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Encyclopedia > North American Numbering Plan

The North American Numbering Plan (NANP) is an integrated telephone numbering plan of 24 countries and territories: the United States and its territories, Canada, Bermuda, and 16 Caribbean nations. It is a system of Numbering plan areas (NPA) with three-digit area codes and seven-digit telephone numbers that directs telephone calls to particular regions on a public switched telephone network (PSTN), where they are further routed by the local network. Look up nanpa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... West Indies redirects here. ... This article or section should be merged with Telephone numbering plan -- ran (talk) 21:23, Jan 30, 2005 (UTC) The area code is a part of a telephone number normally occurring at the beginning of the number, that usually indicates a geographical area. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits that uniquely indicates the network termination point. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the network of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the network of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ...

Contents

Current system

Developed in 1947 and first implemented in 1951 by AT&T, the NANP set out to simplify and facilitate direct dialing of long distance calls. Area code 201 was the first implemented under the plan.[1] It initially applied only to the U.S. and Canada, but at the request of the British Colonial Office, it was expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies (including Trinidad and Tobago), due to their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with that country, especially during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... Map of area code 201 201 is the area code for Hudson and Bergen Counties (and part of Essex and Passaic Counties) in New Jersey. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... All Red Line is an informal name for the system of electrical telegraphs that linked all the British Empire. ...


Despite the "North American" name of the calling plan, Mexico, the Central American countries and some Caribbean nations (Cuba, Haiti, French Caribbean, Netherland Antilles) are not part of the system. The only Spanish-speaking nation in the plan is the Dominican Republic, although Mexican participation was planned and partly implemented, with direct dialing from the NANP to some parts of Mexico until 1991. For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... The term French Caribbean varies in meaning with its usage and frame of reference. ... The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen), previously known as the Netherlands West Indies, are part of the Lesser Antilles and consist of two groups of islands in the Caribbean Sea that form an autonomous part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (none of the other Antilles use this term in...


The NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration (NANPA).


Current NANP number format can be summed up via the following:

  • NPA Nxx Station

where

  • NPA (Numbering Plan Area code) = [2-9][0-8][0-9]
  • NXX (Central Office or Exchange code) = [2-9][0-9][0-9]
  • Station code = [0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9]

For example:

  • 234 234 5678 is valid
  • 123 234 5678 is invalid, because NPA cannot begin with a "1"

The country calling code for the NANP is 1. When listing a number in the NANP it would be listed as +1 301 555 0100 (Maryland). "1" is also the code used to make direct dialed calls within the NANP. This is a list of country calling codes, also known as international direct dialing (IDD) codes, which are needed to access international telephone services. ...


Each three-digit area code may contain up to 7,919,900 new phone numbers:

  • NXX may begin only with the digits [2-9], providing a base of 8 million numbers: ( 8 x 10^2 x 10^4 ) .
  • However, the second two digits of NXX cannot be 11, to avoid confusion with the N11 codes (subtract 80,000).
  • Despite the widespread usage of NXX "555" for fictional telephone numbers — see 555 (telephone number) — today, the only such numbers specifically reserved for fictional use are "555-0100" through "555-0199", with the remaining "555" numbers released for actual assignment (subtract 100).

28 June 2005 06:26 (UTC)An N11 code or N11 number (said as N-one-one) is a special abbreviated dialing telephone number within the North American Numbering Plan, which allows access to special services. ... The oft-used fictional phone number 555-2368, as seen in the movie Ghostbusters In North America, telephone numbers with the prefix 555 are widely used for fictitious phone numbers in television shows, films, computer games, and other media. ...

Dialing plans

Dialing plans vary from place to place depending on whether an area has overlays (multiple area codes serving the same area) and whether the jurisdiction requires toll alerting (a leading 1 for toll calls). The NANPA's web site includes dialing plan information in its information on individual area codes.


In areas without overlays and without toll alerting, calls within an area code are dialed as seven digits (7D), and calls outside the area code are dialed as 1 followed by 10 digits (1+10D). Most areas allow permissive dialing of 1+10D even for calls that could be dialed as 7D. The number of digits dialed is unrelated to whether a call is local or toll.


In areas with overlays, local calls are all dialed as 10D. In areas without toll alerting, all calls to numbers within the caller's area code and overlay codes serving the same area can be dialed as either 10D or 1+10D, while calls to other area codes must be 1+10D. In areas with toll alerting, all toll calls must be dialed as 1+10D. Most areas permit local calls to be dialed as 1+10D except for Texas and some jurisdictions in Canada which require that callers know which numbers are local and which are toll, dialing 10D for all local calls and 1+10D for all toll calls.


Charges

Despite the similar dialing format, calls between different countries and territories that use the NANP are not necessarily charged as domestic. Calls between the US and Canada are treated as international, although typically charged at lower rates than calls to other countries. Calls to other destinations in the NANP area can be high; for example, it generally costs more to call Bermuda from the US than it does to call the UK or Japan, even though the dialing format is the same as the domestic format. Similarly, calls from Bermuda to US numbers, (including toll-free 1-800), incur high international rates. This was because many of the island nations at the time implemented a plan of subsidizing the cost of local phone services by directly charging heavier pricing levies on the international Long Distance services. A toll-free telephone number (or Freephone number in the UK) is a special telephone number, in which the calling party is not charged for the call by the telephone operator. ... A toll-free telephone number (or Freephone number in the UK) is a special telephone number, in which the calling party is not charged for the call by the telephone operator. ...


