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Encyclopedia > North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command
Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States

Type Air Force Command
Built 1961 (Directorate)[1]
In use 1958 - present
Current
owner
Flag of United States United States; Flag of Canada Canada
Controlled by Joint operations of
United States Air Force and
Canadian Forces Air Command
Garrison Headquarters: Peterson Air Force Base
Directorate: Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station[2]
(west of Colorado Springs, CO)
NORAD Headquarters Building.
NORAD Headquarters Building.

North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) is a joint organization of the United States and Canada that provides aerospace warning and control for North America.[3] It was founded on May 12, 1958, as the North American Air Defense Command. Since 1963, NORAD's main technical facility has been the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center in Colorado, and for this reason NORAD is sometimes unofficially referred to as Cheyenne Mountain. Colorado Springs is a middle-sized city, located just east of the geographic center of the state of Colorado in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x748, 505 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): North American Aerospace Defense Command Portal:Aviation/Historical anniversaries/August in aviation Portal:Aviation/Historical anniversaries/August in... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... CF-18 off the coast Hawaii CH-124 Sea King CH-149 Cormorant CC-115 Buffalo Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) is the air force element of the Canadian Forces. ... Peterson Air Force Base (Peterson AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located in El Paso County, Colorado near Colorado Springs. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cheyenne Mountain is a mountain located on the southwest side of Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA, and is home to the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station[1] and its Cheyenne Mountain Directorate, formerly known as the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center (CMOC). ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


NORAD's main facilities in Colorado are administered by the U.S. Air Force under the command of the 721st Mission Support Group, part of the 21st Space Wing, headquartered at Peterson Air Force Base. The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... https://www. ... Peterson Air Force Base (Peterson AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located in El Paso County, Colorado near Colorado Springs. ...

Contents

Mission

"NORAD continuously provides worldwide detection, validation and warning of a ballistic missile attack on North America and maintains continental detection, validation, warning and aerospace control of air-breathing threats to North America, to include peacetime alert levels and appropriate aerospace defense measures to respond to hostile actions against North America."[4]


History

Formation

Background/Reference

The growing perception of the threat of long-range Soviet strategic bombers armed with nuclear weapons brought the U.S. and Canada into closer cooperation for air defense. While attacks from the Pacific or Atlantic would have been detected by Airborne Early Warning aircraft, Navy ships, or offshore radar platforms, the Arctic was underprotected. In the early 1950s the U.S. and Canada agreed to construct a series of radar stations across North America to detect a Soviet attack over the Arctic. The first series of radars was the Pinetree Line, completed in 1954 and consisting of 33 stations across southern Canada. However, technical defects in the system led to more radar networks being built. In 1957, the McGill Fence was completed; it consisted of Doppler radar for the detection of low-flying craft. This system was roughly 300 miles north of the Pinetree Line along the 55th parallel. The third joint system was the Distant Early Warning Line (DEW Line), also completed in 1957. This was a network of 57 stations along the 70th parallel. The systems gave around three hours warning of bomber attack before they could reach any major population center. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Canada-United States relations span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. ... Canada played a middle power, and an occasionally important, role in the Cold War. ... A rough map of the three warning lines The Distant Early Warning Line, also known as the DEW Line or Early Warning Line, was a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic region of Canada, with additional stations along the North Coast and Aleutian Islands of Alaska, in... A rough map of the three warning lines The Mid-Canada Line, also known as the McGill Fence, was a line of radar stations across the middle of Canada intended to provide early warning of a Soviet bomber attack on North America. ... Soviet redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earths oceanic subdivisions. ... The Atlantic Ocean forms a component of the all-encompassing World Ocean and is directly linked to the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. ... United States Air Force E-3 Sentry An Airborne Early Warning (AEW) system is a radar system carried by an aircraft which is designed to detect other aircraft. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ... A rough map of the three warning lines The Pinetree Line was a series of radar stations located across southern Canada at about the 50th parallel, along with a number of other stations located on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. ... A rough map of the three warning lines The Mid-Canada Line, also known as the McGill Fence, was a line of radar stations across the middle of Canada intended to provide early warning of a Soviet bomber attack on North America. ... A source of waves moving to the left. ... A rough map of the three warning lines The Distant Early Warning Line, also known as the DEW Line or Early Warning Line, was a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic region of Canada, with additional stations along the North Coast and Aleutian Islands of Alaska, in...


The command and control of the massive system then became a significant challenge. Discussions and studies of joint systems had been ongoing since the early 1950s and culminated on August 1, 1957, with the announcement by the U.S. and Canada to establish an integrated command, the North American Air Defense Command. On September 12, operations commenced in Colorado. A formal NORAD agreement between the two governments was signed on May 12, 1958. In the military: The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. ...


