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Encyclopedia > North Borneo
Borneo Utara
North Borneo

British Colony An anachronous map of British (and prior to the existence of Britain, English) imperial possessions This is a list of the various overseas territories that have been under the political control of the United Kingdom and/or its predecessor states[1]. Collectively, these territories are traditionally referred to as the...

Flag
1882 – 1963
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Badge
Motto: Pergo et Perago
(Latin: "I undertake and I achieve”)
British North Borneo
Capital Jesselton
5°98′N 116°07′E
Language(s) Malay, English
Government Monarchy
Monarch
 - 1882 - 1901 Victoria
 - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II
Governor
 - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott
Historical era New Imperialism
 - North Borneo Company May1882
 - British protectorate 1888
 - Japanese invasion January 1, 1942
 - Australian liberation June, 1946
 - Restored as colony July 15, 1946
 - Independence 31 August1963
 - Formation of Malaysia 16 September 1963
Area
 - 1936 76,115 km2
29,388 sq mi
Population
 - 1936 est. 285,000 
     Density 3.7 /km² 
9.7 /sq mi
Currency North Borneo dollar, until 1953
Malaya and Borneo dollar, after 1953


North Borneo was an independent state and British protectorate under the sovereign British North Borneo Company from 1882-1946, and subsequently a crown colony of the United Kingdom from 1946-1963. It is located on the northeastern end of the island of Borneo. It is now the state of Sabah, eastern Malaysia. Motto: Always in service with Gods guidance(translation) Anthem: Allah Peliharakan Sultan God Bless the Sultan Capital (and largest city) Bandar Seri Begawan Malay (national), English Government Absolute monarchy  - Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Independence    - British protectorate ended January 1, 1984  Area  - Total 5,765 km² (170th) 2,226 sq mi... Image File history File links Sin_bandera. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sabah. ... State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya State anthem: Sabah Tanah Airku Capital Kota Kinabalu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Ahmadshah Abdullah  - Ketua Menteri Musa Aman History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - British North Borneo 1882   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 76... Image File history File links BrNBflag. ... Image File history File links North_Borneo_Badge. ... The tricolour flag of France A flag is a piece of cloth, often flown from a pole or mast, generally used symbolically for signalling or identification. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... This page lists state and national mottos for the worlds independent states and if applicable, their component states. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Image File history File links British_North_Borneo. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Kota Kinabalu (1996 pop. ... // Headline text Bold text Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... The British Monarchy is a shared monarchy. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Are you kidding?, this is solid truth here, nothing escapes the eyes of Gov!!!, not even. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... There are several individuals called Robert Scott, including: Robert Scott, New Zealand radio broadcaster www. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the policy and ideology of imperial colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... The British North Borneo Company was chartered company assigned to administer North Borneo (todays Sabah in Malaysia) in August 1881 and North Borneo became a protectorate of the British Empire with internal affairs administered by the company until 1946 when it became the colony of British North Borneo. ... Look up May in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Throughout the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area, during World War II. In a series of amphibious assaults between May 1 and July 21, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. ... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with a length of 30 days. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... The British North Borneo dollar was the currency of British North Borneo from 1882 to 1953. ... The Malaya and British Borneo dollar was the currency of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, British North Borneo and Brunei from 1953 to 1967. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The British North Borneo Company was chartered company assigned to administer North Borneo (todays Sabah in Malaysia) in August 1881 and North Borneo became a protectorate of the British Empire with internal affairs administered by the company until 1946 when it became the colony of British North Borneo. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Borneo (left) and Sulawesi. ... State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya State anthem: Sabah Tanah Airku Capital Kota Kinabalu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Ahmadshah Abdullah  - Ketua Menteri Musa Aman History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - British North Borneo 1882   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 76...

Contents

History

State of North Borneo

In 1865, the United States Consul to Brunei, Charles Lee Moses obtained a 10-year lease for the territory of North Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei. However, the post-Civil War United States wanted nothing to do with Asian colonies, so Moses sold his rights to the Hong Kong-based American Trading Company of Borneo owned by Joseph William Torrey, Thomas Bradley Harris, Tat Cheong and possibly other Chinese merchants. Torrey began a settlement at the Kimanis River mouth, which he named 'Ellena'. Attempts to find financial backing for the settlement were futile, and disease, death and desertion by the immigrant labourers led to the abandonment of the settlement towards the end of 1866. 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Consul (abbrev. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Lincoln, President Ulysses S. Grant, General Jefferson Davis, President Robert E. Lee, General Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action...