On account of these higher fees, a handful of scams had taken advantage of customers' unfamiliarity with pricing structure to call the legacy regional 809 area code. Some scams lured customers from the U.S. and Canada into placing expensive calls to the Caribbean, by representing the area code (809) as a regular domestic, low-cost, or toll-free call. These scams are currently on the decline, with many of the Cable and Wireless service monopolies being opened up to competition, hence bringing rates down. A confidence trick, confidence game, or con for short, (also known as a scam) is an attempt to intentionally mislead a person or persons (known as the mark) usually with the goal of financial or other gain. ... West Indies redirects here. ... // Present day 809 The area codes (809) along with (829) (as an overlay), are today the local telephone area codes solely for the Dominican Republic Following Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in the year 1999, no other countries still pass-thru old numbers from the legacy 809 area code. ... Cable & Wireless (West Indies) Ltd. ...


History

In order to facilitate direct dialing calls, the NANP was created and instituted in 1947 by AT&T, also known as the Bell System, the U.S. telephone monopoly. At first, the codes were used only by long-distance operators; the first customer-dialed calls using area codes did not occur until November 10, 1951, when the first directly-dialed call was made from Englewood, New Jersey to Alameda, California.[2] Direct dialing was gradually instituted throughout the country, and by the mid-1960s, it was commonplace in most larger cities. Direct Distance Dialing was a telephony innovation that enabled subscribers to call long distance numbers (Those outside the local exchange) without having to go though an operator. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the United States telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ... This article is about the economic term. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map highlighting Englewoods location within Bergen County. ... Nickname: Location in the state of California and Alameda County Coordinates: , Country State County Alameda Government  - Mayor Beverly Johnson (D) Area  - Total 23. ...


Originally there were 86 codes, with the biggest population areas getting the numbers that took the shortest time to dial on rotary phones. That is why New York City was given 212, Los Angeles given 213, Chicago 312, and Detroit 313, while Vermont received 802 (a total of 20 clicks, 8+10+2). Four areas received the then-maximum number of 21 clicks: South Dakota (605), North Carolina (704), South Carolina (803), and Nova Scotia/Prince Edward Island in the Canadian Maritimes (902). Additionally, in the original plan a middle digit of zero generally indicated the number was for an entire state or province with one area code, while a middle digit of one indicated that it was for a smaller region. The rotary dial is a device mounted on or in a telephone or switchboard that is designed to send interrupted electrical pulses, known as pulse dialing, corresponding to the number dialled. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ...


At first, area codes were in the form N-Y-X, where N is any number 2-9, Y is 0 or 1, and X is any number 1-9 (if Y is 0) or any number 2-9 (if Y is 1). The restriction on N saves 0 for calling the operator, and 1 for signaling a long-distance call. The restriction on the second digit, limiting it to 0 or 1, was designed to help telephone equipment recognize the difference between a three-digit area code and a three-digit prefix to the telephone number. For example, when a caller dialed "1-202-555-1212", the switching equipment would recognize that "202" was an area code because of the middle 0, and route the call appropriately. If a caller were to dial 1-345-6789, the 4 would be recognized as a long-distance call within the area code and routed as such, without waiting to see or guessing at how many digits the caller meant to enter. A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ...


In the late 1980s and early 1990s, NANPA (then still part of Bellcore, which is now Telcordia Technologies) began to urge and later require all long-distance calls within each area to include the code, so that badly-needed prefixes with 0 or 1 in the middle could be assigned to local telephone exchanges. Also, as it had run out of area codes using the above formula, it allowed the assignment of area codes using the form N-1-0. Telcordia Technologies, formerly Bellcore, is an American telecommunications company created in 1984 after the breakup of AT&T. It was split from the original Bell Labs as part of the negotiated consent decree with the US government, and served Research & Development and standards setting functions for the resulting seven Baby... Telcordia Technologies, formerly Bell Communications Research, Inc. ... A telephone operator manually connecting calls with patch cables at a telephone switchboard. ...


Calls to Mexico (until 1991)

Until 1991, calls to some areas of Mexico from the United States and Canada were made using the North American Numbering Plan area codes. For example, to call a number in northwest Mexico and Mexico City before 1991: Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ...

  • 1 905 xxx xxxx (Mexico City)
  • 1 706 xxx xxxx (northwest Mexico) (prior to 1980, the code was 903, rather than 706)

From that year, this was discontinued in favor of the international format, as area code 905 was assigned to the Greater Toronto Area outside Toronto and area code 706 was reassigned to northern Georgia: A map of Torontos Census Metropolitan Area, which contains a large portion of the Greater Toronto Area. ...