Cold War and false alarms

The North entrance to NORAD Cheyenne Mountain Complex
The North entrance to NORAD Cheyenne Mountain Complex

By the early 1960s, about 250,000 personnel were involved in the operation of NORAD. The emergence of the intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) threat in the early 1960s was something of a blow. In response, a space surveillance and missile warning system was constructed to provide worldwide space detection, tracking and identification. The extension of NORAD's mission into space led to a name change, the North American Aerospace Defense Command in March 2007. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3000x2357, 1295 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): North American Aerospace Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3000x2357, 1295 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): North American Aerospace Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... A warning system is any system of biological or technical nature deployed by an individuum or group to inform of imminent danger. ...


From 1963, the size of the U.S. Air Force was reduced, and obsolete sections of the radar system were shut down. However, there was increased effort to protect against an ICBM attack; two underground operations centers were set up, the main one inside Cheyenne Mountain and an alternate at North Bay, Ontario. By the early 1970s, the acceptance of mutual assured destruction doctrine led to a cut in the air defense budget and the repositioning of NORAD's mission to ensuring the integrity of airspace during peacetime. There followed significant reductions in the air defense system until the 1980s, when, following the 1979 Joint US-Canada Air Defense Study (JUSCADS) the need for the modernization of air defenses was accepted—the DEW Line was to be replaced with an improved Arctic radar line called the North Warning System (NWS); there was to be the deployment of Over-the-Horizon Backscatter (OTH-B) radar; the assignment of more advanced fighters to NORAD, and the greater use of Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft from Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma or Elmendorf Air Force Base in Alaska. These recommendations were accepted by the governments in 1985. The United States Space Command was formed in September 1985 as an adjunct but not a component of NORAD. Cheyenne Mountain is a mountain located on the southwest side of Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA, and is home to the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station[1] and its Cheyenne Mountain Directorate, formerly known as the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center (CMOC). ... North Bay ( , time zone EST) is a city in Northeastern Ontario, Canada (2006 population 53,966). ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... A military budget of an entity, most often a nation or a state, is the budget and financial resources dedicated to raising and maintaining armed forces for that entity. ... The North Warning System (NWS) is a series of radar stations across Arctic North America. ... Over-The-Horizon radar (OTHR) is a design concept for radar system to overcome the problem that radio waves (a form of light) travel in a straight line, making over the horizon detection difficult. ... The Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) is an aircraft system designed to carry out surveillance, and C2BM (command and control, battle management) functions. ... A water tower on the north side of Tinker Air Force Base Tinker Air Force Base — Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC)— is a major U.S. Air Force military base located near Oklahoma City, in the suburb of Midwest City, Oklahoma. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... A Japanese F-15 takes off from Elmendorf during a joint exercise. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ...


Even though all equipment in Cheyenne Mountain was put through a rigorous inspection, on at least two occasions, failure in its systems could have potentially caused nuclear war. On November 9, 1979, a technician in NORAD loaded a test tape but failed to switch the system status to "test," causing a stream of constant false warnings to spread to two "continuity of government" bunkers as well as command posts worldwide. A similar incident occurred on June 2, 1980, when a computer communications device failure caused warning messages to sporadically flash in U.S. Air Force command posts around the world that a nuclear attack was taking place. Both times, Pacific Air Forces properly had their planes (loaded with nuclear bombs) in the air; Strategic Air Command did not and took criticism because they did not follow procedure, even though the SAC command knew these were almost certainly false alarms (as did PAC). Both command posts had recently begun receiving and processing direct reports from the various radar, satellite, and other missile attack detection systems, and those direct reports simply didn't match anything about the erroneous data received from NORAD. Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Continuity of Government (COG) is the principle of establishing defined procedures that allow a government to continue its essential operations in case of a nuclear war or other catastrophic event. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the 1989 computer game, see Nuclear War (computer game). ... Emblem of the U.S. Air Forces Pacific The United States Pacific Air Forces (USPACAF or PACAF) is one of nine major U.S. Air Force commands and one of two located outside the continental United States, the other being U.S. Air Forces Europe. ... For the film of the same name, see Strategic Air Command (film) The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the operational establishment of the United States Air Force in charge of Americas bomber-based and ballistic missile-based strategic nuclear arsenal from 1946 to 1992. ... A false alarm, also called a nuisance alarm, is the phony report of an emergency, causing unnecessary panic and/or bringing resources (such as fire engines) to a place where they are not needed. ...


