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Encyclopedia > North Germanic language
Language classification
Indo-European languages
Germanic languages
North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ...


There are two main branches, West Scandinavian and East Scandinavian. The eastern branch is heavily influenced by especially Low German and consists of Danish, Norwegian and Swedish along with their various dialects and varieties. The western branch includes Faroese, Icelandic and Neo-Norwegian. There is another way of classifying the languages that focuses more on mutual comprehension than historical development that classifies Norwegian with Danish and Swedish as Continental Scandinavian and Faroese and Icelandic as Insular Scandinavian. Due to the long dominance of Danish in Norway, Bokmål/Riksmål (Standard Norwegian), the first written standard language in Norway and now the dominating official language, is considered Continental. Subdivisions East Low German Low Franconian Low Saxon Low German (in Low German, Platt(düütsch) or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of West Germanic languages spoken in northern Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. ... Norwegian is a Germanic language spoken in Norway. ... Norwegian is a Germanic language spoken in Norway. ... Norwegian is a Germanic language spoken in Norway. ...


As a result, Danish and Norwegian may in reality be somewhat more similar to each other than either is to Swedish. Due to the long political union between Norway and Denmark, the Norwegian Bokmål/Riksmål shares much of the Danish vocabulary. In addition, due to Danish pronunciation, Swedes usually find it easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. One witticism about Norwegian that expresses the basic similarities and differences between the languages is that "Norwegian is Danish spoken in Swedish." The relationships between the three languages might be summarized by the following diagram: Wit is a form of intellectual humour, based on manipulation of concepts; a wit is someone who excels in witty remarks, typically in conversation and spontaneously, since wit carries the connotation of speed of thought. ...

 + phonology Norwegian ----------------- Swedish | - vocabulary | - phonology + vocabulary | | Danish 

The North Germanic languages are often cited as proof of Hubert Lyautey's aphorism "A language is a dialect with an army and a navy." The differences in dialects within the countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are often greater than the differences across the borders, but the political independence of these countries leads continental Scandinavian to be classified into Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish in the popular mind. The creation of Nynorsk out of Insular dialects after Norway became independent of Denmark in 1814 was an attempt to make the linguistic divisions match the political ones. Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey (1854 - 1934), made Marshal of France in 1921, was the first French Resident-General in Morocco from 1912 to 1925. ... An aphorism is a wise saying that bears repetition. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Family tree

All North Germanic languages are thought to be descended from Proto-Norse. Note that divisions between subfamilies of North Germanic are rarely precisely defined; most form continuous clines, with adjacent dialects being mutually intelligible and the most separated ones not. Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. ...

  1. Beside the two official written norms of Norwegian, there exists two established unofficial norms: Riksmål, similar to, but more conservative (closer to Danish) than, Bokmål, which is used in different extent by a large number of people, especially in the cities; High-Norwegian (Høgnorsk), rather similar to Nynorsk, used by a very little minority.
  2. The classification of the Bornholm-dialect together with Scanian is based on phonology and undisputed. They could maybe more correctly be called South Scandinavian dialects, but that term is not used. It must be noted that Swedish influence on Scanian has been considerable since the conquest in 1658.
  3. The classification within Swedish is rather antiquated and arbitrary, and here mainly used to single out the most important of the clearly distinguisable varieties. New scientific work is in progress.

Faroese is a West Nordic or West Scandinavian language spoken by about 48,000 people in the Faroe Islands and about 25,000 in Denmark. ... The Faroe Islands (Faroese: Føroyar, meaning Sheep Islands) are a group of islands in the north Atlantic Ocean between Scotland and Iceland. ... The Norn language was an offshoot of Old Norse. ... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ... Norwegian is a Germanic language spoken in Norway. ... The Jamska language (sometimes called Jamtska or Jamtlandic) is a West Scandinavian language spoken in Jemtia, Sweden. ... Jemtia, or Jämtland (or simply Jamtland as it is known by its local dialect), is a historical Province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... Norwegian is a Germanic language spoken in Norway. ... This article is about the Danish island. ... Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of Denmark, the south of Sweden, and the north of Poland (on the map of Denmark to the right, it is not shown in its true location; see the map at the bottom of the article). ... Jutlandic, or jysk, is a term for the dialects of Danish spoken on the peninsula of Jutland. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland, German: Jütland) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the mainland part of Denmark and a northern part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... Gutnish is a language of the eastern branch of the North Germanic languages, spoken on the island of Gotland. ... Gotland is the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ... Svealand is a historical region of Sweden. ... Bergslagen is a geographical area in middle Sweden. ... Dalarna is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Dalecarlia, or Dalarna - a historical Province of Sweden Dalarna County, or Dalarnas län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Värmland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Wermelandia, or Värmland - a historical Province of Sweden Värmland County, or Värmlands län - a current County of Sweden Part of Närke and Värmland County, or Närkes och Värmlands län - an earlier name for Örebro County This... Västmanland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Westmannia, or Västmanland - a historical Province of Sweden Main part of Västmanland County, or Västmanlands län - a current County of Sweden Part of Örebro County, or Örebro län - a current County of Sweden This is a... Norrland is a historical land of Sweden. ... Västergötland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Westrogothia, or Västergötland - a historical Province of Sweden Västra Götaland County, or Västra Götalands län - a current County of Sweden Jönköping County, or Jönköpings län - a current County of Sweden Part of Gothenburg and Bohus County... Östergötland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Ostrogothia, or Östergötland - a historical Province of Sweden Östergötland County, or Östergötlands län - a current County of Sweden The Eastern part of Götaland - an ancient Land of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Dalsland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden, which can refer to: Dalia, or Dalsland - a historical Province of Sweden The Northeastern part of Västra Götaland County, or Västra Götalands län - a current County of Sweden The Northern part of Älvsborg County, or Älvsborgs län - a former county... Småland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden. ... Finland-Swedish is a variety of Swedish spoken in Finland. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is a peninsula located at the northwest corner of Europe and encloses the Baltic Sea. ... Scanian (Swedish: Skånska ) is a dialect of Sweden spoken in Scania, the southernmost province of Sweden. ... The term Scanian can refer to: The Scanian language A citizen of Scania. ... Phonology (Greek phone = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), or phonemics, is a subfield of grammar (see also linguistics). ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who has plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross from Sweden to Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by Thomas Browne September... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ...

External link

  • Ethnologue Report for North Germanic (http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90971)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Germanic Languages (3010 words)
Gutnish is a contemporary Eastern North Germanic language spoken on the island of Gotland.
It is spoken on the North German plain in Germany and the Netherlands.
West Norse is the western branch of the North Germanic languages used in Iceland, Ireland, Norway, the Hebrides, Orkney, Shetland, and the Faroe Islands.
Northvegr - Holy Language Lexicon (2648 words)
Arabic, the Semitic language of the Arabs and the language of Islam.
O.H.G. Old High German, the ancestor of the modern literary German language, spoken in the upland regions of Germany; German language as written and spoken from the earliest period to c.1100.
O.N. Old Norse, the Norwegian language as written and spoken c.100 to 1500 C.E., the relevant phase of it being "Viking Norse" (700-1100), the language spoken by the invaders and colonizers of northern and eastern England c.875-950.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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