  • +52 5 xxx xx xx (Mexico City; now +52 55 xx xx xx xx (eight-digit local number))
  • +52 6 xxx xx xx (northwest Mexico; now +52 6xx xxx xx xx)

Expansion of area codes

The United States has experienced rapid growth in the number of area codes, particularly in the 1990s and early 2000s. There are two main reasons for this. First, there is the increasing demand for telephone services (particularly due to widescale adoption of fax, modem, and cell phone communications). The second and more important reason is due to telecom deregulation of local telephone service in the United States beginning in the early to mid-1990s. At that time, the Federal Communications Commission began allowing telecommunication companies to compete with the incumbent local service provider (usually by forcing the existing monopoly service provider to lease infrastructure to other local providers who then resold the service to consumers). However, due to the original design of the numbering plan and telephone switching network which assumed only a single provider, number allocations had to be made in 10,000-number blocks. Thus, anytime a new local service provider entered a certain market it would be allocated 10,000 numbers by default, even if the provider managed to obtain few (if any) customers. As more companies began requesting numbering allocations, this caused many area codes to begin exhausting their supply of available numbers (code "in jeopardy" in telecom jargon), and additional area codes were needed. In reality many of the new telecom ventures were not successful and while the number of area codes started increasing rapidly, this did not necessarily translate to a much larger number of actual telephone subscribers as large blocks of numbers lay unassigned to any "real" subscribers due to the 10,000-number block allocation requirement. For other uses, see Fax (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ...


In general, area codes were added either as "splits" (in which an area code was divided into two or more regions, one retaining the older area code and the other areas receiving a new code), or "overlays", in which multiple area codes were assigned to the same geographical area. Subtle variations of these techniques have been used as well, such as "dedicated overlays" (in which the new overlaid area code was reserved for a particular type of service, such as cell phones and pagers (the only true example of this was area code 917 in New York City) and "concentrated overlays", in which some of the area retained a single area code, while the rest of the region received an overlay code.


After the remaining valid area codes were used up in expansion, in 1995 the rapid increase in the need for more area codes (both splits and overlays) forced NANPA to allow the digits 2-8 to be used as a middle digit in new area code assignments, with 9 being reserved as a "last resort" for potential future expansion. At the same time, local exchanges were allowed to use 1 or 0 as a middle digit. The first Area codes without a 1 or 0 as the middle digit were Area code 334 in Alabama and Area code 360 in Washington, which both began service on January 15, 1995. Area codes, or "number planning areas" ending in double digits, such as toll-free 800, 888, 877, and 866, personal 700 numbers, and high-toll 900 numbers, are reserved as easily-recognizable codes (ERCs) and are not issued to actual areas (Nevada was denied lucky 777 for this reason). The term Last Resort usually refers to an action that is used only when no other option remains. ... Area code 334 was created on January 15, 1995 as a split from area code 205. ... Area code 360 is the area code for western Washington outside the greater Seattle metropolitan area. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Area code 700 of the NANP was introduced in 1983 to allow for presubscribing phone numbers to particular interexchange carriers [1]. One useful number in area code 700 is (700)555-4141 to verify the carrier handling the long distance and international calls. ... A 1-900 telephone number, in the North American Numbering Plan, usually has the form 1-900-###-####. A call to one of these numbers can result in a high per-minute or per-call charge. ... In telephony, an ERC is an easily-recognizable code for the North American Numbering Plan. ...


Splits and overlays

By 1995, many cities in the United States and Canada had more than one area code, either through splitting the city into different areas (splits) or having more than one area code for the same geographical area (overlays). For example, in Manhattan, New York, subscribers' numbers had the NPA code 212, but two additional codes—first 917 (which initially was exclusively for cell phones and pagers until struck down in a federal court), then 646—were also introduced. This means that the area code must be dialed, even for local calls. In other areas, 10-digit or 11-digit dialing is now required for all local calls. The transition to 10-digit dialing typically starts with a permissive dialing phase in which both 7-digit and 10-digit dialing is optional. During this period, the transition is heavily publicized. After a period of several months, the mandatory dialing phase is introduced, in which 7-digit dialing no longer works. Atlanta, Georgia, was the first city in the United States to have mandatory 10-digit dialing throughout its metro area, roughly coinciding with the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Atlanta was used as the test case not only due to its size, but also because it enjoyed the world's largest fiber optic bundle at the time (five times that of New York at the time), and it was home to BellSouth (now part of AT&T), then the Southeastern Regional Bell Operating Company. This article is about the borough of New York City. ... This article is about the state. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... The 1996 Summer h Olympics, formally known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and informally known as the Centennial Olympics, were held in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... BellSouth Corporation was an American telecommunications holding company based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Map of the original and current companies. ...

  • 7-digit dialing: xxx xxxx (NPA code not required)
  • 10-digit dialing: NPA xxx xxxx
  • 11-digit dialing: 1 NPA xxx xxxx

The overlap between area codes and exchange prefixes has occasionally produced some confusion because the three digits can be the same for both. Nashua, New Hampshire, for example, has a local exchange that begins 888, which is also an area code for toll-free calls. If somebody in Nashua means to call 1-888-555-1212 but forgets the initial "1," he or she will actually dial the local number 1-603-888-5551. This, however, is generally not a problem in major metropolitan areas with overlapping area codes, which were mandated by the FCC to dial all ten digits for all local calls so as not to give new numbers or telecommunications providers a "disadvantage." Nickname: Gate City Location in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Hillsborough Incorporated 1746 Government  - Mayor Bernard A. Streeter Area  - City  31. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... FCC redirects here. ...


