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ad-Dawlah Abd al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... ToÄŸrül (TuÄŸril or Toghrïl Beg; c. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in Turkish Selçuklu; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks... Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ...


Mahmud Qaznavi retaliated against the invaders several times, and finally the Qaznavi Turks defeated Sultan Sanjar. But there was more to come, as in 1157 Khorasan was conquered by The Khwarazmids and because of simultaneous attacks by the Mongols, Khorasan was annexed to the territories of the Mongol Ilkhanate. Muizz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar (1084/1086 - May 8, 1157) was the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1118 to 1153. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ...


In the 14th century, a flag of independence was hoisted by the Sarbedaran movement in Sabzevar, and in 1468, Khorasan came into the hands of Amir Teimoor Goorkani (Tamerlane) and the city of Herat was declared as capital. Tomb of Meulana Hosein Kashefi, Sabzevar. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ...


In 1507, Khorassan was occupied by Uzbek tribes. After the death of Nadir Shah Afshar in 1747, Khorasan was occupied by the Afghans. Tomb of Nadir Shah, a popular tourist attraction in Mashhad Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan) (October 22, 1688 - June, 1747) ruled as shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Afsharid dynasty. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ...


During the Qajar period, Britain supported the Afghans to protect their East India Company. Herat was thus separated from Persia, and Nasereddin Shah was unable to defeat the British to take back Herat. Finally, the Paris Treaty was concluded in 1903 and Iran was compelled not to challenge the British for Herat and other parts of what is today Afghanistan. The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India. ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... Nasser-al-Din Shah Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar (sometimes called Nassereddin) (1831 1896) was the Shah of Persia from September 13, 1848 until his death on May 1, 1896. ...


Finally Khorasan was divided into two parts: the eastern part, which was the most densely populated region came under British protection, and the other western section remained under the occupation of Iran.


Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided into three provinces on September 29, 2004. The provinces approved by the parliament of Iran (on May 18, 2004) and the Council of Guardians (on May 29, 2004) were Razavi Khorasan, North Khorasan, and South Khorasan. September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Razavi Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان رضوی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... North Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان شمالی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... South Khorasan (Persian: خراسان جنوبی) is a province located in eastern Iran. ...


North Khorasan today

Mofkham Hospital, built during the Qajar era, in Bojnourd.
Mofkham Hospital, built during the Qajar era, in Bojnourd.

The major ethnic groups in this region are the Persians, Khorasani Turks, Turkmens, Kurds, and Arabs. There is also a sizeable Afghan community in the province due to the influx of refugees coming from Afghanistan in recent years. Image File history File linksMetadata Mafkham_hospital. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mafkham_hospital. ... Bojnurd is the capital city of North Khorasan province, Iran. ...


Attractions

This province contains many historical and natural attractions, such as mineral water springs, small lakes, recreational areas, caves and protected regions, and various hiking areas.


The Cultural Heritage of Iran lists 1,179 sites of historical and cultural significance in all three provinces of Khorasan.


Some of the popular attractions of North Khorasan are:

  • Sari Gol protected area,
  • Hasanabad, Ghaisar and Solak old castles,
  • Noshirvan and Ebadatgah caves,
  • Faghatdezh castle,
  • Tomb of Sheikh Ali Esfarayeni
  • Saloog Protected Area,
  • Besh Ghardash (five brothers) and Baba-Aman springs,
  • Bidag, Konegarm, Konjekooh and Seyed Sadegh caves,
  • Mofakham mirror house
  • Baba Tavakol mausoleum,
  • Imamzadeh Sultan Seyed Abbas

Colleges and Universities

  • Islamic Azad University of Shiravan
  • Islamic Azad University of Bojnurd

See also

Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Greater Khorasan is an area of land from the past which included parts that are presently in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Razavi Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان رضوی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... South Khorasan (Persian: خراسان جنوبی) is a province located in eastern Iran. ... The history of Iran (Persia) covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilization on the Iranian plateau, Mannaeans civilization in Azerbaijan, Shahr-e sookhteh in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft followed by the kingdom of Elam and the Achaemenid, the Parthian, the Sassanian and following Empires to the modern...

External links

  • The text of the law for division of Khorasan into three provinces (in Persian)
  • Cultural Heritage Foundation of Khorasan


Provinces of Iran Flag of Iran
Ardabil | Bushehr | Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari | East Azarbaijan | Isfahan | Fars | Guilan | Golestan | Hamadan | Hormozgan | Ilam | Kerman | Kermanshah | Khuzestan | Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad | Kurdistan | Lorestan | Markazi | Mazandaran | North Khorasan | Qazvin | Qom | Razavi Khorasan | Semnan | Sistan and Baluchistan | South Khorasan | Tehran | West Azarbaijan | Yazd | Zanjan

 
 

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