With the imminent termination of the lease at hand in January 1875, Torrey managed to sell his rights to the Consul of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Hong Kong, Baron Von Overbeck. Von Overbeck managed to get a 10-year renewal of the lease from the Temenggong of Brunei, and a similar treaty from the Sultan of Sulu on January 22, 1878. To finance his plans for North Borneo, Overbeck found financial backing from the Dent brothers (Alfred and Edward). However, he was unable to interest his government in the territory. After efforts to sell the territory to Italy for use as a penal colony, Von Overbeck withdrew in 1880, leaving Alfred Dent in control. Dent was supported by Sir Rutherford Alcock, and Admiral Sir Harry Keppel. Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... An ancient Malay title of nobility, usually given to the chief of public security. ... Sulu is an island province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). ... Sir Rutherford Alcock (1809-1897) was the first British diplomatic representative in Japan. ...


In July 1881, Alfred Dent and his brother formed the British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd and obtained an official Royal Charter November 1 the same year. In May 1882, the British North Borneo Chartered Company replaced the Provisional Association. Sir Rutherford Alcock became the first President, and Alfred Dent became Managing Director. In spite of some diplomatic protests by the Dutch, Spanish and Sarawak governments, the British North Borneo Company proceeded to organize settlement and administration of the territory. The company subsequently acquired further sovereign and territorial rights from the sultan of Brunei, expanding the territory under control to the Putatan river (May 1884), the Padas district (November 1884), the Kawang river (February 1885), the Mantanani islands (April 1885), and additional minor Padas territories (March 1898). 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ... The British North Borneo Company was chartered company assigned to administer North Borneo (todays Sabah in Malaysia) in August 1881 and North Borneo became a protectorate of the British Empire with internal affairs administered by the company until 1946 when it became the colony of British North Borneo. ...


The Company established a foundation for economic growth in North Borneo by restoring peace to a land where piracy and tribal feuds had grown rampant. It abolished slavery and set up transport, health and education services for the people. Chinese immigrants were wooed to boost the small population of less than 100,000. Through the combined effort of the locals and immigrants, towns, farms, a timber industry, tobacco and rubber plantations began to thrive. The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ...


Protectorate of Britain

This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series

Prehistoric Malaysia (40,000–2,000 BCE)
Gangga Negara (2nd–11th century CE)
Langkasuka (2nd–14th century)
Pan Pan (3rd–5th century)
Srivijaya (3rd century–1400)
Kedah Sultanate (1136–present)
Malacca Sultanate (1402–1511)
Sulu Sultanate (1450–1899)
Johor Sultanate (1528–current)
Jementah Civil War (1879)
White Rajahs (1841–1946)
British Malaya (1874–1946)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826–1946)
Larut War (1861–1874)
Klang War (1867–1874)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895–1946)
Unfederated Malay States (19th century–1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang (1914)
North Borneo (1882–1963)
Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896–1900)
World War II (1941–1945)
Battle of Malaya (1941–42)
Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Syburi (1942–1945)
Battle of North Borneo (1945)
Sandakan Death Marches (1945)
Malayan Union (1946–1948)
Federation of Malaya (1948–1963)
Malayan Emergency (1948–1960)
Bukit Kepong Incident (1950)
Independence Day (1957)
Federation of Malaysia (1963–present)
Operation Coldstore (1963)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962–1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962–1966)
Singapore in Malaysia (1963–1965)
1964 Race Riots (1964)
May 13 Incident (1969)
New Economic Policy (1971–1990)
Operation Lalang (1987)
1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis (1987–88)
Asian financial crisis (1997–98)
[edit this box]