Expansion issues

Depending on the techniques used for area code expansion, the effect on telephone users varies. In areas in which overlays were used, this generally avoids the need for converting telephone numbers, so existing directories, business records, letterheads, and advertising can retain the same numbers, which the overlay is used for new number allocation. The primary impact on telephone users is the necessity of remembering and dialing 10- or 11-digit numbers when only 7-digit dialing was previously permissible.


The use of a split instead of an overlay generally avoids the requirement for mandatory area-code dialing, but at the expense of having to convert some of the numbers to the new area code. In addition to the requirements of updating records and directories to accommodate the new numbers, for efficient conversion this requires a period of "permissive dialing" in which both the new and old area codes of the split are allowed to work. Also, in many splits there were significant technical issues involved, especially when the area code splits occurred over boundaries other than phone network divisions.


As an extreme example of a split, in 1998 the Twin Cities, which until that point used the 612 area code, split into the 612 and 651 codes, with St. Paul and the eastern metropolitan area receiving the new 651 code. However, the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission mandated that the split boundary exactly follow municipal boundaries (which were distinctly different from telephone exchange boundaries), and that all subscribers keep their 7-digit numbers. These two goals were directly at odds with the reasoning for the area code split (to generate additional phone numbers), and there were more than 40 exchanges whose prefix territory straddled town boundaries along the zone split. The result was prefixes duplicated in both area codes, which counteracted much of the benefit of the split, with only 200 of 700 prefixes in 612 moving entirely to 651. As a result, in less than two years the 612 area code again exhausted its number space, and underwent a 3-way split in 2000, creating the 763 and 952 area codes. Again, the split followed political boundaries rather than rate center boundaries, resulting in additional split prefixes, and in a few cases resulted in numbers initially moved to area 651 being moved again to the 763 code in less than two years. A map of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. ... For an overview of the Twin Cities metropolitan area, see Minneapolis-Saint Paul. ... The Minnesota Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is the consumer protection agency in the U.S. state of Minnesota charged with the regulation of public utilities such as electric and telephone service. ...


Decrease in expansion rate

Recognizing that the major cause in the proliferation of area codes was due to the telecom deregulation act and the 10,000 number block assignment, the FCC instructed NeuStar to look for a solution to alleviate the numbering shortage. As a result a new program called "number pooling" was piloted in 2001 which allowed allocating numbers in 1,000-number blocks rather than 10,000 numbers. Due to the design of switched telephone network, this was a considerable technical challenge and was carried out together with another technically-challenging program, local number portability. Since then the program has been rolled out to most parts of the United States and together with aggressive reclamation of unused number blocks from telecom providers, the need for additional area codes has been reduced, so much so that the implementation of large numbers of previously designated area splits and overlays has been postponed indefinitely. NeuStar (NYSE: NSR) is a provider of essential clearinghouse services to the global communications and Internet industry. ... LNP redirects here. ...


Alphabetic mnemonic system

Another oddity of NANP telephone numbering is the use of alphabetic dialing. On most US and Canadian telephones, three letters appear on each number button from 2 through 9 per ISO 9995-8 and, in Europe, E.161. This accommodates 24 letters. Historically, the letters Q and Z were omitted, though on some modern telephones, they are added, so that the alphabet is apportioned as follows: ISO/IEC 9995 (less formally ISO 9995) is an ISO standard defining layouts of computer keyboards. ...

 2 = ABC 3 = DEF 4 = GHI 5 = JKL 6 = MNO 7 = P(Q)RS 8 = TUV 9 = WXY(Z) 

No letters are allocated to the 1 or 0 keys (although some corporate voice mail systems are set up to count Q and Z as 1, and some old telephones assigned the Z to the digit 0). Voicemail (or voice mail; abbreviated v-mail or vmail) is a specific application of an interactive voice response system. ...


Originally, this scheme was meant as a mnemonic device for telephone number prefixes. When telephone numbers in the US were standardized in the mid-20th century, they were made seven digits long, including a two-digit prefix, the latter expressed as letters rather than numbers. (Before World War II, many localities used three letters and four numbers, and in much of California during this period, phone numbers had only six digits — two letters followed by four numbers.) The prefix was a name, and the first two or three letters (usually shown in capitals) of the name were dialed. Later, the third letter (where previously used) was replaced by a number; this generally happened after World War II, although New York City did this in 1930. Thus, the famous Glenn Miller tune "PEnnsylvania 6-5000" refers to a telephone number 736-5000, the number of the Hotel Pennsylvania, which still bears the same number today. Similarly, the classic Elizabeth Taylor film "BUtterfield 8" refers to the section of New York City where the film is set, where the telephone prefixes include 288 (on the East Side of Manhattan between roughly 64th and 86th Streets). This is why, in some works of fiction, phone numbers will begin with "KLondike 5" or "KLamath 5", which translates to 555, a mostly unused and reserved exchange. This practice continues in film and television to this day, even though the prefix system has long been unused. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the U.S. state. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the jazz musician. ... The Hotel Pennsylvania is located at 401 7th Avenue in Manhattan. ... For other persons named Elizabeth Taylor, see Elizabeth Taylor (disambiguation). ... BUtterfield 8 is a 1960 film about a promiscuous model (Elizabeth Taylor) who fears that she is on the verge of crossing the line from slutitude to prostitution, until she and one of her paramours (Laurence Harvey) fall in love. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... In North America, telephone numbers with the prefix 555 are widely used for fictitious phone numbers in television shows, films and other types of fictional media. ...


