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Encyclopedia > North German Confederation
Norddeutscher Bund
North German Federation

Federation


1867 – 1871
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Germany
Map of the North German Confederation
Capital Berlin
52°31′N, 13°24′E
Political structure Federation
Presidency Prussia (William I)
Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
History
 - Constitution tabelled April 161867
 - Confederation formed July 11867
 - Elevation to empire January 181871

The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following the dissolution of the German Confederation. Formed by 22 states of northern Germany, it was effectively a transitional grouping, lasting only until the founding of the German Empire in 1871. However, it cemented Prussian control over northern Germany, and emanated that same control via the Zollverein (Customs Union) and secret peace treaties (agreed with the southern states the day before the Peace of Prague) into southern Germany. Notably, the Confederation excluded Austria, Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden and the southern parts of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Although it ceased to exist after the creation of the German empire, 1871, it was the building block for the German constitution of 1871. This constitution gave huge powers to the new Chancellor, Bismarck who was appointed by the President of the Bundersrat (Prussia). This was because, the constitution made the chancellor 'responsible' however not accountable to the Reichstag. This therefore allowed him the benefit of being the link between the Emperor and the people. The constitution however bar universal was relatively conservative. The Chancellor retained powers over the military budget, after the constitutional crisis that engulfed Wilhelm I in 1862. Laws also prevented certain civil servants becoming members of the Reichstag, those who were Bismarck's main opposition in the 1860's. The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... The Prussian flag (small) 1701-1918 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The flag of Germany was adopted in its present form in 1919. ... The Eagle has been the coat of arms of Germany in this form since the later days of the Weimar Republic The coat of arms of Germany is a symbol of Germany; the coat of arms feature an eagle. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 709 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 1015 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:nl. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... States by their systems of government as of April 2006. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... The word Presidency is often used to describe the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler or Bundeskanzler meaning federal chancellor). ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... The North German Constitution was the constitution of the North German Confederation, which existed from 1867 to 1871. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The North German Constitution was the constitution of the North German Confederation, which existed from 1867 to 1871. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... The term state may refer to: a sovereign political entity, see state unitary state nation state a non-sovereign political entity, see state (non-sovereign). ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Northern Germany is the the geographic area of the five German states Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen and Schleswig-Holstein in the German Lowlands known as the Northern German Plain with Low German as the historic language (see: Benrath line). ... Zollverein (German for customs union) or German Customs Union was formed between the 39 states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution to remove internal custom barriers, although upholding a protectionist tariff system with foreign trade partners. ... The Peace of Prague is the name of a peace treaty ending the 1866 Austro-Prussian War. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... Hesse (German: Hessen) is a state of Germany with an area of 21,110 km² and just over six million inhabitants. ... Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... Wilhelm I of Germany Wilhelm I, (March 22, 1797 - March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871-1888 and king of Prussia, ruled 1861-1888. ...


The Federation came into being after Prussia defeated Austria and the other remaining states of the German Confederation in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. Otto von Bismarck created the constitution, which came into force on 1 July 1867, with the King of Prussia, Wilhelm I, as its President, and Bismarck as Chancellor. The states were represented in the Bundesrat (Federal Council) with 43 seats (of which Prussia held 17). Most notably, Bismarck introduced universal manhood suffrage into the confederation for elections to the Reichstag. The Bundesrat membership was extended before 1871 with the creation of the Zollverein Parliament in 1867, an attempt to create closer unity with the southern states by permitting representatives to be sent to the Bundersrat. The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... Wilhelm I of Germany (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 and King of Prussia, ruled 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler or Bundeskanzler meaning federal chancellor). ... There was a Reichsrat in Germany, see Reichsrat (Germany) in the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary (Cisleithania), see Reichsrat (Austria) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...


Following Prussia's defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, Bavaria, Württemberg, and Baden (together with parts of the Grand Duchy of Hesse which had not originally joined the Federation), now grouped together with the various states of the Federation to form the German Empire, with Wilhelm I taking the new title of German Emperor (rather than Emperor of Germany as Austria was not included). Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III # Otto Von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871...