In 1888, North Borneo became a protectorate of Great Britain , but its administration remained entirely in the hands of the British North Borneo Company, with the crown reserving only control of foreign relations. The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Caves paintings of Tambun, dated 3000 BC, in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. ... The Common Era is the period beginning with a year near the birth of Jesus, coinciding with the period from AD 1 onwards. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... The Common Era (CE), is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 on the Gregorian calendar. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... now. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sultanate of Sulu was a muslim state that ruled over much of the islands of the Sulu Sea. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jementah Civil War happened in 1879 in Jementah, Sultanate of Johor when Tengku Alam, the heir of Sultan Ali of Muar refused to give the district of Muar under temporary administration of Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor. ... The White Rajahs refers to a dynasty that ruled Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... Larut War was a series of four wars started in July 1861 and ended with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. ... The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took placed in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang and Raja Mahdi bin Raja Sulaiman from 1867 to 1874. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the Sir Andrew Clarke on behalf of the British and Raja Abdullah of Perak. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States were five Malay states, namely Johore Terengganu Kelantan Kedah Perlis Together the states were not a single entity but merely a category to describe those states which were not Federated Malay States or Straits Settlements. ... The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1906 (in which the Malays were not represented) effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts: Pattani, Narathiwat, Songkhla, Satun and Yala remained under Siam, but Siam relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu to Great Britain. ... The Battle of Penang occured in 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action. ... Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. ... Throughout the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... Combatants British Army, Indian Army, Australian Army, Federated Malay States Volunteer Forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 140,000 70,000 Casualties 5,000 killed, 50,000 prisoners of war no more than 34,000 The Battle of Malaya was a conflict between a Commonwealth army... Parit Sulong is a small village in Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar. ... Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought... During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, control of the State of Kedah was given to Thailand by the Japanese. ... The Battle of North Borneo was fought from June 17 to August 15 of 1945 between Australia and Japan. ... The Sandakan Death Marches are the most infamous incident in series of events which resulted in the deaths of more than 6,000 Javanese civilian slave labourers and Allied prisoners of war, held by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II, at prison camps in... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Combatants Malayan Races Liberation Army or Malayan Communist Party Malayan Police Commanders Muhammad Indera Sgt Jamil Mohd Shah Strength 200 25 Casualties about 40 dead 25 dead including non-combatants Bukit Kepong Incident was a historic armed encounter which took place on the February 23, 1950 between the police and... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In February 1963, the government of Singapore conducted a security operation, named Operation Coldstore (sometimes spelled Operation Cold Store), and arrested at least 107 left-wing politicians and trade unionists. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Malaya Brunei Anti-Governement rebels Indonesia Commanders General Sir Nigel Poett Yassin Affandi Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Brunei Revolt broke out on the December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels. ... On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. ... The start of the July riot on Prophet Muhammads birthday, that would later injure hundreds and kill 23 people. ... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputra are given discounts on real estate. ... Operation Lalang (or in English, Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lallang) was carried out on 27 October 1987 by the Malaysian police to crackdown on opposition leaders and social activists. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The British North Borneo Company was chartered company assigned to administer North Borneo (todays Sabah in Malaysia) in August 1881 and North Borneo became a protectorate of the British Empire with internal affairs administered by the company until 1946 when it became the colony of British North Borneo. ...


From 1890-1905 the British government placed the colony of Labuan under the administration of North Borneo. Motto: Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Wilayah Persekutuan Made into Federal Territory 1984, October 19th Administered by Perbadanan Labuan Labuan Corporation Chairman Datuk Suhaili Abdul Rahman Area    - City 92 km² Population    - City (2000) 78,000 (est) Time zone MST (UTC+8) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ...


The Company's rule in North Borneo had great impact on the development of the region. Although was generally peaceful, the local population occasionally resented the imposition of taxes and the loss of land to European plantations. The most serious resistance was the Mat Salleh (Mahomet Saleh) War from 1894-1900, and the Rundum Uprising by the Murut in 1915. Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. ... The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. ...


The Chartered Company's system of administration was based on standard British colonial administration structures, with the land divided into Residencies, and sub-divided into Districts. Initially, there were only two Residencies: East Coast and West Coast, with Residents based at Sandakan and Jesselton respectively. Each Residency was divided into Provinces, later known as Districts, which were run by District Officers. By 1922, there were five Residencies to accommodate new areas that were opened up for development. These were the West Coast, Kudat, Tawau, Interior and East Coast Residencies. These Residencies were in turn divided into 17 Districts. Look up Administration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sandakan as viewed from the English Tea House Sandakan is the second-largest town in the state of Sabah, East Malaysia, on the north-eastern of island of Borneo. ... Kota Kinabalu (1996 pop. ... Kudat Kudat is a town in Sabah, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Tawau Location Map 300px Town Tawau Coordinates 4. ...


Under this system, British held top posts, while native chiefs managed the people at grassroots level. This was not a conscious attempt by the British to instil indirect rule but a convenient arrangement for the District Officers who were unfamiliar with local customs and politics. Indirect rule is a type of European colonial policy as practiced in large parts of British India (see Princely states) and elsewhere in the British Empire (including Malaya), in which the traditional local power structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure. ...


The British North Borneo Company effectively ruled until January 1, 1942. Japanese forces occupied Sabah from 1942-1945. The North Borneo Armed Constabulary with only 650 men hardly provided any resistance to slow down the Japanese invasion. During Japanese military occupation, the Europeans were interned, public services ceased to exist, and there were widespread poverty, disease and malnutrition. Throughout the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... Malnutrition is a general term for the medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. ...


In June 1945 the Australian 9th Division landed in Brunei and liberated much of North Borneo before the end of the war. North Borneo was placed under British Military Administration until restoration of civil government on July 15, 1946. The 9th Division of the Australian Army was formed to serve in World War II, as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force (AIF). ...