Today this system has been abandoned (in fact it generally stopped by the mid-1970s), but alphabetic dialing remains as a commercial mnemonic gimmick, particularly when combined with toll-free numbers. For example, one can dial 1-800-FLOWERS to send flowers to someone, or 1-800 DENTIST to find a local dentist. Sometimes, longer phonewords are used - for example one might be invited to give money to a public radio station by dialing 1-866-KPBS-GIVE. The "number" is 8 digits long, but only the first seven need be dialed. If an eighth (or more) digit is dialed, the switching system will ignore it. Mobile users may need to manually drop any numbers past the seventh digit as some mobile switching systems will not automatically ignore them, resulting in a failed call. In addition to commercial uses, alphabetic dialing still remains, in rare cases, in regional area codes in the United States. For example, when East Tennessee was split into two area codes in 1999, the region surrounding Knoxville received a new code; the code 865 was chosen to represent the word "VOL"—short for "Volunteers", the nickname of athletic teams at the University of Tennessee. Likewise, when the 606 area code of central and eastern Kentucky was split, Lexington, the region's largest city, adopted the new code 859 (which spells UKY) in honor of the University of Kentucky. The Miami area originally had the 305 area code, but then 786 was added due to the increasing demand for telephone numbers. 786 spells out SUN in honor of Florida being the Sunshine State. 352 is used around Gainesville, Florida, north of Tampa and northwest of Orlando and spells FLA again as a nod to the state. The State of Nevada has previously attempted to obtain area code 777 (lucky 7's), but was unable to secure it.[3] When the Dayton, Ohio area split from the Cincinnati, Ohio Area code 513, literature promoting the new area code 937 took advantage of the fact that the numbers spelled "YES". For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... 1-800-Flowers is a major flower retailer and distribution company in the United States. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... East Tennessee is a name given to approximately the eastern third of the state of Tennessee. ... Knoxville redirects here. ... The University of Tennessee (UT), sometimes called the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UT Knoxville or UTK), is the flagship institution of the statewide land-grant University of Tennessee public university system in the American state of Tennessee. ... Nickname: Location in the Commonwealth of Kentucky Coordinates: , Country United States State Kentucky Counties Fayette Government  - Mayor Jim Newberry (D) Area  - City  285. ... The University of Kentucky, also referred to as UK, is a public, co-educational university located in Lexington, Kentucky. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Area code 937 is the telephone area code serving the state of Ohio. ...


See Telephone number#Alphanumeric trivia A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits that uniquely indicates the network termination point. ...


Cellular services and the NANP numbering scheme

A difference between the NANP system and other plans is that apart from area code 600 in Canada, no separate, non-geographical area codes have been created for cellular phones, as is the case in most European and Asian countries, where mobile services are assigned their own prefixes. This means that most North American mobile phones are assigned the same locality-specific codes as landlines, and calls to them are billed at the same rate. Consequently, the caller-pays pricing model adopted in other countries, in which calls to cell phones are charged at a higher nationwide rate, but receiving calls is free, could not be used. Instead, North American cellphone users are also generally charged to receive calls as well (subscriber pays). In the past, this discouraged mobile users from using the phones or giving out the number. However, robust price competition among carriers has led to dramatic cuts in the average price per minute for contract customers (for both inbound and outbound calls), which can compare favorably to those in caller-pays countries. Most users select bundle pricing plans that include all the minutes they expect to use in a month, and many carriers offer first inbound minute free or in some cases, entirely free inbound calling. Area code 600 is a non-geographic Canadian area code, reserved for specialized telecommunications uses such as teletype, datalink, ISDN and mobile satellite communication services. ... Cellular redirects here. ...


Some industry observers have blamed user pays as one of the main factors in the relatively low penetration rate of mobile telephony in the United States compared to that of Europe. However, in the wireless-subscriber-pays model the convenience of the mobility inures to the subscriber, which many users regard as a fairer pricing system. Callers from outside the local-calling region of the assigned number are, however, forced to pay for a long-distance call, although domestic long distance rates are generally lower than the rates caller-pays systems charge (conversely, an advantage of caller-pays is the relative absence of telemarketing and nuisance calls to mobile numbers). The integrated numbering plan also enables local number portability between fixed and wireless services within a region, allowing users to switch to mobile service while keeping their phone number, which is not a common option in caller-pays systems. Telemarketing office Telemarketing is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson uses the telephone to solicit prospective customers to buy products or services. ... A prank call, also known as a crank call, hoax call, phony call, or phony phone call is a form of practical joke committed over the telephone. ... LNP redirects here. ...


The initial plan for overlays did allow for providing separate area codes for use by mobile phones, faxes, pagers, etc., although these were still assigned to a specific geographical area, rather than the nationwide mobile area codes common to most other countries, and were charged at the same rate as other area codes. Initially, the new 917 area code for New York City was specifically assigned for this purpose within the 5 boroughs; however, a Federal court struck this down and banned the use of an area code for a specific telephony purpose. Since mobile telephony is expanding faster than landline, new area codes typically have a disproportionately large fraction of mobile numbers, although landline and other services rapidly follow and local network portability can blur these distinctions. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The experience of Hurricane Katrina and similar events revealed a possible disadvantage of the methods employed in the geographic assignment of cellular numbers. Many mobile phone users could not be reached, their phones rendered inoperable, even when they were far from the stricken areas, because the routing of calls to their phones depended on equipment in the affected area. A hypothetical caller-pays system with separate numbers would not have required geographical routing, although the existing system could have been designed to avoid this problem as well. This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...