Postage stamps

One of the functions of the Federation was to handle the mail and issue postage stamps, which it began doing on 1 January 1868. To accommodate the different monetary systems in use by the various states, it issued a series valued in groschen for the Northern District, and another using kreuzer for the Southern District, distinguishing them by framing the value number in a circle for the groschen stamps, and in an oval for the kreuzers. All of these stamps were inscribed "NORDDEUTSCHER POSTBEZIRK". A British pillar box. ... A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A monetary system secures the proper functioning of money by regulating economic agents, transaction types, and money supply. ... The groschen was a coin used in various German speaking states. ... Berner kreuzer von 1776 The Kreuzer was a silver coin and unit of currency existing in the Southern German states prior to the unification of Germany, and in Austria. ...


In addition, there was a special quarter-schilling stamp for Hamburg, with the additional inscription "STADTPOSTBRIEF HAMBURG". The Schilling was the currency of Austria until the Euro exchange in 2002. ... Hamburg from above Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ...


Early in 1869 the stamps were issued with perforations, the previous issues having been rouletted. On 1 March, 10 gr and 30 gr values were issued, notable for being printed on goldbeater's skin, a scheme to prevent reuse of these high-value stamps. A perforation is a hole made by puncturing a surface. ... A European Roulette wheel. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... Goldbeaters skin or the outer membrane of calfs intestine is parchment material traditionally used in the process of reducing gold into mere 0. ...


Federation stamps were superseded on 1 January 1872 by the first issues of the German Empire. January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


List of member states

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Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Lauenburg (in full Herzogtum Lauenburg, Duchy of Lauenburg) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Thor, Germanic thunder god. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950 Settlement in the East (German: ), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs. ... The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (Rheinbund in German; in French officially États confédérés du Rhin but in practice Confédération du Rhin) lasted from 1806 to 1813 and was formed from sixteen German states by Napoleon after he defeated Habsburgs Francis II... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... The German Empire was one of the defeated Central Powers during World War I. It entered the conflict following the declaration of war against Serbia by its ally, Austria-Hungary. ... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This page is intended to serve as a focal point for information pertinent to understanding German military activity during World War II. // When in 1933 Hitler gained power, the world was little, if at all, aware of the intensity and duration of the armed conflict that would follow in just... It has been suggested that West Germany be merged into this article or section. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English... Anthem (third stanza) also called Germany() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Berlin Official languages German1 Government Parliamentary Federal Republic  -  President Horst Köhler  -  Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU) Formation  -  Eastern Francia 843   -  Holy Roman Empire 962   -  German Confederation 8 June 1815   -  German Empire 18... While German-speaking peoples have a long history, Germany as a nation-state dates only from 1871. ... // Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes are based on events in the history of Germany and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. ... 50 BC (approximately) Ingvaeones become Frisians, Saxons, Jutes and Angles by about now 8 BC Marcomanni and Quadi drive the Boii out of Bohemia 10 BC (approximately) differentiation of localized Teutonic tribes (Alamanni, Hermunduri, Marcomanni, Quadi, Suebi) in area formerly occupied by Irminones 8 BC Confederation of Marcomanni, Lugier, Semnones... The history of the German language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift. ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ... Waldeck (or later Waldeck-Pyrmont) was a sovereign principality in what is now Lower Saxony and Hesse (Germany). ... Reuss (German: Reuß) was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany. ... Reuss (German: Reuß) was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany. ... Schaumburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about the district Lippe. ... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (official name in German: Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest of Germanys 16 Federal States (Bundesländer). ... Hamburg from above Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... For other uses, see Main (disambiguation). ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
German Confederation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3130 words)
The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806.
The Confederation was dissolved in 1866 after the Austro-Prussian War, and was 'succeeded' in 1866 by the Prussian-dominated North German Confederation.
All the constituent states of the German Confederation became part of the Kaiserreich in 1871, except the Dutch province of Limburg and the presently independent countries remaining in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria, Czech Republic, as well as parts of Italy, Poland, Slovenia), Luxembourg (except the part lost to Belgium in 1839), and Liechtenstein.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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