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Encyclopedia > North Germanic languages
North Germanic
Scandinavian
Geographic
distribution:
Northern Europe
Genetic
classification
:
Indo-European
 Germanic
  North Germanic
Subdivisions:

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. Derived from Proto-Norse and Old Norse, they are spoken in the three Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden), the Faroe Islands, Iceland and (to some extent) Greenland, as well as by a significant Swedish minority in Finland and by immigrant groups mainly in North America and Australia. The language group is often called either Scandinavian or Nordic languages. The latter term is the most commonly used by both scholars and laymen in the Nordic countries and is often favored by these when writing in English. Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Faroese (føroyskt []), often also spelled Faeroese, is a West Nordic or West Scandinavian language spoken by 48,000 people in the Faroe Islands and about 12,000 Faroese in Denmark. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Germanic languages in Europe are divided into North (blue) and West Germanic (green and orange) Languages  Low Saxon-Low Franconian (Dutch)  High German (standard German, Schwyzerdütsch)  Insular Anglo-Frisian (English, Scots)  Continental Anglo-Frisian (Frisian)  East North Germanic (Danish, BokmÃ¥l Norwegian, Swedish)  West North Germanic (Nynorsk Norwegian... The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages in the Germanic family. ... Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ...

Contents

Classification

The Germanic languages in Europe are divided into North and West Germanic Languages ██ Low German (West Germanic) ██ High German (West Germanic) ██ Insular Anglo-Frisian (West Germanic) ██ Continental Anglo-Frisian (West Germanic) ██ East Scandinavian ██ West Scandinvavian ██ Line dividing the North and West Germanic languages.
The Germanic languages in Europe are divided into North and West Germanic Languages ██ Low German (West Germanic) ██ High German (West Germanic) ██ Insular Anglo-Frisian (West Germanic) ██ Continental Anglo-Frisian (West Germanic) ██ East Scandinavian ██ West Scandinvavian ██ Line dividing the North and West Germanic languages.

Traditionally, one has differentiated between two main branches, West Scandinavian and East Scandinavian, derived from the western and eastern dialect group of Old Norse, respectively. The eastern branch consists of Danish and Swedish, along with their various dialects and varieties. The western branch includes Norwegian, Faroese and Icelandic. Later, East Scandinavian along with Norwegian was heavily influenced by Middle Low German, and therefore another way of classifying the languages — focusing more on mutual intelligibility than the tree of life-model — posits Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish as Continental Scandinavian, and Faroese and Icelandic as Insular Scandinavian. Image File history File links Europe_germanic_languages. ... Image File history File links Europe_germanic_languages. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tree-of-Life is a fictional plant (the ancestor of yams, with similar appearance and taste) in Larry Nivens Known Space universe, for which all Hominids have an in-built genetic craving. ...

As a result, Danish and Norwegian may in reality be somewhat more similar to each other than either is to Swedish. Because of the long political union between Norway and Denmark, Norwegian Bokmål shares much of the Danish vocabulary. In addition, because of Danish pronunciation, Swedes usually find it easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. One witticism about Norwegian that expresses the basic similarities and differences between the languages is that "Norwegian is Danish spoken in Swedish." The relationships between the three languages may be summarized by the diagram above. Image File history File links NGmc_relations. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Wit is a form of intellectual humour, based on manipulation of concepts; a wit is someone who excels in witty remarks, typically in conversation and spontaneously, since wit carries the connotation of speed of thought. ...


The relationship can be very asymmetrical. One source claims that while Norwegians understand almost 90% of spoken Swedish, Swedes understand only about 50% of spoken Norwegian. These results could be due to the fact that Norwegians generally are more accustomed to Swedish language and culture, than what Swedes generally are to Norwegian, as well as to the fact that a large percentage of the Norwegian population lives near Sweden, while no main population centres of Sweden lie near the Norwegian border. The lowest degree of intelligibility is between spoken Danish and Swedish. Danes understand approximately 45% of spoken Swedish, but the Swedes can only grasp about 25% of what the Danes are saying. For written material, the comprehension percentages rise to 70-90% for all language combinations. Of course, these numbers are highly dependent on exactly where in the dialect continuum the speakers are situated.[citation needed] A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...