Another related issue for services like mobile telephony is the scarcity of telephone numbers. In contrast to other countries, where mobile and other special-number operators enjoy wide leeway to generate large numbers of telephone numbers, this is not an option in the NANP, with its geographical area codes with a fixed number of digits. Because of the scarcity of telephone numbers, the market value of each is consequently higher. This has been cited by mobile operators as another factor putting pressure on the development of cellular services, and of pay-as-you-go in particular, although the decreasing rate at which new telephone numbers are being allocated suggests that other factors may be at work. This is a method of billing for a mobile phone. ...


New area codes

Prior to 1995, all other NANP countries and territories outside the fifty United States and Canada, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, shared the NPA code 809, but they are now able to have separate codes. Code (809) is now only used by the Dominican Republic. In 1997 the US Pacific Territories of the Northern Marianas and Guam became part of the NANP, as did American Samoa in October 2004. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... // Present day 809 The area codes (809) along with (829) (as an overlay), are today the local telephone area codes solely for the Dominican Republic Following Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in the year 1999, no other countries still pass-thru old numbers from the legacy 809 area code. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is a commonwealth in political union with the United States of America at a strategic location in the West Pacific Ocean. ...


Bermuda:

  • Until 1995: +1 809 29x xxxx
  • After 1995: +1 441 (xxx) xxxx

Puerto Rico:

  • Until 1996: +1 809 xxx xxxx
  • 1996-2001: +1 787 xxx xxxx
  • After 2001: +1 787 xxx xxxx or +1 939 xxx xxxx (overlay for entire island)

US Virgin Islands:

  • Until 1997: +1 809 xxx xxxx
  • After 1997: +1 340 xxx xxxx

Northern Marianas:

  • Until 1997: +670 xxx xxxx
  • After 1997: +1 670 xxx xxxx

Guam:

  • Until 1997: +671 xxx xxxx
  • After 1997: +1 671 xxx xxxx

American Samoa:

  • Until October 1, 2004: +684 xxx xxxx
  • After October 2, 2004: +1 684 xxx xxxx

See also: Split from the 809 Area code The Area codes in the Caribbean in the North American Numbering Plan was formerly area code 809, which was first deployed in 1958, covering much of the British West Indies in the Caribbean Basin plus Bermuda, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico until the mid...


Fictional telephone numbers

In American television shows and films, 555 (or, in older movies and shows, KLondike 5 or KLamath 5) is used as the first three digits of fictional telephone numbers, so if anyone is tempted to telephone a number seen on screen, it does not cause a nuisance to any actual person. Film may refer to: photographic film a motion picture in academics, the study of motion pictures as an art form a thin skin or membrane, or any covering or coating, whether transparent or opaque a thin layer of liquid, either on a solid or liquid surface or free-standing Film... In North America, telephone numbers with the prefix 555 are widely used for fictitious phone numbers in television shows, films and other types of fictional media. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ...


There are occasions, however, when a non-555 is used in real-life context, with varying intents and consequences. A classic example of such is the 1982 song 867-5309/Jenny by Tommy Tutone, which is still the cause of a large number of nuisance calls. Similarly, the song Diary by Alicia Keys says to call 489-4608 and I'll be here. It was intended to be called only by people in New York to get her voicemail. At the time that it was recorded in the late 1970s, the B-52s song "6060-842" could not result in a nuisance call, because telephone prefixes could not employ zero as the second digit. Since then, however, the rules governing prefix morphology have changed, causing 606-0842 to become a valid telephone number. In 2003, the movie Bruce Almighty caused controversy because God contacts Bruce, via pager, using an actual phone number 776-2323. The DVD and television versions changed the display of the pager to 555-0123. Another example was when a version of Madonna: Truth or Dare showed her giving out her actual phone number. The phone number was quickly changed and the scene was cut from the movie shortly afterwards. See also: 1982 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1982 Record labels established in 1982 list of years in music // January 15 - K.C. and the Sunshine Bands Harry Wayne Casey is seriously injured in an automobile accident in Miami, Florida. ... 867-5309/Jenny is a song written by Alex Call and Jim Keller and performed by Tommy Tutone which peaked at Number 4 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in 1982. ... Tommy Tutone is a rock band from San Francisco, California, best known for its 1982 hit 867-5309/Jenny, which peaked at #4 on the Billboard pop charts. ... Alexis is Alicias #1 fan. ... Bruce Almighty is a 2003 comedy movie directed by Tom Shadyac and written by Steve Koren, Mark OKeefe, and Steve Oedekerk. ...