Post-Cold War

At the end of the Cold War NORAD reassessed its mission. To avoid cutbacks, from 1989 NORAD operations expanded to cover counter-drug operations, especially the tracking of small aircraft. But the DEW line sites were still replaced, in a scaled-back fashion by the North Warning System radars between 1986 and 1995. The Cheyenne Mountain site was also upgraded. However, none of the proposed OTH-B radars is currently in operation. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Small aircraft means aircraft of 12,500 pounds or less, maximum certificated takeoff weight. ... The North Warning System (NWS) is a series of radar stations across Arctic North America. ... Over-The-Horizon radar (OTHR) is a design concept for radar system to overcome the problem that radio waves (a form of light) travel in a straight line, making over the horizon detection difficult. ...


Post-September 11 attacks

An F-15C Eagle from the 12th Fighter Squadron at Elmendorf Air Force Base flies next to a Russian Tu-95 Bear Bomber during a Russian exercise Sept. 28, 2006 which brought the Bear near the west coast of Alaska.

After September 11, the NORAD mission evolved to include monitoring of all aircraft flying in the interior of the United States. NORAD oversees Operation Noble Eagle using fighter aircraft Combat Air Patrols (CAP) under command of First Air Force and Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) E-3 Sentry aircraft under command of the 552nd Air Control Wing. At U.S. request, NATO deployed five of its NATO AWACS aircraft to the U.S. to help NORAD in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 1142 KB) ELMONDORF Air Force Base, Alaska--An F-15C Eagle from the 12th Fighter Squadron at Elmendorf Air Force Base flies next to a Russian Tu-95 Bear Bomber during a Russian exercise Sept. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 1142 KB) ELMONDORF Air Force Base, Alaska--An F-15C Eagle from the 12th Fighter Squadron at Elmendorf Air Force Base flies next to a Russian Tu-95 Bear Bomber during a Russian exercise Sept. ... A Japanese F-15 takes off from Elmendorf during a joint exercise. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Operation Noble Eagle is the US military operational designator refers to the militarys efforts in the War on Terrorism that were carried out on US soil. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Combat air patrol (CAP) is a type of defensive mission for fighter aircraft, in which they guard a designated site, either a fixed site on land, ships at sea, or less commonly support aircraft such as aerial tankers. ... First Air Force (1 AF) (Now AFNORTH) is a numbered air force (NAF) in Air Combat Command (ACC). ... The Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) is an aircraft system designed to carry out surveillance, and C2BM (command and control, battle management) functions. ... The E-3 Sentry is a military airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft that provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications, to the United States, NATO and other air defense forces. ... In first-person shooter games, air control refers to the ability to control ones direction of motion in mid-air. ...


On July 28, 2006, military officials announced that NORAD's day-to-day operations would be consolidated, for purposes of efficiency, in an ordinary building at Peterson Air Force Base in nearby Colorado Springs. The mountain will be kept only as a backup in "warm standby," though fully operational and staffed with support personnel should the need arise. NORAD officials stated that the same surveillance work can be continued without the security the facility provides. They emphasized that they are no longer concerned about a halt to their operations from an intercontinental nuclear attack. Peterson Air Force Base (Peterson AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located in El Paso County, Colorado near Colorado Springs. ... The City of Colorado Springs is the second most populous city in the State of Colorado and the 49th most populous city in the United States. ...


Commanders

A relatively recent photo of the command center of NORAD. Taken on 7 April 2006

The Commander of NORAD is always American and simultaneously heads USNORTHCOM, while the Deputy Commander is always Canadian. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x922, 251 KB) Summary NORAD command center, Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x922, 251 KB) Summary NORAD command center, Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado. ... Emblem of the United States Northern Command. ...


Recent commanders include:

Recent deputy commanders include: Victor Eugene Renuart Jr. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Timothy J. Keating (here depicted as Vice Admiral) Admiral Timothy J. Keating is Commander, North American Aerospace Defense Command and United States Northern Command at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. ... USN redirects here. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... General Ralph E. Ed Eberhart was Commander, North American Aerospace Defense Command and U.S. Northern Command, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Richard B. Myers General Richard Bowman Myers (born March 1, 1942) of the United States Air Force is the current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest ranking uniformed position in the United States Armed Forces. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Howell M. Estes III served as commander in chief, North American Aerospace Defense Command (CINCNORAD), United States Space Command (USCINCSPACE), and commander, Air Force Space Command (COMAFSPC), headquartered at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Joseph W. Ashy was in charge of the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and United States Space Command until he retired October 1st, 1996. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ...

Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Eric A. Rick Findley (born 1950) is a Lieutenant-General in the Canadian Forces Air Command and the Deputy Commander of the North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD). ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ... This article is about the Air Force rank. ... The RCAF Roundel is based on that of the British Royal Air Force with a maple leaf, a symbol of Canada in the centre. ... This article is about the Air Force rank. ... Air Marshal Charles Roy Slemon (7 November 1904 – 12 February 1992), often known as Roy Slemon, was the Royal Canadian Air Forces Chief of the Air Staff from 1953 to 1957. ... The RCAF Roundel is based on that of the British Royal Air Force with a maple leaf, a symbol of Canada in the centre. ...

In popular culture

Fictional set of NORAD command room from the 1983 movie WarGames. At the time of its creation, it was the most expensive single set ever constructed, costing $1 million USD.

Image File history File links Wargamesscreens. ... Image File history File links Wargamesscreens. ... Wargames can refer to: Complex military simulations (in a computer or in the real world). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...

Christmas

NORAD comes to public attention at Christmas, when it tracks Santa Claus on his journey around the world delivering toys for the world's children. 2005 marked the 50th time of NORAD tracking Santa. This tradition started in 1955 when a local Sears store in Colorado misprinted the phone number and children who thought they were calling Santa, but called CONAD (NORAD's predecessor) instead. The NORAD Christmas patrol was referenced in the book Stuffed Animals by Michael Fry and T Lewis, the fourth Over the Hedge book. Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... The daily Santa icon seen in the 2005 and 2006 websties. ... Sears, Roebuck and Company is an American mid-range chain of international department stores, founded by Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck in the late 19th century. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits that uniquely indicates the network termination point. ... This article is about the comic strip. ...


Motion picture War Games

Cheyenne Mountain was one of the settings of the 1983 motion picture WarGames, starring Matthew Broderick as a teenager who hacked NORAD's main computer and almost started a nuclear war (more precisely referred to as "global thermonuclear war" in the movie). Barry Corbin played a fictional NORAD commanding officer, General Jack Beringer. The NORAD set of WarGames was the most expensive single movie set ever built up to that time, and cost roughly $1 million USD. According to the WarGames DVD commentary track, upon seeing the movie, NORAD officials remarked that they wished their facilities really were as extensive and high-tech as those depicted in the movie. Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... Wargames can refer to: Complex military simulations (in a computer or in the real world). ... Matthew Broderick (born March 21, 1962) is a Tony Award winning American film and stage actor who is perhaps best known for his role as the title character in Ferris Buellers Day Off. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Leonard Barrie Barry Corbin (born October 16, 1940 in Lamesa, Texas) is a U.S.-based character actor with over 100 credits in film and television and several in computer gaming. ... The commanding officer (CO) is the officer in command of a military unit. ... Wargames can refer to: Complex military simulations (in a computer or in the real world). ... In drama, the set (or setting) is the location of a storys action. ...


Television show Stargate SG-1

Cheyenne Mountain is featured prominently in the television show Stargate SG-1, as it is the location for the fictional Stargate Command. NORAD is mentioned occasionally as being above the Stargate, housed in sub-level 28. In the episode "A Matter of Time," the nearest secure phone above Stargate Command is at "NORAD, main level," which appears to be sub-level 2. Note, however, that the NORAD tunnel entrance shown in the series is the South Portal, which was used only for maintenance purposes, and never used by operations staff. Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ... Cheyenne Mountains base Cheyenne Mountains entrance tunnel Cheyenne Mountains interior For more information on this series and its accompanying fictional universe, see Stargate SG-1. ... A Matter of Time is an episode of the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1. ...


Novel The Moon is a Harsh Mistress

In the novel The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress by Robert A. Heinlein, Cheyenne Mountain receives heavy bombardment from the lunar rebels to the point where the following dialogue takes place: The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ...

"Man, I think we should stop hitting Cheyenne Mountain."
"Why?"
"It's not there any more."

Motion picture United 93

NORAD is featured in the movie United 93. The movie portrays the events that took place on September 11 regarding United Airlines Flight 93 which crashed in a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. United 93 (formerly named Flight 93) is a 2006 Academy Award-nominated and BAFTA Award-winning docudrama written and directed by Paul Greengrass that chronicles events aboard United Airlines Flight 93, which was hijacked during the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... United Airlines Flight 93 was a regular flight from Newark International Airport (now known as Newark Liberty International Airport) in Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco International Airport, then continuing on to Narita International Airport in Tokyo, Japan, on a different aircraft. ... Photo of George W. Bush and Laura Bush visiting Shanksville on September 11, 2002 Shanksville is a borough located in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. ...