The North Germanic languages are often cited as proof of the aphorism "A language is a dialect with an army and a navy." The differences in dialects within the countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark can often be greater than the differences across the borders, but the political independence of these countries leads continental Scandinavian to be classified into Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish in the popular mind as well as among most linguists. This is also because of the strong influence of the standard languages, particularly in Denmark and Sweden. Even if the language policy of Norway has been more tolerant of rural dialectal variation in formal language, the prestige dialect often referred to as "Eastern Urban Norwegian", spoken mainly in and around the Oslo-region, can be considered to be quite normative. The creation of Nynorsk out of dialects after Norway became independent of Denmark in 1814 was an attempt to make the linguistic divisions match the political ones. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... One of the most frequently stated aphorisms in the discussion of the distinction between dialect and language is, a language is a dialect with an army and navy. This is commonly attributed to one of the leading figures in modern Yiddish linguistics, Max Weinreich, and the aphorism therefore often appears... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... Nynorsk (Neonorwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned written standards of the Norwegian language. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Family tree

All North Germanic languages are descended from Old Norse. Divisions between subfamilies of North Germanic are rarely precisely defined; most form continuous clines, with adjacent dialects being mutually intelligible and the most separated ones not. Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. ...

Beside the two official written norms of Norwegian, there exist two established unofficial norms: Riksmål, similar to, but more conservative than Bokmål, which is used in different extent numerous people, especially in the cities and Høgnorsk "High-Norwegian",similar to Nynorsk, used by a very small minority. Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old... Faroese (føroyskt []), often also spelled Faeroese, is a West Nordic or West Scandinavian language spoken by 48,000 people in the Faroe Islands and about 12,000 Faroese in Denmark. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... Trøndersk is the Norwegian dialect spoken in the region Trøndelag in Norway. ... Trøndelag is the name of a geographical region in the middle of Norway, consisting of the two counties Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag. ... Jutlandic or Jutish (jy(d)sk in Danish), is a term for the dialects of Danish spoken on the peninsula of Jutland. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the only non-insular part of Denmark and also the northernmost part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... Svealand Swedens historical four lands. ... Norrland is a name for the northernmost part of Sweden, historically one of the four lands of Sweden. ... Götaland Unofficial Nordic cross flag of Götaland. ... Areas where Finland-Swedish populations are found shown in yellow Finland-Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Finland-Swedes as a first language. ... Blekinge is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Blechingia, or Blekinge - a historical Province of Sweden Blekinge County, or Blekinge län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... is a historical province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. ... The Flag of SkÃ¥ne (also known as Scania in English) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) and County (Län) of Sweden. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Old Gutnish. ...   is a county and province of Sweden and the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Älvdalsmål "Älvdalen Speech", generally considered a Sveamål dialect, today has an official orthography and is, because of a lack of mutual intelligibility with Swedish, considered as a separate language by many linguists. ÄlvdalsmÃ¥l (English: lit. ...


See also

  • Differences between Norwegian Bokmål and Standard Danish
  • Scanian dialect

Danish and Norwegian Bokmål (by far the most common standard form of Norwegian) are very similar languages, but differences between them do exist. ... Skåne in southern Sweden Scanian ( ) is a closely related group of dialects spoken in Skåne (Scania). ...

External links

  • Ethnologue Report for North Germanic
  • Dictionary with Swedish - English Translations from Webster's Online Dictionary - the Rosetta Edition
  • Älvdalska, det lokala språket
Major Modern Germanic languages
Afrikaans | Danish | Dutch | English | German | Norwegian | Swedish | Yiddish
Minor Modern Germanic languages
Faroese | Frisian | Icelandic | Luxembourgish
Reg. acknowledged Germanic languages/dialects
Low German / Low Saxon | Limburgish | Scots

  Results from FactBites:
 
Germanic Languages (3010 words)
Gutnish is a contemporary Eastern North Germanic language spoken on the island of Gotland.
It is spoken on the North German plain in Germany and the Netherlands.
West Norse is the western branch of the North Germanic languages used in Iceland, Ireland, Norway, the Hebrides, Orkney, Shetland, and the Faroe Islands.
Northvegr - Holy Language Lexicon (2648 words)
Arabic, the Semitic language of the Arabs and the language of Islam.
O.H.G. Old High German, the ancestor of the modern literary German language, spoken in the upland regions of Germany; German language as written and spoken from the earliest period to c.1100.
O.N. Old Norse, the Norwegian language as written and spoken c.100 to 1500 C.E., the relevant phase of it being "Viking Norse" (700-1100), the language spoken by the invaders and colonizers of northern and eastern England c.875-950.
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