Similarly, not all numbers beginning with "555" are fictional. For example, 555-1212 is the number for directory assistance in many places. In many, but not all areas, dialing "555" numbers other than 555-1212 will actually get you to directory assistance as well. In fact, only 555-0100 through 555-0199 are now reserved for fictional use, with the other numbers having been released for assignment. Since "1xx" exchanges are generally not assigned, some movies have started to use fictional telephone numbers starting with "1", giving someone a "telephone number" of 167-1402 in one film, for example. 555-1212 is the number one dials in order to reach Directory Assistance in the North American Numbering Plan. ... In telecommunications, directory assistance is a telephone call an individual can make to find out a specific wireline phone number and / or address of a residence or business. ... 555-1212 is the number one dials in order to reach Directory Assistance in the North American Numbering Plan. ...


Future expansion of NANP

Main article: North American numbering plan expansion Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


The North American Numbering Plan Administration (NANPA) is now overseen by NeuStar Inc., which will face the task of adding at least one or two digits to the system within the next 25 years, likely before 2030. During that time, all public and private phone systems on the continent will have to be upgraded and reprogrammed (or even replaced) to recognize the new dialing rules. NeuStar (NYSE: NSR) is a provider of essential clearinghouse services to the global communications and Internet industry. ... 2030 (MMXXX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The plans being considered now add a 1 or 0 to the beginning or end of the area code or the beginning of the local 7-digit number (or both), which will require mandatory 10-digit dialing (even for local calls) be in place everywhere, well before the transition period. In another proposal, existing codes may be changed to "x9xx" (e.g. San Francisco 415 would become 4915); once that conversion is complete, the new second digit would be opened for a new range. (Compare PhONE Day in the United Kingdom, which added a digit "1" to the beginning of area codes in preparation for later using other digits, such as 2, for new area codes.) Other proposals include reallocating blocks of numbers assigned to smaller long distance carriers or unused reserved services. A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ... In the United States and Canada, 10-digit dialing is a popular term used to refer to the practice of including the area code of a phone number when dialing. ... The UK telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Numbering Plan, is regulated by the Office of Communications (Ofcom), which replaced the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel) in 2003. ...


Other vertical service codes, such as *69 (callback) and *70 (suspend call waiting), are also getting an extra digit, as have long-distance service provider codes such as 10-321 (now 10-10-321), all requiring the coordination of the NANPA. A vertical service code or VSC is a special telephone number that usually begins with the * (star) key on the touch tone keypad. ... In telecommunications, a callback (also written as call-back) occurs when the originator of a call is immediately called back in a second call as a response. ... Call waiting, in telephony, is a feature on some telephone networks. ... 10-10-321 is a long-distance phone service best known for its prolific television advertising in the late 1990s. ...


Special numbers and codes

Some common special numbers in the North American system:

  • 0 - Operator assistance
  • 00 - Long distance operator assistance
  • 011 - International Access Code. (For all destinations outside the NANP)
  • 01 - International Access Code using operator assistance. (For all destinations outside the NANP)
  • 10x xxxx - Used to select use of an alternative long distance provider
  • 211 - Community information or social services (In some cities), formerly payphone refund line (and prior to that, used to access "long distance" operators in some cities)
  • 311 - City government or non-emergency police matters (In some cities)
  • 411 - Local telephone directory service (Some telephone companies provide national directory assistance)
  • 511 - Traffic, road, and tourist information or reads back the number you are calling from (i.e. drop line ID) (In some cities and states)
  • 611 - Telephone line repair service (Some telephone companies use this instead of 4104 or 811). Also used by mobile telephone companies to reach customer service
  • 711 - Relay service for customers with hearing or speech disabilities
  • 811 - "Dig safe" underground pipe safety line in the United States, non-urgent telehealth services in Canada, formerly telephone company business office
  • 911 - Emergency dispatcher for fire, ambulance, police etc.
  • 830 or 958 - Returns the number on the line via a recorded voice (in some areas)
  • (Area Code) + 555-1212 - Non-local directory service

There are also special codes, such as: An operator-assisted call is one in which the calling party places a telephone call which requires a operator to provide some form of assistance in completing the call. ... In telephony, the long-distance operator is available to assist with making long-distance telephone calls, answering billing questions, making collect calls, and other functions including emergency assistance. ... Every country has both a country calling code used to dial into a country, and an international call prefix or international access code used to dial out of the country. ... 2-1-1 is a special abbreviated telephone number reserved in Canada and the United States as an easy-to-remember three-digit telephone number meant to provide quick information and referrals to health and human service organizations. ... The non-emergency telephone number 3-1-1 is a special N-1-1 telephone number in many communities in Canada and the United States that provides quick, easy-to-remember access to non-emergency municipal services or a Citizen Service Center. ... This article discusses the telephone directory number 411. ... 5-1-1, initially designated for road weather information, is a transit and traffic information telephone hotline in some regions of the United States. ... An automatic number announcement circuit (ANAC) is a special telephone number that is meant to be used by phone company technicians and other telecommunications technicians to determine the phone number of a particular line. ... In Canada and the U.S. (with the exception of New York City), 611 is the abbreviated dialing telephone number one dials if there is a problem with the telephone service, or with a payphone. ... In Canada and U.S., the 711 telephone number is used for the Telecommunications Relay Service to translate from TDD for the deaf to voice, and vice versa. ... In the North American Numbering Plan (NANP), particularly in Canada and the U.S., the telephone number 811 has traditionally been a direct line to the business office of the telephone company providing service on the line. ... // Definition Telehealth is the delivery of health related services and information via telecommunications technologies. ... This article is about the emergency telephone number. ... Many countries public telephone networks have a single emergency telephone number, sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or occasionally the emergency services number, that allows a caller to contact local emergency services for assistance. ... A vertical service code or VSC is a special telephone number that usually begins with the * (star) key on the touch tone keypad. ...