Crown Colony of British North Borneo

The British North Borneo Company did not have the financial resources to reconstruct North Borneo after the destruction of World War II. The major towns had been razed to the ground by allied bombing, and the infrastructure of North Borneo was in total devastation. The British North Borneo Company decided to sell its interests to the British government. The territory was placed under control of the colonial office, and became a British crown colony on July 15, 1946. The destruction of the former capital Sandakan was so complete that Jesselton was chosen as the new post-war capital. The colonial system of administration was in most ways similar rule during the Company era, retaining the same Residency and District structure; however, as a result of this change in status, North Borneo had access to British government funds for reconstruction. The British North Borneo Company was chartered company assigned to administer North Borneo (todays Sabah in Malaysia) in August 1881 and North Borneo became a protectorate of the British Empire with internal affairs administered by the company until 1946 when it became the colony of British North Borneo. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Sandakan as viewed from the English Tea House Sandakan is the second-largest town in the state of Sabah, East Malaysia, on the north-eastern of island of Borneo. ... Kota Kinabalu (1996 pop. ...


A Governor and Commander-in-Chief was appointed to administer the colony of North Borneo with the assistance of an Advisory Council consisting of three ex-officio members: a Chief Secretary, the Attorney-General, and the Financial Secretary, together with other members both official and unofficial whom the Governor chose to appoint. In 1950, the Advisory Council was replaced by the Executive and Legislative Councils.


The Executive Council functioned as a Cabinet and was headed by the Chief Secretary. In addition to the Attorney General and the Financial Secretary, it consisted of two officials and four nominated members. The Governor presided at the Executive Council meetings and he alone was entitled to submit questions to the Council.


The Legislative Council consisted of the Governor as President, the usual three ex-officio members, nine official members and ten nominated members.


The high-ranking administrative posts continued to be held by the British, and in fact, it was only in 1957 that the first non-European filled an administrative officer's post.


British North Borneo was granted self-government on August 31, 1963. A little over two weeks later, on September 16, 1963, the state united with Malaya, Sarawak and Singapore, forming the Federation of Malaysia. September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ... The Federation of Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. ...


Postage stamps

Initially, mail from North Borneo was sent via Labuan or Singapore, using postage stamps of the Straits Settlements. The company issued its own stamps in March 1883, using a design incorporating the coat of arms (a dhow and a lion), inscribed "NORTH BORNEO", and with the value written in English, Arabic, and Chinese. Initial values included 2c, 4c, and 8c, followed by large 50c and $1 stamps of a more elaborate design with the arms flanked by two natives. A British pillar box. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... A Dhow near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ...


In 1886 1/2c, 1c, and 10c values were added, and there was a demand for 3c and 5c stamps, resolved by overprinting existing types. At the same time, the printers (Blades, East, and Blades of London) produced a new design, largely the same but inscribed "BRITISH NORTH BORNEO", and joined by 25c and $2 values, also with elaborate frames. The stamps were redesigned again in 1888, to say "POSTAGE & REVENUE" instead of just "POSTAGE", at which time the 25c to $2 values also received minor changes. These were followed up in 1889 by even larger and more elaborate $5 and $10 stamps. 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... An overprint is the addition of text (and sometimes graphics) to the face of a postage stamp after it has been printed. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of the United Kingdom and the largest city of England (strangely, England has no constitutional existence within the United Kingdom, and therefore cannot be said to have a capital). ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Shortages in 1890, 1891, and 1892 necessitated more surcharges. 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1894, the protectorate issued a new definitive series engraved by Waterlow and Sons, comprising nine pictorials featuring natives plants, animals, and scenes, and inscribed "STATE OF NORTH BORNEO". 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A definitive postage stamp is a regular issue stamp that is part of a definitive issue or definitive series consisting of a range of denominations sufficient to cover all postal rates usefully. ... Artur Virgílio Alves dos Reis (b. ...


See also

Flag of Sabah Sabah Coat of Arms of Sabah
Divisions: Interior Division | Kudat Division | Sandakan Division | Tawau Division | West Coast Division
City: Kota Kinabalu
Towns: Beaufort | Beluran | Inanam | Keningau | Kinabatangan | Kuala Penyu | Kota Belud | Kota Marudu | Kudat | Kunak | Kundasang | Lahad Datu | Nabawan | Papar | Penampang | Pitas | Ranau | Sandakan | Semporna | Sipitang | Tambunan | Tamparuli | Tawau | Tenom | Tuaran
Islands: Banggi Island | Gaya Island | Layang Layang Island | Ligitan Island | Sebatik Island | Sipadan Island

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