Television show Jeremiah

NORAD is featured in the Showtime series Jeremiah being used as a self-contained community by the survivors of a post-apocalyptic world. Jeremiah is a post-apocalyptic TV-series starring Luke Perry and Malcolm-Jamal Warner. ... Apocalyptic science fiction is a sub-genre of science fiction that is concerned with the end of the world or civilization, through nuclear war, plague, or some other general disaster. ...


Motion pictures Terminator series

In the Terminator trilogy, the AI Skynet is built for NORAD/SAC to control the strategic military systems of the United States for reasons of efficiency. Cheyenne Mountain is the core of Skynet's infrastructure. The Terminator series is a franchise encompassing a series of science fiction films and ancillary media concerning battles between Skynets artificially intelligent machine network, and John Connors Tech-Com forces and the rest of the human race. ... Garry Kasparov playing against Deep Blue, the first machine to win a chess game against a reigning world champion. ... SkyNET, also known as The Terminator: SkyNET in Europe, is a computer game based on the Terminator film series. ...


James Bond

In the John Gardner novel For Special Services James Bond must prevent SPECTRE infiltrating NORAD after drugging its staff with ice cream doctored with a psychedelic substance. John Gardner, circa 1984 John Edmund Gardner (born November 20, 1926) is an English spy novelist. ... Berkley Books American paperback edition. ... Spectre, taken from the Battle for Wesnoth computer game. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ...


Other media

  • In volume eight of the manga Battle Angel Alita, Desty Nova’s laboratory is shown to be in the ruins of NORAD.
  • In the game Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 by Westwood Studios, the president requests confirmation from NORAD on a Soviet invasion during the opening cutscene.
  • The Norad II is also the name of a Battlecruiser in the popular Real-Time Strategy game Starcraft by Blizzard Entertainment.
  • A portion of the game The Journeyman Project takes place in NORAD VI, an undersea missile and submarine base.
  • In the Brazilian comic UFO Team and its spinoffs, the NORAD is supposed to host a group of superpowered individuals secretly in an underground facility.
  • On one episode of the cartoon South Park, a supercomputer Trapper Keeper wishes to absorb a supercomputer located underground of Cheyenne Mountain, the location of NORAD.
  • In the Seinfeld episode The Phone Message George is frustrated about not going up to his dates apartment at midnight for "coffee". When Elaine mentions that some people drink coffee that late George says "Yeah, people who work at NORAD who are on 24-hour missile watch."
  • In the 1996 film Independence Day Cheyenne Mountain, location of NORAD, was destroyed be alien ships.

This article relates to the manga by Yukito Kishiro, not the upcoming film by James Cameron. ... Westwood Studios (1985-2003) was a computer and video game developer, founded in 1985 as Westwood Associates by Brett Sperry and Louis Castle and based in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... The Norad II is a Behemoth-class battlecruiser in the fictional StarCraft universe, commanded by General Edmund Duke. ... Real-time strategy (often abbreviated as RTS) is a genre of computer wargames which take place in real-time, where resource gathering, base building, technology development and high-level control over individual units (harvest, build, destroy) are key components[1], which distinguishes it from related strategy wargame genres, such as... StarCraft is a real-time strategy game by Blizzard Entertainment. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Journeyman Project franchise. ... Seinfeld is an Emmy Award-winning American sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5, 1989, to May 14, 1998, running a total of 9 seasons. ... The Phone Message is the ninth episode of the hit sitcom Seinfeld. ...

See also

Military of the United States Portal

Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... The JTF-GNO directs the operation and defense of the Global Information Grid. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A Air Defense Control Center is the tactical center from where is controlled the air space of a given area. ... // Space surveillance is a critical part of United States Strategic Commands (USSTRATCOM) mission and involves detecting, tracking, cataloging and identifying man-made objects orbiting Earth, i. ... Entrance To 22 Wing at CFB North Bay, located in North Bay, Ontario CFB North Bay (22 Wing) is a Canadian Forces Base located in North Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... NORAD is short for: North American Aerospace Defense Command Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

References

  1. ^ NORAD Official History
  2. ^ Cheyenne Mountain Directorate Official Page
  3. ^ NORAD Official Site
  4. ^ NORAD Official Mission Statement

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
North American Aerospace Defense Command - information on North American Aerospace Defense Command at Answers.com (2154 words)
Defense Command (NORAD) is a joint organization of the United States and Canada which provides aerospace warning and aerospace control for North America.
Aerospace warning or integrated tactical warning and attack assessment (ITW/AA) covers the monitoring of man-made objects in space, and the detection, validation, and warning of attack against North America by aircraft, missiles, or space vehicles.
The organization is headed by a commander appointed by both the President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Canada.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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