  • *57 and 1157 (Large per-use fee.) Used to "trace" harassment phone calls, and keep results of trace at phone company.)
  • *66 and 1166 To keep retrying a busy-line (see also Called-party camp-on)
  • *67 and 1167 Caller ID Block
  • *69 and 1169 Call Return caller may press '1' to return call after hearing number
  • *70 and 1170 Cancel call waiting on a call-by-call basis
  • *82 and 1182 Releases Caller ID block on a call-by-call basis

Note: The four digit numbers do not work in some areas. The codes prefixed with the * symbol are intended for use on Touch-Tone telephones whereas the 4 digit numbers prefixed 11-- are intended for use on older rotary dial telephones where the Touch-Tone * symbol is not available. In telecommunication, a called-party camp-on is a communication system service feature that enables the system to complete an access attempt in spite of issuance of a user blocking signal. ... Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF), also known as Touch Tone® is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice frequency band to the call switching center. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF), also known as Touch Tone® is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice frequency band to the call switching center. ...


Not all NANPA countries use the same codes. For example, the emergency telephone number is not always 911: Trinidad and Tobago uses 999, as in the United Kingdom. The country of Barbados uses 211 for police force, 311 for fire, and 511 for ambulance, while Jamaica uses 114 for directory assistance, 119 for police force, and 110 for fire and ambulance services. Many countries public telephone networks have a single emergency telephone number, sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or occasionally the emergency services number, that allows a caller to contact local emergency services for assistance. ... 999 is the United Kingdoms and Irelands emergency telephone number and Polands medical emergency number. ... For other uses, see Police (disambiguation). ... Fire station in Kostroma, Russia (1823-26). ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... For other uses, see Police (disambiguation). ... Fire station in Kostroma, Russia (1823-26). ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ...


Despite its early importance as a share of the worldwide telephone system, few of the NANP's codes, such as 911, have been adopted outside the system. Determining that 911 requires unnecessary rotation time on rotary dial telephones, the European Union has adopted its own standardized number of 112, while countries in Asia and the rest of the world use a variety of other 2 or 3 digit emergency telephone number combinations. In a number of countries, 112 is gaining prevalence due to its preprogrammed presence in mobile telephones that conform to the European GSM standard. The European Union and many other countries have chosen the International Telecommunication Union's 00 as their international access number instead of 011. The toll-free prefix 800 has been widely adopted elsewhere, including as the international toll-free number. It is often preceded by a 0 rather than a 1 in many countries where "O for Operator" has no meaning in the national language. 1-1-2 (one-one-two) is the emergency telephone number for GSM and Europe. ... Many countries public telephone networks have a single emergency telephone number, sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or occasionally the emergency services number, that allows a caller to contact local emergency services for assistance. ... For other uses, see GSM (disambiguation). ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ...


List of NANPA countries and territories

[--168. ... The United States Virgin Islands is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is a dependency of the United States. ...

See also

This article is about North American telephone area codes. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the United States telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ...

References

  1. ^ "Now You Can Call, If Your Calls Don't Work Some Business Lines Aren't Set Up To Call To New Area Codes.", The Virginian-Pilot, November 1, 1995. Accessed June 8, 2007. "When the first area code, 201, was introduced in New Jersey in 1951, phone-numbering experts thought there would be enough codes with a middle digit of ``0 or ``1 to last well into the next century."
  2. ^ 1951: First Direct-Dial Transcontinental Telephone Call, AT&T. Accessed June 8, 2007. "Nov. 10, 1951: Mayor M. Leslie Downing of Englewood, N.J., picked up a telephone and dialed 10 digits. Eighteen seconds later, he reached Mayor Frank Osborne in Alameda, Calif. The mayors made history as they chatted in the first customer-dialed long-distance call, one that introduced area codes."
  3. ^ Associated Press. "State approves plan for second area code in northern Nevada", Las Vegas SUN, Greenspun Media Group, 1998-02-0. Retrieved on 2007-12-01. "Doug Hescox, area code administrator for Nevada and California, hasn't divulged options for the new code. But he said a "lucky" 777 or a code close to the old 702 - like 701 or 703 - are already reserved or in use elsewhere." 

The Virginian-Pilot is a daily newspaper, serving the area around Norfolk, Virginia. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Greenspun Media Group is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Greenspun Corporation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
North American Numbering Plan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3864 words)
Despite the "North American" name of the calling plan, Mexico and the Central American countries are not part of the system, although Mexican participation was planned and partly implemented, with direct dialing from the NANP to some parts of Mexico until 1991.
The integrated numbering plan also enables local number portability between fixed and wireless services within a region, allowing users to switch to mobile service while keeping their phone number, which is not a common option in caller-pays systems.
The plans being considered now add a 1 or 0 to the end of the area code or the beginning of the local 7-digit number (or both), which will require mandatory 10-digit dialing (even for local calls) be in place everywhere, well before the transition period.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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